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Uritsky Moses Solomonovich

( Social Democrat, Menshevik)

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Biography Uritsky Moses Solomonovich
photo Uritsky Moses Solomonovich
Uritsky Solomonovich Moses (1873-1918) - Social-Democrat from 1898 to 1903. - Menshevik. In 1917, Mr.. entered the group "Interdistrictite" and together with them was adopted by the Bolshevik Party. Elected member RSDLP (b). From October 16 - a member of the Revolutionary Military Center of the Bolsheviks, created for the party leadership of the insurrection in Petrograd. Member of the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee. Delegate II All-Russia Congress of Soviets, was elected a member of the Central Executive Committee. After the October Revolution Commissioner grandfathers of the Constituent Assembly. In February 1918. joined the "Left" Communists on the conclusion of the Brest Peace, chairman of the Petrograd Cheka. Killed by a Social Revolutionary.

Collegiate Dictionary


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Uritsky Solomonovich Moses (1873, Mr.. Cherkasy - 1918, Petrograd) - figure roar. Traffic. Genus. the family of the merchant, but soon left without a father and mother grew up in a strictly religious spirit, studying the Talmud. Under the influence of her elder sister was carried away in Russian. lit-swarm, and passed examinations, was able to learn in school. High school student participated in a roar. circle and the unit self-defense against pogroms. In 1893 enrolled in the Law Dept., Kiev University, and she was one of the leaders of the Kiev organization RSDLP. In 1897, after the un-ta, entered military service, but a few days later he was arrested as a Social Democrat. Since then repeatedly subjected to repression. After the II Party Congress sided with the Mensheviks. In 1905 led the roar. work in St. Petersburg and Krasnoyarsk, but was soon arrested. In 1906 was sent abroad, he lived in Germany and Denmark. Performing duties of private secretary GV. Plekhanov. In 1912 at a conference in Vienna, was elected to the Organizing Committee RSDLP from a group of Trotskyists. In the agent note in the secret service Uritsky characterized as follows: "Not impressed serious person, although considered very sensible party worker". Since the beginning of World War I took an internationalist stand and together with L.D. Trotsky worked in the press. In 1917, after the February roar. returned to Petrograd, was one of the leaders of Interdistrictites; with them was adopted by the Bolshevik party at the VI Congress, became a member of the CC. As a member of the Military-Revolutionary. desks. Center for leadership of the uprising became a member of the Petrograd Revolutionary Military Committee and attended the October Revolution. He served as Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, later - the Constituent Assembly. Was an opponent of Brest-Litovsk peace, sharing the view of the Left Communists, but was forced to subordinate to the party. discipline. Since March 1918 became chairman of the Petrograd Cheka, was one of the first organizers of the "red terror". Was killed, LA. Kannegiserom in response to the execution of his friend and the arrest of officers. Death Uritskogo served as the basis for strengthening the "red terror".

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.


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Uritsky Moses Solomonovich (January 2. 1873 g. Cherkassy, -30 August. 1918, Petrograd). From the family of the merchant. He graduated from the Juridical. Dept., Kiev University (1897). In the roar. movement with ser. 90's. Since 1898 tsp. RSDLP. After a 2-second Party Congress (1903) Menshevik. Member of the Revolution 1905 - 1907 period (St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk). Repeatedly arrested, cited.

In August 1912 a party-d. conference in Vienna: OK RSDLP entered as a representative group of Trotskyists. Since 1914 in exile (Denmark, Germany). During the 1-st World War Menshevik internationalists.

