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Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov

( politician)

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Biography Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
photo Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov
Molotov (Skryabin), Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (1890-1986), statesman, Hero of Socialist Labor (1943). In the October Revolution, a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. In 1920-21 Secretary of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine. In 1921-30 Secretary of the CPSU (B), while in 1928-29 1 st Secretary of the CIM Party. In the 1930-41 chairman of SNK and STO USSR (until 1937). Since 1941 deputy chairman in 1942-57 1 st Vice-chairman of the SNK (Council of Ministers) of the USSR, while in 1941-45 Deputy Chairman of the SDC. In 1939-49 and 1953-56 People's Commissar, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the USSR (See. documents Chronos - Report on the foreign policy of the Government - 31 October 1939). Since 1957, Ambassador to Mongolia. In 1960-62, Permanent Representative of the USSR to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Member of the Party Central Committee in 1921-57. Member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee in 1926-57. He was a member of the immediate political environment and. V. Stalin, one of the most active organizers of mass repressions, 1930 - Early. 1950's. Spoke out against critics of the cult of personality and. V. Stalin in the middle. 50-ies.

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Molotov (cf.. Pham. Skryabin), Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (1890, Sloboda Kukarka Vyatka Province. - 1986, Moscow) - cos. State. and desks. figure. Place from the middle class. Graduated real uch-School in Kazan. In 1906 joined the Bolshevik Party RSDLP. In 1909 he was arrested and exiled to Vologda. In 1912, after serving the link, entered the Polytechnic Institute of St. Petersburg. He was a member of the editorial board of the gas. Pravda. In 1916 he became a member of the Rus. Bureau RSDLP. After the February roar. 1917 joined the editorial board of Pravda, and in the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet. During the October roar. and civil war, distinguished only executive and diligence and in 1918 was on the joint. and economic work in the North, the Volga region, Ukraine. In connection with the expansion of desks. apparatus under one-party system, Molotov became secretary of the Central Committee and has proved a zealous bureaucrats ( "stone ass"). In 1922 Molotov was directly in charge of I.V. Stalin. In the 20-ies. actively supported Stalin in the fight against L.D. Trotsky, G.E. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev. In 1928, Molotov became a member of the Politburo and unconditionally fulfill the directives of Stalin. In 1930 Molotov was appointed to the presidency of ANC, led the creation of joint. Industry. In 1930-1932 traveled to various parts of the country as an extraordinary commissioner at the time of grain, carrying out numerous repression. Molotov personally responsible for the famine in Ukraine, which claimed millions of lives. He actively participated in the organization of the Great Terror 1937-1938. In 1939, Molotov, while remaining head of government, was appointed People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs in August. signed Soviet-Hitler pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact) with the secret protocols of the division of spheres of influence in the Vost. Europe and the Baltic. In Sept.. 1939 Molotov signed the "Germano-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and the border between the USSR and Germany". At the session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in his speech, Molotov said: "The ideology of Hitlerism, like any other ideological system, you can accept or deny, this is a matter of political views. But everyone will understand that ideology can not be destroyed by force, can not finish it by the war. Therefore, not only senseless but criminal to wage such a war as a war for "the destruction of Hitlerism "...". In March 1940 a 50-year anniversary of the Molotov was an award winning, Mr.. Perm was renamed in Mr.. Molotov, his name began to assign collective farms and enterprises. 22 June 1941, Molotov made a radio message about the beginning of the war, ending it with the words: "Our cause is just. The enemy will be defeated. Victory will be ours ". In May 1941, Molotov became Deputy Chairman of SNK Stalin, came as his deputy in Treasuries. In 1943 Molotov was given the title Hero of Socialist. Labor. He attended the Teheran (1943), Yalta and Potsdam (1945) conferences. In the early postwar years, Molotov, as head of owls. foreign policy often traveled to the United States to attend UN. As a member of the Politburo took part in the war and postwar repression: the deportation of a number of peoples of the USSR, "Leningrad case", "towards the Jewish Antifascist Committee, etc.. Was arrested and Molotov's wife - Pauline Pearl. The question of her arrest was discussed in the Politburo, in defense of his wife, Molotov did not utter a single word. In 1949 Molotov was relieved of his post of Minister of Foreign Affairs and slowly began to fall under the disgrace of Stalin, probably. Everything from the destruction of Molotov, Stalin's death saved; March 1953 - Molotov was again appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. Supported the I. S. Khrushchev's decision to arrest A. P. Beria's removal from the post of President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR gm. Malenkov. Subsequently, Molotov and Khrushchev could not find a common language. Molotov was opposed to the withdrawal of owls. troops from Austria, the normalization of relations with Yugoslavia, remained a staunch Stalinist in domestic and foreign policy. Molotov had opposed the condemnation of Stalin at the XX Party Congress in the closed report Khrushchev's "On the Personality Cult and its consequences". Freed from the responsibilities of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1956, Molotov continued to be a major figure in the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. In 1956, Molotov led the "anti-Party group" against NS. Khrushchev, but not the support of the KGB and the army, was defeated. In 1957 he was appointed ambassador to Mongolia. In 1960 - 1962, Molotov was sent to Vienna at the headquarters of owls. representation in the UN's atomic energy. Molotov, after criticism of the draft Program of the CPSU was removed from his post, expelled from the party, and was a pensioner in Moscow. In 1984, when K.U. Chernenko without declaring the party. Print Molotov was reinstated in the party. In 1986, managed to give an interview to gas. Moscow News, in a-Rum said: "I have a happy old age. I want to live to a hundred years ". Molotov buried in Novodevichy Cemetery.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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In the 1917 revolution
Molotov (cf.. Pham. Skryabin), Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (25 Feb.. 1890, Sloboda Kukarka Nolinsk y. Vyatka Province. - 8 Nov.. 1986, Moscow). From the family steward. From 1902 he studied at the Kazan, real-uch-School. Participant Revolution of 1905-07 (Kazan). Since 1906 tsp. RSDLP. Bolshevik. Since 1911 student of Petersburg. politekhnich. Inst. A member of the Bolshevik. gas. "Star", from 1912 tsp. Editorial Board of "Pravda", member. PC RODRP. Repeatedly arrested, cited, in 1916 fled from sib. Links. Co-opted members of the Rus. Bureau RSDLP (Petrograd).

