Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible( The first Russian Tsar)
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Biography Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible. Years of life - (25/08/1530 - 18/03/1584 +)
Parents: Vasily III (1479-1533 +), Elena Glinskaya;
Wives and children:
1. Anastasia (? -7.08.1560 +), Daughter of Roman Yu Zakhar'in, one of the ancestral home of the Romanovs, the wife of 13.02.1547 =>
Anna (1549-1550 +);
Maria (born. in 1551, died in infancy);
. Dmitry (1552-1553h);
. tragically killed in an accident;
. Ivan (28.03.1554-19.11.1581h);
. November 9, 1581 Ivan the Terrible, . met in one of its inner chambers already expecting a child bride, . hit her with abuse of any omission in the decoration, . and tried to defend the wife of a son, Ivan struck a sharp-tipped walking stick in his head,
. As a result, the frightened woman lost her fetus, and Ivan died ten days;
Evdokia (1556-1558 +);
Fyodor (1557-1598 +);
2. Maria (? -1.09.1569 +), Daughter Temryuk Idarova, Kuchenev, kn. Kabardian;
wife of 21.08.1561 =>
Martha Sobakin (? -13.11.1571 +), Wife of 28.10.1571, "Tsarskaaya Bride" - has remained a virgin until death, but died shortly
3. Anna Koltovskaya (?); Wife since April 1572, divorced in 1575;
4. Maria Dolgorukaya wife in 1573, executed immediately after the wedding.
5. Anna Vasilchikov (1579 +), with his wife in 1575, divorced in 1576, the daughter of a Moscow nobleman Grigory Borisovich Vasilchikova. About her almost nothing is known, moreover, that two years after the wedding, she was taken to Suzdal Pokrovsky Monastery, and there was tonsured a nun. It is not known, and when she died.
6. Vasilisa Melent'eva (?);
7. Maria Feodorovna Nagaya (? -1612 +);
Wife in the autumn 1580. In 1584 sent his son Dimitri in g. Uglich. After his death he was tonsured a nun under the name of the nun Marfa. In 1605, recognized the son of False Dmitry I, later renounced it =>
He died under mysterious circumstances, 15 May 1591 in Uglich in an accident or murder. Contemporaries accused of the murder of Boris Godunov, because Dmitry was a direct heir to the throne, and interfered with Boris in advance thereto. Recent studies show evidence that Godunov still had no relation to this matter.
Conducted. Prince of Moscow (1533-1547), with 1547g. - The first Russian tsar;
Since the late 40-ies of the rules and elected pleased. When it began Zemsky Sobor, compiled Sudebnik 1550 g. Reforms and management of the court (Lip, Land and other reforms). In 1565, Mr.. introduced oprichnina. Under Ivan IV to establish trade relations with Britain (1553), established the first printing house in Moscow. Conquered Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556) Khanate.
In 1558-1583 he. Livonian War was waged for access to the Baltic Sea, began accession Siberia (1581g). Domestic policies of Ivan IV was accompanied by a massive disgrace and execution, increasing enslavement of the peasants.
After the death of his father's 3-year-old Ivan remained in the care of his mother, who died in 1538, when he was 8 years old. Ivan grew up in an atmosphere of palace coups, the power struggle between a feuding boyar families Shuiskis and Bielski. Murder, intrigue and violence surrounding it, contributed to the development of his suspicion, vindictiveness and cruelty. Tendency to torment the living beings that Ivan had already manifested itself in childhood, and approves its approximate.
One of the strongest impressions of the king in his youth had been "great fire" and the Moscow uprising in 1547, Mr.. After the murder of one of Glinskikh, a relative of the king, the rebels were in the village Vorobyov, which hid the Grand Duke, and demanded the release the remaining Glinskikh. With great difficulty, managed to persuade the crowd to disperse, assuring her that they were in no Vorobyev. As soon as the danger had passed, the king ordered the arrest of the main conspirators and execute them.