After the February. Revolution of 1917 he returned to Russia; reintroduced RSDLP OK, but in April. left it and joined the "Interdistrictites": before the arrival L.D. Trotsky in Russia was one of their leaders. Together with them on the 6 th Congress RSDLP (b) (July 26 - August 3.) Adopted in the Bolshevik. party; elected member of the Central Committee. August 5. at the plenum of the Central Committee put in a narrow composition RSDLP (b), Aug. 6. delegated to the PC Party and the Bolsheviks introduced to the Commission on Elections in the inaugural. Coll. August 20. elected vowel Petrograd. Gore. City Council; RSDLP (b) introduced Uritskogo to the newspaper "the Proletariat" (one of the titles. "Truth": Led Municipal and foreign. departments) and the magazine "Next". Sep 6. at a meeting of Gore. City Council directed from the Bolshevik faction to participate in the Democratic Conference (Petrograd, . 14 - 22 sept.) At the Jo day put the Party Central Committee in the Editor of "Education", . September 20 - To the Editor of City and Zemstvo "(body of the municipal Party Central Committee).,

. At the meeting RSDLP (b) October 10, said: "We are weak not only in the technical part, but in all other aspects of our work
. We carried a lot of resolutions. Act decisively no. Petrograd Soviet disorganized, few meetings and pr. At what forces we rely on? 40 thousand. rifles are in Petrograd workers, but this does not solve the case, it is - nothing. Garrison after the July days can not inspire much hope. But in any case, if the steer by the rebellion, we should really do something in this direction. Must decide on certain actions "[" The Protocols of the Central Committee RsDRGKb) with. 85]

At the meeting RSDLP (b) Oct. 16. elected member of. Voen.-roar. desks. Center for Hand-Vu rebellion (the center became part of the Petrograd. SRW). Affairs. 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets RNC (25-27 oct.) elected a member of. VTsIK. October 26. Petrograd. VRK appointed Uritskogo ACCESSED. Commissioner of Foreign Min -. cases pending approval by the Congress of the CPC,. 1 Nov.. at a meeting of the Party Central Committee on the replenishment of the Central Executive Committee representatives etc.. parties objected to the representation of the Petrograd. and washing. Gore. thoughts, thought that must be the predominance of the Bolsheviks in the All. "It must be finally determined. Same in the Ministry: we must have a solid majority ... Lenin - should remain chairman and Trotsky - Minister of Foreign Affairs. We should not give decrees. This - our requirements, and we can not give up "(ibid.,. 125). 3 Nov.. signed "Ultimatum majority RSDLP (b) minority" with the requirement to obey the decisions of the Central Committee of the establishment of the Bolshevik. Prospect Island and desist from seeking to create a "uniform Sots. pr-in "(cm. ibid,. 133-34). In November - December, board member of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs.

November 23,. ANC Commissioner in Vseros. for election to the inaugural. Coll. Commission "with the right offset and the appointment of new committee members and take the necessary measures to ensure the accuracy prepare, work on the convening of inaugural. Coop "(" The decrees of the Soviet. power, t. 1, Moscow, 1957,. 584). After refusing to implement the decisions of the Commission SNK, Nov 29. Uritsky by decree of the SNK took control of all affairs of the commission. December 12. at a meeting of the Petersburg Committee (b) made a presentation in a rum-reviewed the preparations for convening the inaugural. Coll.: "... The struggle is being waged against us by other parties on the question of the Constituent Assembly, there is in our own environment. The right-wing elements of the slogan: "All power to the Constituent Assembly", he exposed Shulgin, etc.. Of course, they are not going to give all power to a democratic institution, it is simply hidden desire to destroy the power of the proletariat "(" First Legal Petersburg. to-t the Bolsheviks in 1917, M-L. 1927,. 371): concluded that the election results: "While there has been a balance of forces that we and the Left SRs did not draw up and half the total number ... Provinces Center. Russia with a cross, the people, until to-cerned reached Decree on the ground, gave the Bolsheviks. The same is the case with the fronts: the front of the North and West, which are closer to our influence, gave us most: South-West. front, Romanian, lying far away, gave the majority of the SR. If the right-wing elements really wanted to quickly open the inaugural. Coll., They would be able to come and get a special license. But they still want to check whether they are in the majority "(ibid.,. 372); "the role played by the Constituent Assembly in the bourgeois revolution, enjoyed even greater popularity in the semi-bourgeois elements, though they are with us. And in our ranks there are comrades who have not overcome the illusion that the Constituent Assembly. ... These illusions make us keep delaying tactics. The theses adopted by the Central Committee and our faction of the Constituent Assembly, also clearly expressed expectant management rather than specific actions, we will convene a Constituent Assembly? - Yes, will convene a. Overclocking? - Yes, maybe - it depends on the circumstances. Question of the inaugural. Coll. now solved, where now there is CET. war ... Wins whether Kaledin? Did we win? - From these circumstances will determine the fate and the work established. Coll. "(Ibid.,. 373): "At the moment the question of the inaugural. Coll. is the fighting issue, around to-cerned, we want to give a gene. battle, and we want to give around the same battle. The differences with the Left SRs now destroyed everything .- The differences in our party. environment are not new. This is the same course to-Roe was observed earlier in the issue of rising. Now neck-rye comrades look at the inaugural. Coll., As something that should crown the roar-tion "(ibid.,. 374). Uritsky stressed that the lists of candidates for the inaugural. Coll. drawn up in August. In addition, there have been electoral fraud: if all acquainted with the essence of October. Revolution of and would not have been so much abuse, the Bolsheviks and Left SRs would have had more than half of MPs (cm. ibid,. 375).

