YAROSLAV I VLADIMIROVICH WISE( From the kind of Rurik)
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Biography YAROSLAV I VLADIMIROVICH WISE
From the kind of Rurik. Son of Vladimir Svyatoslavich and Polotsk Prince. Rogneda of Polotsk. Genus. 978 g. Kn. Rostov at 987 - 1010 years. Kn. Novgorod in 1010 - 1036 he. Conducted. kn. Kiev in 1016 - 1018, 1019 - 1054 he.
Wife: daughter of Swedish King Olaf, princess Ingigerda (Irina).
+ 1054 g.
In 1014, approved in Novgorod, Yaroslav ceased to pay tribute to Kiev, as it did before it all Novgorod mayor. Vladimir seeing disobedient son, I have to go to war against Novgorod, and commanded the squad: "clear the path and the Bridge The Bridge". Yaroslav, on learning of these preparations, he sent for the sea and hired Normans. With their help, he wanted to fight with his father.
Meanwhile, in 1015 Pechenegs went to war against Russia. Vladimir sent against them his favorite son Boris with all his retinue, and he started to hurt badly. From this illness he died on July 15. Authorities in Kiev immediately seized stepson Vladimir Svyatopolk Accursed. Fearing competition, he was sent to his brothers killers. First kill Boris, Gleb and then, finally, Svyatoslav.
Jaroslav still knew nothing about his father's death and preparing for war with Kiev. Collected them Vikings rampaged in Novgorod, to do violence against citizens and their wives. And then, when Yaroslav was in the village of cancer, Novgorod revolted at night on the Normans and slaughtered them in the yard Paramon. Jaroslav heard about this, very angry, but did not show the form and sent word to citizens: "Even though you have done great harm to my allies, but I did not resuscitate. Come to me to accept ". Novgorodians believe Yaroslav friendliness, chose the best men and sent them to Rakomu. Yaroslav told them all took over and smash.
But that same night Jaroslaw news came from his half-sister Predslava: "Your father died, and Sviatopolk sits in Kiev. Kill it already, Boris and Gleb sent killer. Beware of him! "
. Heavily disturbed and saddened by this news Jaroslav collected on the day of Novgorod in the Chamber and told them: "Yesterday, . in madness, . I broke many of my squads, . today the news came to me, . my father died, . and Sviatopolk sits in Kiev and killing my brothers,
. I want to go for it! Let there be no enmity between us, because for every dead man is ready, I bought off with gold ". Novgorodians same answer: "Although the prince, and carved our brothers - we can fight for you!" Assembled Jaroslav thousand Normans, and Novgorodians three thousand, and went on Svjatopolka.
The enemies met under Liubech. Sviatopolk my camp between two lakes and, not expecting an attack, all night drinking and fun with warriors. Novgorodians suddenly struck him, pressed Kiev to the lake and many drown. Defeated Sviatopolk fled to Poland to his father-in-Boleslav, and Jaroslaw came to Kiev.
In 1018, King Boleslaw with Svyatopolk made Jaroslav. Jaroslav waiting for them on the bank of the Bug, in Volhynia. Boleslaw first rushed to wade through the Bug, the Poles struck him. Jaroslav not stand head and fled to Novgorod all four men of, and Boleslaw seized Kiev
. Yaroslav of Novgorod wanted to run further over the sea, . to Varangians, . but burgomaster Constantine, . son Dobryni, . together with the townspeople hacked all rooks Yaroslav, . saying: "We want to have to fight against Boleslav and Svyatopolk!" Jaroslav agreed, . then Novgorod, . raise money, . hired for the prince Normans,
. With them Yaroslav second time went on Svjatopolka.
Meanwhile Svyatopolk already quarreled with father, who had gone to Poland. Therefore he could not resist Yaroslav and fled to the Pechenegs. With their help, in 1019 the last time he tried to seize Kiev, but was defeated in a fierce battle at Alta and fled abroad.
Yaroslav, sitting on the Kiev throne, was to stand still and fight with other cousins. In 1021 he won his nephew Brjachislav Izyaslavich Polotsk, and in 1024-m fought with his younger brother Mstislav Vladimirovich, who won a Tmutarakani Chernihiv. Despite the assistance Varangian guards Yakuna, Yaroslav defeated in battle under broadleaf. The brothers reconciled. Mstislav remained in Chernihiv and the lands along the eastern bank of the Dnieper.