The favorite idea of the king, realized already in his youth, was the idea of unlimited autocracy. January 16, 1547 at the Assumption Cathedral of Moscow Kremlin solemn coronation to the throne of Grand Duke Ivan IV. It was entrusted with the insignia of imperial dignity: the Holy Cross of the Tree, bartenders and hat Monomakh. After the communion of the Holy Mysteries Ivan Vasilyevich was anointed the world.
Allowed to take the title of Tsar significantly different position in the diplomatic relations with Western Europe. Velikoknyazheskaya title translates as "Prince" or even "Grand Duke". The title is "king" or not translated, or translated as "emperor". Russian autocrat, thus getting up on a par with one in Europe, Holy Roman Emperor.
Since 1549 together with the elected Rada (п-.пг. Adach, Metropolitan Macarius, п-.п°. Kurbski priest Sylvester) Ivan IV held a series of reforms aimed at centralizing state: Zemskov reform of Ivan IV, lip reform undertaken reforms in the army, in 1550, Mr.. adopted a new Code of Law of Ivan IV. In 1549, Mr.. convened the first Assembly of the Land, in 1551. Stoglavy council that made decisions about the collection of church life "Stoglav". In the years 1555-1556 Ivan IV overturned feeding and took The Code of Service.
In the 1550-1551 years of Ivan the Terrible was personally involved in the Kazan campaign. At 1552g. Kazan was conquered, then Astrakhan Khanate (1556), in dependence on the Russian Tsar fell Siberian Khan Ediger and leg Large. In 1553, Mr.. established trade relations with Britain.
In 1558, Mr.. Ivan IV began Livonian war for the conquest of the Baltic Sea. Initially hostilities developed successfully. By 1560 the army of the Livonian Order was finally defeated, and that the Order ceased to exist. Meanwhile, the domestic situation of the country has changed dramatically. Approximately 1560 g. King broke with the leaders of the Selected happy and imposed on them by various opals. According to some historians, Sylvester and Adach, realizing that the Livonian War Russia does not promise success, unsuccessfully advised the king to compromise with the enemy. In 1563, Mr.. Russian troops captured Polotsk, while the largest Lithuanian fortress. King was especially proud of this victory, gained after the break with the elected Rada. But already in 1564, Mr.. Russia has suffered a serious defeat. The king began to look for "blame game" began disgrace and punishment.
The king is increasingly imbued with the idea of establishing a personal dictatorship. In 1565, he announced the introduction of the country oprichnina. The country was divided into two parts: the territory not included in the oprichnina became known zemshchina each oprichnik makes an oath of allegiance to the king, and undertook not to communicate with zemstvo. The guardsmen were dressed in black clothing, like a monk. Mounted guardsmen had a special insignia attached to their saddles grim symbols of: broom - to sweep a betrayal, and the dog's head - to gnaw treason.
With the help of the guardsmen, who were exempt from prosecution, Ivan IV forcibly confiscated boyar estates, passing them nobility oprichniks. Punishment and disgrace accompanied by terror and banditry among the population. A major event was oprichnina Novgorod pogrom in January-February 1570, cause of which was suspected of wanting to go to Novgorod, Lithuania. The king personally led the campaign. Been looted all the cities on the way from Moscow to Novgorod. During this campaign in December 1569 Malyuta Skuratov strangled in Tver youthful monastery Metropolitan Philip (Kolychev Fyodor) (1507-69h), publicly opposed the oprichnina and executions of Ivan IV. It is believed that the number of victims in Novgorod, where then lived no more than 30 thousand people, reached 10-15 thousand.
Most historians believe that in 1572 the king revoked oprichnina. His role was played by the invasion of Moscow in 1571, Mr.. Crimean Khan Devlet Giray, who oprichnina army failed to stop, were burned with Posada, the fire spread to China Town and the Kremlin.
