Ivanov 1 DANIILOVICH Kalita( From the kind of grand dukes of Moscow)
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Biography Ivanov 1 DANIILOVICH Kalita
From the kind of Moscow led. kn. Son of Daniel Aleksandrovich. Genus. app. 1283 g. Conducted. kn. Moscow in 1325 - 1341 he. Conducted. kn. Vladimir in 1328 - -1341 gg. Kn. Novgorod in 1328 - 1337 g.
1) kn. Elena;
2) kn. Ulyana
+ March 31, 1341, Mr..
His nickname was Ivan, probably from habit to carry a purse ever ( "Kalita") with the money to hand out mercy. For a long time he remained in the shadow of his elder brother Prince of Moscow, Yuri Danilovich. But even then his name was linked in the annals of the successes of the Moscow policy. In 1304, in the absence of Yuri, Ivan went to Pereyaslavl defend him from the Prince of Tver. Soon the city of Tver, there were shelves under the authority of boyar Akinfiy. For three days he kept Ivan in the siege, on the fourth day came from Moscow boyar Rodion Nestorovich, tvericham went to the rear; Ivan at the same time made a sortie from the city, and the enemy suffered a complete defeat.
When in 1319 Yuri Danilovich was a great reign. and went to Novgorod, Moscow has been left in full control of Ivan. Since then, he embarked on a historic career. Eighteen years of his reign was the epoch of strengthening of Moscow and its elevation above other Russian cities. Principal means to this increase was particularly the ability to get along with Ivan Khan. He often went to the Horde and soon earned the trust arrangement and Uzbek. While other Russian lands suffered from Tartar invasions, possession Prince of Moscow remained calm, filled with people and, compared with others, were in a flourishing condition. "Ceased to fight filthy Russian land, - says the chronicler, - to stop killing Christians, Christians are rested and doth rest of the great languor, and a lot of hardships and the violence of the Tatar, and from then there was silence in all the earth".
In the reign of Ivan was built oak Kremlin defended not only the center of the old city, but Posad outside. Around the Kremlin, one after another arose village. Boyars readily passed to the Prince of Moscow and received from him the land to the duty station; the boyars followed by free men, fit to arms. Ivan took care of internal security, strictly pursued and executed the robbers and thieves, and thus made it possible to go shopping for people on the roads.
In the first years of his reign, Ivan made sure that in Moscow from Vladimir was translated metropolitan department. This immediately made it the spiritual capital of Russia Moscow. Kalita was able to get the location of Metropolitan Peter, so that the prelate had lived in Moscow than in other places, died and was buried in her. The coffin was a holy man for Moscow as precious as the presence of a living saint: the choice of Peter seemed suggestion of God, and the new Metropolitan Theognostus did not want to leave the tomb and house the miracle worker. Other princes saw clearly the important consequences of this phenomenon and angry, but the correct thing in their favor could no longer. During the entire duration of his reign Kalita cleverly used the circumstances that, on the one hand, to increase their holdings, on the other - to influence the other princes in the Russian lands. This helped him to start a feud between Tver and Horde. Knyazhiy in Tver Prince Alexander in 1327 took part in the popular uprising, which killed tverichi Tatar ambassador Cholkana and his entire entourage.
Uzbek very angry when he heard about the plight of Cholkana, and, according to some accounts, he sent for the prince of Moscow, but in other news, Kalita went to the Horde itself, hastening to take advantage of Tver incident. Uzbek gave him a shortcut to a great reign and 50 000 troops. Adding to his more Prince of Suzdal, Kalita went to Tver district; Tartars burnt towns and villages, people were taken prisoner and, in the words of the chronicler, put the empty whole Russian land. Saved only Moscow but Novgorod, which gave the Tartar voivods 2000 hryvnia and the many gifts of silver. Alexander fled to Novgorod and then in Pskov, but he was forced out in 1329 to go to Lithuania. Circumstances continued to favor Moscow. Alexander, though he returned to Pskov and lived there for ten years, but was already powerless. His brother, Constantine, managing devastated Tver land, pleasing Prince of Moscow, the favorite of the khan. Princes of other Russian lands were placed in the same position. And the Prince of Suzdal, Alexander, and other princes of Rostov-Suzdal lands became his podruchnikami. The death of Alexander Vasilyevich in 1332, Kalita retain the Vladimir. One of his daughters gave for Ivan Basil Davidovich Yaroslavsky, and another - for Konstantin V. Rostov, and arbitrarily disposed of their inheritance in-law.
