Zakhar Chernyshev( Field-Marshal)
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Biography Zakhar Chernyshev
Zakhar Chernyshev 1722-1784 General-Field Marshal. General Chernyshev entered the military history of Russia as the conqueror of Berlin, the capital of Prussia, and this happened when in Europe brilliant army of the Prussian king Frederick II the Great. However, a resounding success Chernysheva was lucky, prepared by the actions of the entire Russian army in the Seven Years' War.
Zakhar Chernyshev was the third son-in-Chief General Grigory Petrovich, who advanced when Peter 1. His father is a difference in the war with Sweden received an award from Peter's two portraits of the king, adorned with diamonds; later became a knight of the Order of St. Andrew, a senator and count. Peter 1 knew the mother and Zakhar Chernyshev - Evdokia Ivanovna, which he said: "Avdotya - virago". It comes from a noble family, Chernyshev, Jr. at 13 years was recorded in the Guard, to 1741, Mr.. promoted to captain. The following year he was sent in the embassy in Vienna, which contributed to its cultural improvement.
. Returning to Russia in three years, . Zakhar was assigned to the bedchamber (with the rank of Army colonel) to the heir to the throne of Peter Fedorovich, . enjoyed the location and the confidence of his wife Catherine Alekseevny, . future Catherine II,
. Latest flattering attentions of a young noble Earl, and she even share with him "polite little notes". In 1745, Mr.. Zakhar traveled to Frankfurt in the Imperial Diet to protect the interests of Peter Fedorovich as Duke of Schleswig-Holstein.
Empress Elizabeth of Russia, considering the courtly service graph prolonged, decided to return it to the army. In 1748, Mr.. Chernyshev as commander of the St. Petersburg Infantry Regiment participated in the march of the Russian army on the Rhine during the War of Austrian Succession. In 1750, Mr.. Zakhar became a Major General. In 1757 - 1758 gg., During the Seven Years' War, he was in the army allies - the Austrians, was present at Kollinskoy battle ended with the victory of the Austrian Field Marshal Down over the Prussians. Elizabeth made Chernysheva in lieutenant-general and awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky. These awards he lived, fighting with the Prussians already in the Russian army. In the bloody battle of Zorndorf (August 1758), Zakhar commanded a corps of Grenadiers on the right flank of the Russian troops. Several times he led the Grenadiers to attack, then, in the most difficult moments of battle, did not allow disorder case. The losses in killed and wounded in the battle were high on both sides. Captured by the Prussians, by stechenik) circumstances were Russian generals Chernyshev and I. Saltykov, who returned to his troops after exchange of prisoners.
. In September 1760, when the main forces of the Russian and Prussian armies faced each other in Silesia, Chief P. Saltykov sent housing Chernysheva to Berlin
. Assessing the situation, . Zakhar wrote in the journal of military action: "The enemy, . gathered from all sides and with so great haste to secure the capital city and forming an army of about 2000 people and more, . shalt not leave the victim, . but in whatever was to the utmost to defend and protect the city will ",
. Housing Chernysheva was reinforced squad Panina, on the left bank of the Spree attack corps is ready to support the cavalry Totleben. Zakhar reported to the commander in chief: "You can not quite describe, with. a sort of impatience and greed still awaiting troops attack; win every face was indicated ... "
Sturm in Berlin, however, not required. The Prince of Wurttemberg, which Frederick II entrusted the defense of the city, decided to keep the Prussian capital of the assault and led his troops to Spandau. He preferred to give notice of its surrender not Chernysheva, and Totleben, which greatly hurt the feelings of Zakhar and have brought suspicion on Totleben in collusion with the Prussians. Occupy Berlin, Chernyshev seized various military trophies, including artillery, leaving intact the property of the inhabitants, he made the city a contribution of 50 thousand thalers. Upon receiving information that the city moved to the main forces of Frederick II, the Russian corps had left Berlin in the direction of Frankfurt.
. The capture of Berlin in the military sense is not an especially successful, but he had great political resonance
. All European capitals quickly spread through the phrase, pointedly delivered Count Shuvalov, a favorite of Elizabeth: "From Berlin to St. Petersburg not reach, but from St. Petersburg to Berlin to get it is always possible."
. The death of Elizabeth, Peter III, the new monarch ended the war, came from Prussia in alliance, he appointed the commander of Russian forces Chernyshov, attached to the Prussian army
. Changes that have occurred not only marveled Zakhar, but many other Russian generals. After the forcible removal from power "Prussian" the king and ascended the throne of Catherine II, many military leaders have been bestowed by the Empress awards. Not neglected and the conqueror of Berlin: he was elevated to commander in chief, but on the day of the coronation of the Empress was awarded the highest Order of Russia empire - the Order of St. Andrew. Zakhar was the supreme solemn rite of the coronation ceremonies.
From 1763, Mr.. Chernyshev, Acting Vice-President of the Military Collegium and in this field has done a lot, contributing to a better administrative and economic management of the Russian army in the wars with Turkey and Poland. He managed to achieve a series of measures, . strengthened centralism in the military government: the adoption of new states of the Military Collegium, . main office of artillery and fortifications, . commissariat management agencies, with the Military Collegium of established printing,
. Been issued regulations, instructions, and headquarters for the regiment. The most important event was the formation of the General Staff, and Zakhar was charged directly that agency higher superintendence. In 1772, Mr.. accepted a new position of general staff, increase his power.
In 1773, Mr.. Chernyshev was promoted to General Field Marshal and appointed president of the Military Collegium, in charge of all administrative and economic affairs of the army. However, in the next year of operation favorite Catherine Grigory Potemkin, who became vice-president of the Military Collegium, actually took its management into their own hands. After a series of quarrels with Potemkin Count Chernyshev received a new designation - the post of Governor-General of Belarus, has just connected to Russia following the first partition of Poland. Humbled pride, Zakhar zealously took up a new business, with the aim to link Belarus strong ties with Russia, to raise in her industry and commerce. He cared about the military capacity and economic development of the region, holding a road, established Mogilev and Pskov governorship. Already in 1780, Mr.. Catherine, passing on Belarus, said Marshal: "If I had not seen such a device in Belarus, then nobody would have believed, and your road, as gardens.
. The same concern for the ordering of life and living of the population showed Chernyshev and in Moscow, where he was appointed Governor-General on Feb. 5, 1782, Mr.
. In the same year he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of degree 1 (the day of establishment of the Order). Prior to his death (August 29, 1784) Field Marshal managed to transform the management of the ancient capital, to Moscow to decorate the new buildings.
. In the glory of "the conqueror of Berlin" on Chernyshov preserved the memory as a solid and selfless Russian magnate
. According to contemporaries, he was a "reasonable and educated by the administrator, but stern and demanding, all trembled before him. His sullenness and inaccessibility alternated good spirits just at the sight of people, "useful for his work". Chernyshev was an honorary member of the Russia Academy of Sciences.
Modestly assessing their activities, Zakhar preferred to celebrate the achievements of other. This is evidenced, for example, an episode. "What's new?" - He asked one of his friend. - "We hear that Prince Repnin gave the Order of St. Andrew". - Dali? - Asked Chernyshev. - I gave him and you can give, and he took him Repnin ". That he paid tribute to the persistent state and military works NV Repnin.
Chernyshev married (since 1762) with Anna Rodionovna Veydel, who was 12 years younger than him and surviving spouses at age 46. Children they had not.
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