December 23. joined the exceedingly. Military. Staff (CWC. for org-tion of order in Petrograd during the inaugural convocation. Coll.) And was appointed commander of the Tauride Palace. In the late night meeting on January 5. 1918 guard was ordered to the signature VI. Lenin and Uritskogo: "ordain fellow soldiers and sailors to prevent violence against the counter. Member U.S. and freely release from the Tauride Palace. Nobody will admit no particular order ". However, verbal instructions P.E. Dybenko inaugural. Coll. was dissolved (see: Vishnyak M. Tribute to the past, New York, 1954, with. 379-80; Dybenko PE, rebels, M., 1923, with. on)

On the issue of a peace treaty with Germany Uritsky shared the position of "Left Communists". At the meeting RSDLP (b) Jan. 11. 1918, said: "Of course, we can not roar. war, can not, because, from it, we immediately lose the army - a soldier, and the bourgeoisie immediately make peace. But signing the peace, we lose the proletariat, because, of course, the Petersburg proletariat would not reconcile with the signing of the peace. deemed refusal of our line. By refusing to sign the peace, making the demobilization of the army and thus his political demonstration, we, of course, opens the way for the Germans, but then, of course, the people will wake up, the instinct of self-preservation and we will begin to roar. war "[" The Protocols RSDLP (b), with. 170]. From 21 February to the beginning days of the onset of germ. troops tsp. K-ta roar. Defense of Petrograd Feb. 22. signed a statement in the CC group of its members and drug. Commissioners, in a rum-affirmed that the signing of the world shows "... the whole world the impotence of the flight, the dictatorship in Russia, it deals a blow to mehodunar. the proletariat, especially severe at the time the roar. crisis in the West. Europe, and also sets aside from the Intern. Russian movement. roar-tion "is a capitulation to the Intern. bourgeoisie (ibid.,. 209). 23 Feb.. the meeting RSDLP (b) read a statement on behalf of the NI. Bukharin, A. Lomov (GI. Oppokov) etc.. that they do not want to be responsible for the decision to sign the peace to think-ing "... deeply flawed and disastrous for the Russian. and Intern. roar-tions "that goes with all parties. and owls. positions, reserving the right to campaign against the signing of the peace (ibid.,. 126). 24 Feb.. Joint. with others. "left" applied to the CNS, which leaves the Small SNK, takes all the work on the Elimination of inaugural. Coll., Remaining work in the Supreme Economic Council (ibid.,. 223).

Affairs. 7 th extraordinary congress of the RCP (b) (6-8 March 1918), in the statement went on to defend the position of "Left Communists" [see: "7 th extraordinary congress of the RCP (b). Stenografich. report, Moscow, 1962,. 41-44]: stated that he refused to enter the new Central Committee, but elected by the Congress candidate for member of. CC, subordinate to the party. discipline. Since March, before. Petrograd. Cheka, concurrently. from April. Commissar ext. Northern Affairs. area. Killed by a terrorist, that was one of the signals to an escalation of "red terror".


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