After the February. Revolution of 1917 the decision Eng. Bureau RSDLP March 4 introduced to the editor of Pravda. Since March, a deputy and member of the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council RDA. At Vseros. meeting desks. workers RSDLP (b) in Petrograd (March 27 - April 2.) on the attitude to time. pr-woo left wing, headed by Molotov insisted that "time. Prospect of the first moment of its occurrence is not more than an org-tion the counter. forces. Therefore, no trust, no support for this pr-woo to be, on the contrary, it is necessary to solve the most, the struggle "(" Proletarian Revolution tion ", 1927," 4,. 154). In Article. "The party!" (Pravda, 1917, March 28) called for unity and unification "of all the roar. working under the banner of revolutionary. Social-Democracy ", pointed out that the RSDLP" must give their answers, their decision tasks ", to to-Eye took the convening of the inaugural. Coll. and the establishment of state. device, 'the question of land: the general improvement of the workers, the question of ending the war and peace. He emphasized that "separateness. working party would be of great importance for the Revolution of the case for uniting all the revolutionary democracy. org-tions, as the Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers. Deputies. Since April. Member RSDLP. Affairs. 7 th (April) Vseros. Conf. RSDLP (b) (24-29 May.) Nominated in the CC, but was not elected. Since May tsp. Executive staff. Commission RSDLP (b). Affairs. 6 th Party Congress (b) (July 26 - August 3.) From Petrograd. org-tion, at a meeting on July 31 called for to arm. Restore.: "The change in the peaceful nature of imple-tion is a turning point. Power can be obtained only by force ... Until July 3-5, the slogan "All power SovetamG meant a peaceful, painless development of the Revolution of and was a big step forward for the democracy to-paradise in this case would sever the bourgeoisie and the experience learned to dispel the illusion. In this case we could hope that the petty bourgeoisie, learning together with the proletariat state. authorities would go after him and then, finally breaking with the big bourgeoisie. But the roar-tion is not finished, tk. peasants did not receive the land and the world, and these issues are now peacefully resolve the impossible ... We really need to tell adinstv. out of this situation - the dictatorship of the proletariat and the poor cross-va "G6-J Party Congress (b), with. 136-371