Only in 1036, when Mstislav died without leaving heirs, Jaroslav took over his district and was arbitrarily edit the Russian land. In the same year he went to Novgorod and planted here to rule his eldest son, Vladimir. Then he received news that Pechenegs besieged Kiev. Jaroslav hastily assembled warriors - Normans and Slavs - and came to Kiev. Made their way into the city and make the battle, the Russian went into the field. Varygs Jaroslav set in the middle, Kiev - on the right side, and the people of Novgorod - on the left. The battle was fierce, so that Jaroslav only with great difficulty prevailed Pechenegs the evening.
From this year, overcoming all enemies - foreign and domestic - Jaroslav engaged in public affairs and courted a reputation in this field no less than in military affairs. On the site of his victory, he laid the Parish of St.. Sofia and the vicinity - the monastery of St.. George's and St.. Irina. To protect the south of Kiev Yaroslav told to cut down on the river Ros' new castle - Yuriev Torchesk, Korsun, Trepol and other. Yaroslav's very fond of books and read them often. Collected many book copiers and interpreters, he multiplied the number of books in Russia, and gradually introduced them. Since then, the book wisdom firmly among Russian. Across the land gathered at Yaroslav children and taught them to read and write. In 1054, feeling the approach of death, Yaroslav divided the land among his sons, and commanded them to live in peace. He died Feb. 20, 1054 and was buried in a marble tomb in the church of. Sofia.
All the monarchs of the world. Russia. 600 brief biographies. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 1999.
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Yaroslav the Wise (c.. 978 - 1054, Kiev) - led. Prince of Kiev. Son of Vladimir Svyatoslavich. He was imprisoned father to rule first in Rostov, then in Novgorod. In 1014 stopped paying tribute to Kiev, hoping to separate their possessions from South Russia. Vladimir Svyatoslavich began gathering troops to force to compel her son to obey his authority, but during the preparations for the expedition died. Yaroslav waged an internecine war with Svyatopolk Damned, and in 1019 seized the throne in Kiev, continuing the struggle with claim authority brothers. After the death of his brother Mstislav, Prince Tmutarakan, in 1035 became the sovereign ruler Yaroslav Kiev powers, except Mr.. Polotsk, to-Eye owned by his brother Izyaslav. In 1036, near Kiev were divided Pechenegs, stop attacks on Russia. In 1038 - 1042 I. waged a successful war with Byzantium, Lithuanian and Finnish tribes. Yaroslav autocracy - while his political power, cultural and economic prosperity drevnerus. gos Islands. The proof of this marriage the daughters of Yaroslav. with the kings of France, Norway, Denmark, Hungary. He strengthened the internal situation of state-va introduction of a set of laws - Russian Law. Contribute to strengthening its influence in the church, placing Metropolitan rus. monk Hilarion. When it created the first monastery, the magnificent St. Sophia Cathedral. The love of literacy, translation of Byzantine works in Slavic language, chronicles the development of a brilliant expression of the flowering of all drevnerus. Culture. Bequeathed to his sons refuse to civil wars, however, gave them their possessions into fiefdoms, Jaroslav initiated feudal.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997
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. Parents: I, Vladimir the Red Sun (? -1015 +), Rogneda;
. Children: Ingigerda (1050 +), the daughter of Swedish King Olaf Shetkonunga;
. Since ancient sources mention two names of his wife of Yaroslav - Irina and Anna, . there is reason to believe, . anything Ingigerda, . got the name of Irina, . was one of the wives of Yaroslav, . or Irina-Ingigerda before his death took the veil, . adopting the monastic name of Anna (under that name she canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church as the first princess, . professed before his death) =>,
. Ilya (? -1020 +), Book
. Vezelay (1015-1020);
Vladimir (1020-1052 +), book. Vezelay (1043-1052),? =>
Rostislav (1065h), Prince. Tmutarakan;
Izyaslav (1024-1078 +);
Svetoslav (1027-1076 +), book. Chernihiv;
Vsevolod (1030-1093 +);
Vyacheslav (1036-1057 +), book. Smolensk
Igor (1036-1060 +), book. Vladimir-Volyn;
Anne - Queen of France, wife of Henry I Capet,
(Cm. A. Ladinsky Anne of Kiev - the Queen of France);
. Anastasia - the Queen of Hungary (the wife of Andrew I);
. Elizabeth - the Queen of Norway (wife of Harald boldly, 1045g.) Married a short time, and died, leaving daughters Ingigerdu and Mary;
. Key moments
. Prince of Rostov (988-1010);
. Prince of Novgorod (1013-1015);
. Vel.knyaz Kiev (1015-1017), (1019-1054);
. The first period of life of Yaroslav the Wise is linked to the struggle for the throne of Kiev
. Upon reaching adulthood, Yaroslav father put him on Don Prince, and about 1013 after the death of Vysheslava (eldest son of Vladimir Svyatoslavich) Yaroslav became the prince of Novgorod. In 1014 Yaroslav's refusal to pay tribute to Kiev has infuriated his father and caused the order to prepare for a march to Novgorod. But the July 15, 1015, Mr.. Vladimir Svyatoslavich died suddenly, failing to implement its plan.