Results of the reign
The division of the country adversely affected the economy of the State. A large number of land has been ruined and devastated. At 1581g. to prevent the desolation estates the king imposed Preservation of the summer - the temporary ban peasants to leave their masters in St. George's Day, which contributed to the approval of serfdom in Russia. Livonian War ended in complete failure and loss of ancient Russian lands. Objective results of the reign of Ivan the Terrible could see already in life: it was the failure of all domestic and foreign policy initiatives.
With 1578g. King stopped execution. Almost at the same time, he ordered up synodic (memorial lists) executed and sent to the monasteries contributions to the commemoration of their souls in his will in 1579 confessed to the deed.
Sons and the wife of Ivan the Terrible
Periods of repentance and prayer were followed by terrible fits of rage. During one of these attacks on Nov. 9, 1582 in Alexander suburb, suburban residence, the king accidentally killed his son, Ivan Ivanovich, hitting with an iron-tipped walking stick him in the temple. The death of the heir to the king plunged into despair, because his other son, Fyodor Ivanovich, was unable to govern. Ivan the Terrible sent to the monastery a great contribution to the repose of the soul son, he even contemplated entering a convent.
Just do not know the number of wives of Ivan the Terrible, but perhaps he was married seven times. Not counting those who died in infancy of children, he had three sons.
From his first marriage with Anastasia Zakharina-Yurieva, which was the favorite wife, had three sons, Dmitri, Ivan and Fedor. Tsarevich Dmitry Sr. was born immediately after the capture of Kazan (1552). Ivan the Terrible, vowing if elected, to make a pilgrimage to the Kirillov Monastery Byelozero, took a trip novorozhdnnogo baby. Rodnia Tsarevich Dmitry mother's side, accompanied by the Romanov boyars Ivan the Terrible in the days of travel are vigilant to strict observance of ceremony, emphasizing their high position at court. Wherever a nurse with the prince in her arms, her hands always supported by two boyars Romanovs. The royal family traveled on a pilgrimage to Strugi. Boyars happened one day to join together with the nurse on the shaky gangway Struga. All at once fell into the water. Adult swimming in the river will not cause harm. The boy choked and pumped Dmitriy it did not succeed.
The second wife was the daughter of Prince Kabardian Maria Temrjukovna. Third - Martha Sobakin, who died unexpectedly three weeks after the wedding. By the rules of the church to marry more than three times forbidden. In May 1572 the Church Council was convened to allow the fourth marriage - Anna Koltovskaya. But in the same year she was tonsured a nun. The fifth wife was in 1575, Anna Vasilchikov, who died in 1579, the sixth, probably Vasilisa Melent'eva.
The last marriage took place in autumn 1580 with Maria Nude. November 19, 1582 was born the third son of the king - Dmitry Ivanovich, who died in 1591 in Uglich.
Legacy of Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV went down in history not only as a tyrant. He was one of the most educated men of his time, had a phenomenal memory, theological erudition. He is the author of numerous messages (in t.ch. Andrei Kurbsky), music and text services feast of Our Lady of Vladimir, canon Archangel Michael. King has facilitated the introduction of printing in Moscow and the construction of St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square to commemorate the conquest of the Kazan kingdom.