During October. armament. Restore. member of the Petrograd. VRK. At the meeting of the Petersburg Committee (b) 2 Nov.. presented a report on the progress of negotiations with the Socialist. parties: from the party for us are only a Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, definitely against us Menshevik internationalists, hostile to us defensists Mensheviks and Right Socialist-Revolutionaries, Vikzhel takes a neutral stance. He proposed to end the crisis agreement. He suggested that a new pr of representatives of all Sots. parties, since drug. Socialists and ending with the Bolshevik. The sympathy of the masses Vikzhel not enjoy. During the negotiations it became clear that drug. Socialists can not even negotiate with the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks defensists and the Right Socialist-Revolutionaries do not agree on the minutes of, in a rum-will participate Bolsheviks ... All these talks was given the form that we, the Bolsheviks will not be able to retain power. Negotiations in their eyes, were of great importance. We attached importance to these negotiations only part of his comrades. From concessions to the representatives of the Central Committee did not refuse. They had nothing against that in the minutes of representatives etc.. Sots. parties, but with unfailing respect and recognition of already published the decrees and laws, subject to three conditions: 1) recognition of the decrees on land and in the world, 2) a new pr of to be responsible to the CEC, and 3) a merciless struggle against Bourges. counter-revolutionaries - Kornilov, Kerensky, Kaledin From the outset it was clear that these conditions are unacceptable to the majority of the consenting party. It was clear that we will, perhaps, the Left Socialists are internationalists "(" The first legal PCs of the Bolsheviks in 1917, M-L., 1927,. 339-40).

Elected a member of the Central Executive Committee and a member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Council RDA. On Nov.. Before 1917. CNH Petrograd. District. From 1919 to the State. and rart. work. Since 1921 secretary. RCP (b). CC VKGKb). Since 1930, before. SNK, in 1941-57 1 st Vice. prev. CNS and the USSR.

Used materials article Tourist Office. Maximova and NM. Taraneva in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993.

