I I. SVYATOSLAV( Grand Prince of Kiev)
Comments for I I. SVYATOSLAV
Biography I I. SVYATOSLAV
Parents: Igor, Olga Pskov;
Wives and children:
1. Predslava, daughter of Kiev boyar => Yaropolk (961-980h);
2. Esther => Oleg, Prince Dregovichsky (?-977h);
3. Malusha (Malfred?), The housekeeper => Vladimir the Red Sun (? (Ok.948?) -1015 +);
In one of the chronicles reported that Malusha was the daughter of Prince Drevlyane Mala (Niskini), organizer of the uprising against Drevlyane Prince Igor. Olga Malusha exiled to the village Budutino (Budnik, near Pskov?), Where Malusha birth to a son, Vladimir. Name Malusha on Shakhmatov - slavyanizirovannoe Malfred. Before him, Dr.. Ilovajskij (in "Researches on the beginning of Russia") came to the conclusion that there is only Malfred skandinaskaya remake behalf Malusha (natural for the housekeeper who became, by his son, the princess).
Brother Malusha Dobrynia Nikitich (Niskinich) was a great leader and gosudastvennym figure, mentor, Vladimir the Red Sun. About Dobrinja and his exploits had much epics.
Prince of Novgorod and led. Prince of Kiev (946-972)
According to the Byzantine chronicler Leo the Deacon, Svyatoslav was "of medium height and very slender, had a broad chest, flat nose, blue eyes and long bushy mustache. The hair on his head were vystrizheny, except for one Lock - a sign of noble descent, in one ear hung a gold earring decorated with rubies and two pearls. All exterior Prince is something dark and grim. The white clothes of his purity only differed from the other Russian ".
Carrying on a campaign with 964 from Kiev to the Oka and the Volga region, in North. Caucasus and the Balkans; Vyatichi freed from the power of the Khazars, fought with the Volga Bulgaria, defeated (965) Khazar Khanate in 967 fought against Bulgaria for the Danube. C 60-strong army in 970, he inflicted a defeat for the Bulgarians Dorostol.
Svetoslav put g.Pereyaslavets (Small forwarding) on the lower Danube and wanted to make it the capital of the future of the great Slavic state. "There, - he said his mother, - converges all good: Greek gold, velvet, wine and various fruits from the Czech Republic and Hungary, silver and horses from Russia, fur and wax, honey and slaves ..."
In alliance with the Hungarians, Bulgarians and others. Grand Russian-Byzantine wars 970-971. Strengthened the international position of the Kiev state. Killed in pechenegy Dnieper rapids.
Material from the site
FROM RUSSIA TO THE ANCIENT EMPIRE ROSSIYSKOY
Svyatoslav (? - 972) - led. Prince of Kiev., son of Kiev. kn. Igor Ruricovich Old and Olga Mudra. Left after the death of his father (945) child, grew up in the environment vigilantes. Declared carried. immediately after the death of Prince Igor, but his mother all the time when it was the ruler, even when he reaches adulthood continued to edit gos-tion, as Svyatoslav almost his entire life spent in the military campaigns. Unity, a measure of his actions in the future - a view squads, unity. ideal - the glory of supremely brave warrior, never alter the traditions of the vigilantes. Perhaps, therefore, Svyatoslav stubbornly resisted Christianization of Rus, which is not consistent with DOS. foundations then retinue of life. Reaching youth, age, Svyatoslav began an unbroken chain of their military enterprises. Actions Svyatoslav were offensive in nature, which allowed him to seize the initiative and achieve success. Chronicler left his colorful behavioral characteristics: '... and easy to walk, like a pardus, the soldiers of many tvoryasche. Pacing, WHO does not vozyashe, no boiler, no cooking meats, but thin irregular horse meat, or a beast, or beef, baked on ugleh, yadyashe. No tent imeyashe, but lining (numnah. - Authors.) Postilashe and saddle in the minds. Sjц¦ einnig away and other warriors of his byahu vey ... ' As early as 941 on the Volga, the country Volzhsk, Bulgars, Khazars and Burtases army killed his father. In addition, Novgorod. merchants constantly harassed by local authorities and the population. Revenge for the shame his father and wanting to get their hands on Great Volga route connecting Scandinavia, Medium. Asia and Russia, Svyatoslav made (964) with his army in the campaign. Going