Material from the site
FROM RUSSIA TO THE ANCIENT EMPIRE ROSSIYSKOY
Ivan IV Vasilyevich the Terrible (1530, with. Kolomna, near Moscow - 1584, Moscow) - led. Duke from 1533, the king since 1547. The son of Basil III Ivanovich Elena Glinsky. If pedigree Glinskikh legend is true, then Ivan IV was also a descendant of Dmitry Donskoy and Khan Mamaia. After his father's death in 1533 of three Ivan IV took the throne and his life was proud that he could not remember the time when the monarch was not. In 1538 with Ivan IV's mother died. Struggling for power boyar factions have made a minor monarch witnessed the bloody beatings, arrests, killings, while indulging his whims. Early awakening cruelty Ivan IV of persecution manifested itself in animals, the first death sentence, to-ing he put in 13 years, Boyar п-.п°. Shuya and many others. Since the late 40-ies. Ivan IV became the ruler of their own; in 1547 received the royal title. Scary washes. fires, popular uprisings and amplified robberies demanded urgent action. Ivan IV around a circle of aides, later named "Favorites Rada" (ie. The Council elected) leaders to swarm-п-.пг. Adach, Sylvester, Macarius, IM. Bickovaty et al. took an active part in reform activities aimed at strengthening the autocracy. Orders have been created: "Diplomatic, petitions, The Local, Rogue and others need to better manage the different branches of state. life. In 1550, a new set of laws - Sudebnik. Was limited localism. Accepted "The Code of Service regimented order of military service, feudal lords and others. Stoglavy church unified the church ceremonies, raised the credibility of the clergy. Reform activities was accompanied by cultural growth: Work began on the creation of "Great chety-Saints" (a set of orthodox drevnerus. lit-ry), appeared typography, compiled Chronicle, built St. Basil's Cathedral and many others. Success domestic policy has helped to promote foreign policy: in 1552 it was captured by the Kazan Khanate, and in 1556 a bloodless attached Astrakhan Khanate. Around 1560 was dissolved "Selected pleased". Power-hungry Ivan IV, dissatisfied with the results of a relatively slow structural reforms, began to rule edinovlastno. Successful start of the Livonian War (1558 - 1583) and the destruction of the Livonian Order were unable to obtain complete. Ivan IV, losing huge amounts of money and a lot of people, not only have access to the Baltic Sea, but lost some originally in Russian. land. In 1565 there was a sharp turn in its policy. And going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Trinity Monastery, . Ivan IV told the Muscovites in the charters, . that "his anger put on the boyars, . governor and the clerks and the people, . not wanting more, they change a lot of cases suffer, . left his state "and went off in all directions,
. At the same time assured the emperor of the urban population of Moscow, that "anger at them and disgrace nikotoryya no". The people pleaded with Ivan IV's return, agreeing to terror against "gosudarskih Likhodeev and traitors". So it was announced the introduction of "oprichnina". Taking into his inheritance the richest land and creating oprichnina army, he received a zemshchina costs (for the rise of his very ") 100 thousand. Rub. (the village with a few villages, then worth 100 - 200 rub.) and began to mass repression and the confiscation. Were executed commander A.B. Humpback-Shujskij with a 17-year-old son, treasurer N. Funikov, Chancellor and. Viskovatov and hundreds of innocent people. Ivan IV forced to take poison his potential rival Vladimir Andreevich Starica anyone, his wife and daughter. He was deposed and killed by Metropolitan Philip. As a result, a six-week massacre perpetrated in Novgorod and Pskov were killed, probably from 10 to 15 thousand. man. Oprichnina murder took place and other cities. After the burning of Moscow, the Crimean khan Devlet-Girei and threatened new attacks against Ivan IV refused oprichnina. Over the monstrous cruelty nicknamed Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV made to strengthen the autocratic power through the destruction of many people, the terrible devastation of the central regions of Russia ( "King uchinisha oprichnina ... And from the desolation byst velie Russian land "). This, in turn, played a crucial role in the approval of serfdom. To keep the peasants, who were seeking a way out of their desperate situation, was canceled "Yuri's Day". Morbidly suspicious, superstitious, constantly afraid for his life, Ivan IV sometimes doing things are difficult to explain. Thus, in 1575 he handed over the title of king Simeon Bekbulatovich styled himself as the Specific Mosk. Prince, a year later regained voluntarily leave the throne. Ivan IV - a very talented, bright, gifted literary and deeply educated - was unhappy in my personal life. He was married six times, that was incredible for the medieval Russia. Of the 5 sons and 3 daughters survived only three: Fedor is not capable of governing the country, the young Dmitri and Ivan, intelligence and ferocity like a father. Ivan IV in anger, brutally beat her son Ivan, and 10 days later the prince died. Seriously ill ( "body iznemozhe, disease spirit"), Ivan IV died before the age of 54 years. There were rumors about his violent death. Personality Ivan IV and his era studied the largest domestic historians, and of him there is a huge lit-ra.
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