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. Surrounded by Stalin
. Molotov (real name Scriabin), Vyacheslav Mikhailovich (25.2.1890, Sloboda Kukarka Nolinsk County Vyatka province - 8/11/1986, Moscow), party and state leaders, an honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1946 - 59), Hero of Socialist Labor (1943)
. The son of a salesman. Education received in the Kazan Real School (1908), studied at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute (not finished). In 1906 joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. In 1909 he was arrested for revolutionary activities and sent to exile in Vologda. In 1911 released, led the party work in Moscow and St. Petersburg. In 1912-13 Secretary of the newspaper "Pravda", participated in its creation. In 1915, exiled to Irkutsk province, but in 1916 ran, a member of the Russian Bureau RSDLP. In 1917, a member of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet and the Petrograd Committee RSDLP (b). In October. 1917 members of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. In 1918, before. Council of National Economy of the Northern Region, one of the closest associates G.E. Zinoviev. Since 1919, authorized the RCP (B.) and the All in the Volga region, before. Nizhny Novgorod executive committee. Since Sept.. 1920 Secretary of the Donetsk regional committee of the RCP (B.). In 1920 a candidate member, since 1921 member of the Central. In November. 1920 - March 1921 Secretary of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine. From 16/3/1921 to 21/12/1930 Secretary of Central Committee and member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee. In 1921 was the "main" Secretary, but in 1922 the presidency passed to Stalin (at the suggestion of Zinoviev and L.B. Kamenev), who used it to create a regime of personal power. On 16.3.1921 a candidate for membership in 1/1/1926 member of the Politburo (from 1952 - the Bureau) of the Party. After the death of VI. Lenin was one of the most loyal supporters I.V. Stalin in the fight against L.D. Trotsky later - Zinoviev, Kamenev and others, and in 1928-29 - against the "Right deviation". In 1924-27 a candidate for membership, in 1929-31 a member of the Presidium of the USSR Central. In November. 1928 - April. 1929 led the Moscow party organization, which has replaced one of the leaders of the Right deviation "N.A. Ugarova. Undertook massive purge of the Party apparatus: their jobs have lost 4 of 6 head. Divisions of the City Committee, 4 of 6 secretaries of district, 99 out of 157 members of the Moscow Committee. Trustee of Stalin, Molotov had extraordinary capacity for work, for which he received in party circles the nickname "stone ass". Once Stalin had achieved final victory over their opponents in the party, 19.12.1930 Molotov was appointed to the important post in the state before. SNK and STO (in April. 1937 SRT USSR was disbanded). Continuing conflict with the People's Commissars, but in most cases was supported by Stalin. In 1930-31 during the collectivization always traveled as a state of emergency authorized in various areas. In December. 1931 and October. 1932 directed by forcing grain in the south of Ukraine, which became one of the causes of unprecedented hunger. Required the use of "special measures", toughening penalties, etc.. sanctions to the collective debtor has that responsibility for the failure to plan for the local party organs. In 1936, over M 'who tried to persuade Stalin not to make an open trial of Kamenev and Zinoviev, threatened with arrest, but he again managed to maintain their position. In 1937-58 member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. At the Plenum of the CPSU (b) (Feb.-March 1937) made a presentation on "Lessons of sabotage, . sabotage and espionage of the Japanese-German-Trotskyite agents ", . which, . including, . said: "We must fight back, . smash everywhere on the way these units infiltrators ",
. Molotov involved in the repression of all 1920 - 30-ies. When he was a member of the senior leadership of the party personally authorized the destruction of millions of peasants, "pests" and "class enemies" as well as thousands of party and government officials. Together with Stalin signed all the major decisions, as well as the hit list of senior partners and gosapparatchikov; it was he who invited to judge on the "list", rather than separately, to reduce the time. At the request of Molotov were arrested NI. Lomov, KV. Uhanov, I.D. Kabakov, etc.. 3/5/1939 succeeded MM. Litvinov's position Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR, while maintaining fast before. SNK. One reason for this appointment was Stalin's decision to strengthen the alliance with a. Hitler and Litvinov - Jew and Germanophobia - was highly inappropriate for this candidate. Launched a new purge of the apparatus of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs (NCID) - May 4 had been arrested the group closest to the Litvinov staff. 23/7/1939 NCID assembly passed a resolution in which a t.ch. stated: "During this short period of time have done a great job to rid NCID from unfit, dubious and hostile elements". Negotiated and prepared a non-aggression pact with Germany, which the report was ratified by the Molotov Supreme Soviet 31.8.1939 (the day the Wehrmacht crossed the Polish border). 