The Princes of Ryazan were reluctant to obey Ivan and went with his host, where he ordered them because Ryazan was on the outskirts of Russia, and for his obstinacy could undergo a brutal first square of the Horde. Uglich was joined by Kalita purchase. In addition, he bought and traded sat in different places: near Kostroma, Vladimir, Rostov, on the River Meta, Kirzhach and even in Novgorod, Novgorod despite laws prohibiting the princes to buy land there. He wound up in the Novgorod land settlements, inhabited their own people and thus also had the opportunity to implement its power.
In 1337, Alexander of Tver reconciled with Khan and got back his duchy. In 1339, Ivan went to the Horde with a denunciation of Alexander. After that, he was ordered to appear before the Khan. Alexander went, already aware that his fate was resolved. Indeed - and he and his son Theodore had been executed. Kalita returned to Moscow with great joy, sent to Tver, and ordered to withdraw from the Church of St.. Savior bell and bring him to Moscow. On notions of the time it was a very sensitive humiliation. Buried in Moscow in the Cathedral of the Archangel.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Ivan I of Moscow (the mind. 1340, Moscow) - Wash. prince 1325, led. Prince of Vladimir from 1328. Son of the specific sink. Prince Daniil Alexandrovich. Grandson of Alexander Nevsky. Nickname Kalita (purse) has received for his generosity to the poor ( "poor dayashe Skolkov sweeping") and enormous wealth, to-rye used to enlarge their territory "bought" in the foreign principalities. When in 1327 in Tver, began a revolt against the Khan's baskak Cholhana, AND. 1 invited the Horde its aid to punish. After the burning and looting of Tver and. 1 receives a shortcut on the Horde led. reign. To establish peaceful relations with the Horde, for a swarm-assembled with a huge tribute to the people, he got no rest from violence Tatar, and this place was a great disturbance in the silence of the whole earth ". I. 1 persuaded to move to Moscow Metropolitan, which has made Moscow the spiritual center of Russia, and provided wash. Prince supported church. Inviting the court of the boyars, and. 1 creates a powerful bulwark of his power. In 1339 and. 1 enacted agricultural law, based on Byzantine law, and established a new order of succession, as articulated in his spiritual literacy. When I. 1 appeared the first stone buildings in Moscow and the first Cathedral of the Assumption. The Kremlin was surrounded by an oak palisade, around any suburb. Encouraging the development of crafts and trade, and. 1 was able to expand its influence in many lands the North-East. Russia. Activity I.1 ambiguously assessed by historians. Thus V.O. Klyuchevskii not singled out his "in a series of personalities in the gray wash. throne until the arrival of Dmitry Donskoy ". MN. Tikhomirov believed that "Kalita laid the foundations of power in Moscow, saw in him extraordinary politician, diplomat. I. 1 was buried in the Archangel Cathedral in Moscow, built in his reign.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Life: 1288 - 1341 +
Parents: Daniel A. (1265-1303 +),;
1. from Helena =>
Simeon (1316-1353 +);
Daniel (1320-1328 +);
Ivan (1326-1359 +);
Andrew Serpukhov (1327-1353 +), married with 1345g. =>
Vladimir the Brave (1353-1410), married with 1371g. From Ulyana:
Theodosius (1365 +), the wife of Konstantin of Rostov;
Prince of Moscow (1324-1341);
Conducted. Prince Vladimir (1328-1341);
|Vera Bartosevska for Ivanov 1 DANIILOVICH Kalita
|I totally do not understand these discrepancies in his biography of Ivan Kalita. If his daughter, Princess Maria of the hive, and according to some sources, er first wife died in 1331, but on Yuliana he married in 1332. According to other sources of Princess Maria Ivanovna was born ca. in 1321, but all sources point to the marriage of Maria Ivanovna with Prince Konstantin Vasilyevich in 1328? Where is the truth? Since they are my ancestors through Sollogub, menyatot question is very worried and want to communicate with large specialists. Vera Kurtovna Bartoszewski