According to the version of events, as reflected in the "Tale of Bygone Years", after the death of Svyatoslav of Kiev, Vladimir Turovsky seized the throne Prince Svyatopolk I Accursed, brother Yaroslav Vladimirovich. Wanting to eliminate possible rivals, Svyatopolk killing brothers, princes of Rostov, Boris, Gleb, Murom, Drevlyane Svyatoslav tries to kill and Yaroslav, but his time warns sister Predslava. According to another version, the blood brothers was not guilty Svyatopolk, and Jaroslaw, as evidenced by some Western sources.
Enlisting the support of Novgorod, Yaroslav, in December 1015 in the Battle of Liubech wins over Svyatopolk and captures Kiev. But Sviatopolk not accepted defeat, and in 1018 he, together with his father, the Polish King Boleslaw the Brave, invaded Russia. This time the lucky Svyatopolk, who managed to defeat at the Battle of Yaroslav Buga and recapture Kiev. Yaroslav fled to Novgorod, where intended to go to Scandinavia. But the prince of Novgorod cut down a rook and forced to continue the fight Yaroslav. In the battle at Alta in 1018, Mr.. Svyatopolk suffered a crushing defeat, and Yaroslav regained Kiev.
After the victory over Svyatopolk Jaroslav began fighting with his other brother Tmutarakan prince Mstislav, also lay claim to the throne of Kiev. In the battle of deciduous trees (near Chernigov) in 1024 victory was on the side of Mstislav, but he allowed to reign in Kiev, Yaroslav. Still Jaroslav decided not to accept the offer of his brother and continued to stay in Novgorod, was sent to Kiev their Posadnik.
In 1025 by a prisoner at Gorodets peace treaty Jaroslav received Russian land west of the Dnieper, with its center in Kiev, and Mstislav - the eastern part, Chernigov and Pereyaslavl. Only after the death of Mstislav in 1035 Yaroslav becomes "samovlasttsem" in Russia.
After the battle of Listven Yaroslav activities mainly associated with enlightenment and Christianization of Rus. Perhaps, . one of the reasons for the refusal Yaroslav from the usual for the prince of military activities was seriously injured, . received by him during the fight with his brothers: a survey of the remains of Yaroslav showed, . that he had a severed leg, . because of which the prince was very limp and at the end of life could hardly get along without assistance,
In the years 1036-1037, on his orders were built strong fortifications ( "the city of Yaroslav"), the Golden Gate to the Gate Church of the Annunciation, the Church of St.. Sofia, and also founded the monastery of St.. George and Irene. Prototypes of these buildings are architectural monuments of Constantinople and Jerusalem, they were meant to symbolize the movement in Kiev center of the Orthodox world. Completion of construction coincided with the creation of "Sermon on Law and Grace," which was delivered March 25, 1038. At the same time was written by the first Russian chronicle - t. n. The oldest set of. In "Tale of Bygone Years" contains honorable mention on education Yaroslav. According to the Chronicle, Duke took care of the Russian translation of many Greek books, which formed the basis of the library, he established the temple of St. Sophia. Yaroslav also attributed to the first compilation of Russian legislation "Russian Truth".
Foreign policy Yaroslav in his later years
In foreign policy, Jaroslav sought to strengthen the international prestige of Ancient Russian State. On his initiative, Prince of Novgorod, Vladimir I of Kiev in 1043 made the last major campaign of Russia to Byzantium, but ended in failure. About 1050g. Kiev was placed first Metropolitan of the Russian - Hilarion, defending the independence of the Russian diocese of Constantinople. In addition, many children were Yaroslav family ties with the ruling dynasties of Central and Western Europe.
Chronicles the data on the death of Yaroslav contradictory, it is believed that he died on February 20, 1054, however, many researchers have called the other dates. Before his death, bequeathed Yaroslav Kiev throne eldest surviving son, the Prince of Novgorod Izyaslav, punishing his sons to live in peace.
Nickname "Wise" stuck in Jaroslaw in Russia's official historiography until the second half of the 19 century.
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