28/9/1939 signed a new Nazi-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and the border, "which passed into the hands of Soviet Baltic republics in exchange for part of the territory of Poland. In the middle of Nov.. 1940 arrived in Germany for talks with Hitler, which they have been completely rejected by. Nevertheless, returning to the Soviet Union, fully supported and reasoned view of Stalin, that Germany did not begin as soon as the war against the Soviet Union, and will intensify its pressure on Western countries. In his honor were called a few cities (t.ch. Perm in 1940 was renamed Molotov), cape and peak. 6/5/1941 dismissed before. NOC's view of the repeated statements that he found it difficult to serve, along with duties as commissar, Stalin personally led the ANC, and Molotov was promoted to his deputy. After the start of the Great Patriotic War, Stalin, who was shocked by what had happened, handed Molotov right to speak to the people. 22.6.1941 at 12 am, his words sounded throughout the country: "Our cause is just. The enemy will be defeated. Victory will be ours ". During the Great Patriotic War in 1941-45 he was deputy. prev. State Defense Committee - the second man after Stalin. His duties consisted primarily negotiated with the countries of the coalition, traveled to Britain and the U.S. to conclude a military treaty. At the front, Molotov almost did not go only in October. 1941 during the catastrophe of Vyazma sent in the troops (but the main decisions are accompanying him п-.п°. Wasilewski). SNK has signed a decree on the production of Molotov cocktails, which was unofficially called the "Molotov cocktail. 16/8/1942 promoted to the rank of 1 st Vice. prev. SNK. He accompanied Stalin at Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam conferences. According to the memoirs NS. Khrushchev, "about him always said it - cudgel Stalin". 19/3/1946 at reorganization of CNS in the Council of Ministers, Molotov lost post 1-st deputy becoming a simple vice. prev. Council of Ministers of the USSR. He participated in the sessions of the United Nations and because of his intransigence, as well as frequent use of veto power was in the diplomatic circles, the nickname "Mr No". Every year the post-war influence of Molotov continuously decreased, apparently, he decided to get rid of their long-standing close by replacing them with new ones promoted by. In 1945, Stalin was almost severed relations with Molotov, and he repented, asked forgiveness, crying. In addition, the cooling of the leader to Molotov shows the arrest of the wife of Molotov - P.S. The pearl, the vote on its fate in the Politburo Molotov refrained. 4/3/1949 replaced as Minister of Foreign Affairs AY. Vishinsky, but still on the deputy chair. In October. 1952 Molotov though he was elected to the Presidium of the CC, but was not included in the composition of its governing bureau. After Stalin's death in the "inheritance" between the top leaders of the Party 5/3/1953 Molotov went to the post 1 st Vice. prev. USSR Council of Ministers and Minister of Foreign Affairs. At the memorial meeting, said: "The whole life of Comrade Stalin, illuminated by the light of great ideas, inspiring fighter for communism ...". Supported the NS. Khrushchev against L.P. Beria, agreeing to his arrest. He tried to resist the growing influence of Khrushchev in the party, but was defeated. Opposed normalizing relations with Yugoslavia and other changes in foreign policy, and its position was subjected to severe criticism at the plenum of the Central Committee, tried to oppose Khrushchev expanded the rehabilitation of victims of the cult of personality. In March 1956 in Tbilisi hosted a series of demonstrations under the slogan "Down with Khrushchev!" and "Molotov - led by the CPSU, the demonstrations were dispersed by army. 1/5/1956 Molotov pretext of irregular Yugoslav politicians dismissed minister, but in Nov.. in compensation, was appointed minister of state control of the USSR. Joining together with LM. Kaganovich, gm. Malenkov, Molotov, Khrushchev worried expanded campaign of de-Stalinization of society, and fearing exposure of their own crimes, he began to attempt to return to the old politics and Khrushchev. At the meeting of the Presidium of the CC they were against Khrushchev and received the support of most members of the Party's highest body. They were joined K.E. Voroshilov, N.A. Bulganin, MG. Pervukhin, MZ. Saburov D.T. Shepilov. But supporters of Khrushchev were able to quickly assemble a Central Committee plenum, at which "anti-Party group" defeated. 29.6.1957 was withdrawn positions 1 st Vice. prev. Council of Ministers and the Minister, "for belonging to the anti-Party group", from the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee and. In 1957 appointed Ambassador to Mongolia. Since 1960, the Permanent Representative of the USSR in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Opposed the new edition of the CPSU Program, which was discussed at the XXII Congress (1961). In 1962, fired on pension. In Feb.. 1962 expelled from the party office of the Sverdlovsk regional committee of the CPSU (Moscow) for "anti-Party factional activities and active participation in mass repression". After coming to power K.U. Chernenko in July 1984 on his personal approval of the restored Communist Party - the only one of all "anti-party group". Until his death, was absolutely convinced of the correctness of Stalin's actions, arguing that Tukhachevsky preparing a military conspiracy that "in 1937 has allowed us to eliminate a" fifth column "during the war". Always different thrift and foresight. When, after his death revealed his will, there was savings book with 500 rubles to the funeral. His daughter, Svetlana (1929-1989) - married NKVD Nikonov Aleksey Dmitrievich (1917-1992), who later served as editor of "Communist".

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