up the River. Desna through the earth northerners, subordinated to Kiev, he moved to the upper reaches of the Oka, in the land Vyatichi. Not wanting to leave in the rear who paid tribute to the Khazars Vyatichi, Svyatoslav this time he did not fight with them and bend them to his will. Crossing the Volga, he spent almost 5 years, won several victories over the Bulgars, and Khazars Burtases, destroyed ch. Citadel last - Sarkel, walked to the Cimmerian Bosporus; in North. Khazars conquered the Caucasus, the fortress Samandar, broke the jars and Kasogs. Having cleared all of the Volga, returned to Kiev the same way. In 966 Svetoslav a campaign to Vyatichi and forced them to pay a tribute. In the 967 arrived in Kyiv Ambassador Byzas. imp. Nicephorus Phocas, rich, patrician Kalokir. Richly endowed cues. Prince and his entourage, Kalokir handed Svyatoslav invitation of the Emperor to the joint campaign in Bulgaria. Affairs of the empire at that time was bad: her possessions in the east and south-east have been constantly attacked Arabs in 966 Byzantium began after a 40-year-old cease-fire war with Bulgaria. Svyatoslav went to the alliance with the Emperor and, unexpectedly, even to approximate the fighters announced a hike in Bulgaria. From Kiev, launched 10-thousand. army. Rapidly descending on barges down the Dnieper to the Black Sea, Svyatoslav was soon in Bulgaria, within. Caught unawares by the Bulgarians, Tsar Peter had sent to meet the Russian army hastily collected. Svyatoslav routed triple that of the Bulgarian army, and Peter locked himself in the fortress Dorostpl. Svyatoslav easily mastered by Mr.. Low Preslav and took all the adjacent region. Meanwhile, Peter communicated with the emperor, and concluded an alliance with him against the Russian, and laid siege to Kiev Pechenegs. In the summer of 968 Svyatoslav raced with a part of squads in the capital Kiev and freed from the steppe. After burying his mother (969) and placing the sons (Yaropolk in Kiev, Oleg - in Drevlyane, land, and young Vladimir - in Novgorod the Great), Svyatoslav again went with the brigade in Bulgaria. Ok. 971 situation has changed: now Svyatoslav already in alliance with the Hungarians and Bulgarians, and began fighting with the Byzantine Empire. By the time Nicephorus Phocas was killed and the throne sat John Tzimisces. Arabs in the south and east has for some time to push, so the emperor had enough troops to expel Svyatoslav from Bulgaria and then subject her to Constantinople. After the defeat in the battle against superior numbers of Byzas. troops in the Great Preslav and Dorostol Svyatoslav took refuge in the fortress, and within 3 months of sitting in the siege, bravely enduring his soldiers deprivation, hunger and disease, yet he failed to make peace with John. On the way back home he was killed at about. Hortitsa planted Byzas. Emperor pechenegy.
To use material from the book.: Boguslavsky, VV Burmina VV. Russia Rurik. Illustrated historical dictionary.
SVYATOSLAV I I. (count. 3) Of the kind of Rurik. Igor's son Prince Rurik's and. Olga. Genus. app. 940 g. Conducted. kn. Kiev in 945 - 972 years. + 972 g.
At a time when his father Svyatoslav, Prince Igor, was killed in Drevlyane earth, Sviatoslav was still a child and disposed of all the affairs of his mother Princess Olga, son of Svyatoslav Asmud and voivod Sveneld. In the year 946, having collected many soldiers, Olga went to Drevlyane. She was in and Svetoslav. Drevlyans made to meet, and when the two armies met for battle, Svyatoslav threw his spear into the enemy. The spear has flown only between the ears of a horse and fell at his feet, for Svyatoslav was still very small. But Sveneld Asmud and said: "The prince has already started the fight: follow, the squad, for the prince!" And the battle began, which overcame Kievans.
In 957, after his baptism of Olga began to persuade his son to adopt Christianity. But Svetoslav replied: "How do I take a different faith? And my squad will be a mock". And do not listen to the mother, continuing to live in a pagan customs. But others are not forbidden to be baptized, but only laughed at them. Olga also prayed for his son and continued to lead it until until it matured.
When Svyatoslav grew, he began to collect a lot of brave warriors and fought a lot, but hiking is easy as walking a cheetah, says the chronicler. And no, he drove with a no carts, no boilers, no cooked meat, but, thinly sliced horse meat or an animal or beef, roasted on the coals and ate. Did not he and tents, but sleeping, underlaid with a saddle-cloth saddle in the minds. So were all his warriors. Before attacking the enemy, he sent forward a messenger with the words: "I want you to go". And the appearance Svyatoslav, according to the Byzantine historian Leo the deacon, was a match for his character: a wild and harsh. His eyebrows were thick, blue eyes, hair and beard, the prince was wont to shave, but had a long, drooping mustache and a bundle of hair on one side of the head. Being not tall and slender body, he was distinguished by a powerful, muscular neck and broad shoulders. Luxury Svetoslav disliked. Clothing worn very simple and only in the ear, he hung a gold earring adorned with two pearls and ruby.
In 965, being approximately 25 years old, Svyatoslav went to the Khazars. Hearing about the Khazars came out to meet, led by Hagan, and the battle. Svyatoslav defeated the Khazars and took their city, and the White Sarkel Vezha. After he won the jars and Kasogs. The next year, Svyatoslav defeated Vyatichi and put them tribute.
In 967 year Svyatoslav went to the Danube in Bulgaria. Svyatoslav defeated the Bulgarians in the battle and took 80 of their cities on the Danube, got to reign in Pereyaslavets, taking tribute from the Greeks.
In the year 968, in the absence of Svyatoslav, the Russian land came Pechenegs. Olga was locked in Kiev with their grandchildren - Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir. Pechenigi same besieged city of great strength: it was an infinite number of them around, and it was impossible to get out of town or get water, and people are fainting from hunger and thirst. Then they sent to the people of Kiev Svyatoslav messenger with the words: "You, prince, looking for someone else's land and take care of her, and her left. We also had nearly taken Pechenegs with your mother and children. If you do not come and did not protect us, then we can not escape full. Are not you sorry you his paternal, old mother and children? "Hearing these words, Svyatoslav and his warriors immediately saddled their horses and returned to Kiev, greeted his mother and children, and expressed regret about what happened to them from Pechenegs. After he gathered soldiers drove Besenyos in the field, and it is quiet in the Russian land.
Next chronicler says so. Svetoslav called boyars, and told his mother: "Not a pleasure to me to sit in Kiev, . I want to live in Pereyaslavets on the Danube - where the middle of my land, . flock there all good: from the Greek earth - gold, . velvet and wine, . various fruits, from the Czech Republic and Hungary - the silver, and horses, of Russia is - furs and wax, . honey and slaves ",
. Olga replied to him on this: "You see - I was ill; where you want to get away from me?" When you bury me, go where you like ". Three days later, Olga died, and mourned her Svetoslav together with his sons and buried.
In 969, Svetoslav planted Yaropolk in Kiev, Oleg - in Drevlyane, Vladimir sent to reign in Novgorod, and he sailed to Bulgaria in Pereyaslavets. Bulgarians same otbivshie this time Pereyaslavets, was shut against him in the city and went to fight with the Russian. And there was great slaughter, in which the Bulgarians were too strong. Then said Svyatoslav his soldiers: "Here, we die! Poston same courage, brothers and the squad!" By evening Svyatoslav defeated and took the town by storm. And he sent to the Greeks, saying: "I want to go to you and take your capital, as the city". The Greeks also said: "The fight, take a tribute to the entire squad, his only tell how many of you, so we sent away by the number of your warriors". So the Greeks said, tricking Russian. Svetoslav immediately sent to say: "We are twenty thousand". But he added ten thousand: for the Russian was only ten thousand. Receiving this news, John Tzimisces, Emperor of the Greeks, spoke out against Russia with 30 thousand, and the tribute did not give any. In 970, the war moved to Thrace. In the first battle Svyatoslav defeated and went to Constantinople, capturing the city. In Philipopol (Plovdiv), according to Leo the deacon, he told impaled 20 000 prisoners, has led to these Bulgarians in horror and forced to obey a. However, under Andrianopolem met with the Russian army Warda Skleros and suffered from his defeat. Despite the victory, Tzimiskes because of the outbreak in Asia rebellion Warda Phocas had to make peace. He sent word to Svyatoslav: "Do not go to the capital, take a tribute, much as you". Svyatoslav, according to the chronicler, took a great tribute, as well as many gifts, and returned to Pereyaslavets with the glory of the great.
However, the world lasted a little longer. In 971 years the Easter season, crushed a revolt in Asia, Tzimiskes unexpectedly switched to the Russian invasion of the Balkans and Bulgaria. After a two-day siege, the Greeks took Preslav and knocked out the Russian garrison, commanded by Sveneld. After that, Pliska and many other Bulgarian cities dropped out of Svyatoslav and went over to the Tzimiskes. Svyatoslav himself was at this time on the Danube in Dorostol, learned of the defeat at Preslav, he experienced frustration and disappointment, but still hoped for victory.
When the Emperor approached Dorostol, he saw the Russian, facing walls in anticipation of the battle. Once the opponents came together hand to hand, began a fierce battle, and for a long time the two sides fought with equal success. By evening, when the men were already weak, Tzimiskes thrown in his cavalry. Unable to withstand this onslaught, Russian fled and hid behind the walls of the fortress.
Then a few days there were persistent battle before the walls, from which the Greeks usually emerges victorious. Then Svetoslav assembled his squad, and took counsel how they continue to be. Many were for, to withdraw, but Svetoslav said: "We have nowhere to get away, whether we like or do not want to - need to fight. So do not disgrace the Russian land, but lay there with the bones, because the dead do not shame imut. If flee - a shame we will. So do not flee the same, but will become strong, and I will go ahead of you: if my head will fall, then their own care ". The soldiers, inspired by this speech, exclaimed: "Where's your head lie there and let their heads".
The next day, Russian, lined up in phalanx, were made against the Greeks, and fought with ferocity never seen before. The emperor, seeing that the Greeks were retreating, he rushed into battle to inspire the warriors. On top of the hurricane disaster broke. The wind was blowing towards the Russian and scored their eyes. At the same time, bypassing the system Svyatoslav, Varda Skleros struck him in the rear. Russian broke and ran under the protection of walls. Svyatoslav himself, wounded and lost a lot of arrows, blood, barely escaped being taken prisoner.
All night he spent in anger and grief, deploring the deaths of his troops. But, . seeing, . that nothing can take, . He considered it a duty not crumple under the weight of adverse circumstances and make every effort to rescue the surviving soldiers .- So he despatched to the dawn of ambassadors to the Emperor John, and began to ask the world to the following conditions: The Russian will give way to the Greeks Dorostol, . released prisoners, . withdraw from Bulgaria and return to their homeland, . the Greeks will give them the opportunity to sail, . not attack them on the road with a fire-bearing ships, . moreover, . provide them with food and will take the Russian merchants in those conditions, . that were previously,
Emperor gladly accepted these conditions. Of the 60-strong army, which has a Svetoslav Bulgaria, alive at the time left 22 000.
At the conclusion of peace Svetoslav safely reached the mouth of the Dnieper and on the barges went to the door. Voevoda Sveneld told him: "Go out quickly, the prince, riding the rapids, as are the thresholds Pechenegs". But Svetoslav not listen to him and went into barges. Meanwhile Sveneld worried with good reason: the Bulgarians sent Pechenegs say: "Here goes past you to Russia Svetoslav with a small retinue, taking a lot of wealth among the Greeks and the captives without number". Hearing about this, Pechenegs atonement for the thresholds. Svetoslav learned that you can not pass through the rapids, and stopped with the brigade in Beloberezhe for the winter. Soon Russian finished the whole meal, the soldiers were eating their horses and began the great famine. In the spring of 972, Svetoslav decided to continue the path. As soon as he got to the door, attacked him smoking, Prince Pecheneg, and killed Pechenegs whole Russian squad. Fell in battle and Svetoslav. And out of his skull Pechenegs made the cup, bound him, and since then drank from it Pecheneg Khans.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
Svyatoslav (927? - 972 or 973) - led. Prince of Kiev, the commander. The son of Igor and Olga. Most of his reign, held in the campaigns. According to the chronicler, S., openly declared enemies: "I'm going to you!" Did not take with them tents and boilers, was sleeping on the earth, resting under his head horse saddle, attacked with the swiftness of the leopard. In 964 - 966 subdued Vyatichi, freeing them from the tribute to the Khazars, defeated the Volga Bulgars and the Khazar Khanate. Ok. 971 in union with Bulgaria and Hungary started a warrior with Byzantium, which ended with the signing of a peace treaty with 971 counts. John Tzimiskes. Returning to Kiev, C: was podsterezhen pechenegs, natravlennymi Byzantium, and killed at the Dnieper rapids. Militant image with. preserved in the folk legends.