Mikhail Miloradovic( military leader)
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Biography Mikhail Miloradovic
Miloradovich Mikhail (1771, -1825 St. Petersburg, ibid) - Military leader. Place of the Herzegovina kind, under Peter I had moved to Russia. Received a superficial education in the German un-max, anywhere, not only without going through the full course, but seriously do not learn foreign languages. Since childhood recorded in the army, Miloradovich began his military career during the Russian-Swedish War of 1788-1790 and 1796 became a captain. Executive functionary, Miloradovich under Paul I was promoted to major general. In 1799 he participated in the Italian and Swiss campaign AV. Suvorov, showing resourcefulness and courage. From Suvorov Miloradovich picked enterprising, daring, ability to earn the love of soldiers. In 1805, a brigade commander and repeatedly distinguished himself in battles with the French. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812 proved himself as an active, honest and brave commander. In 1806 Miloradovich released Bucharest, at the fortress Obileshti with 7 thousand. soldiers went to 12 thousand. Turkish vanguard and in bayonet fighting forced the enemy to retreat, earning for it the diamond sword with the inscription: "For courage and salvation of Bucharest". In 1809 Miloradovich became a general of infantry. In the Patriotic War of 1812 was engaged in the formation of reserve troops, with the f-eq joined the main forces of the Russian. Army. In the battle of Borodino commanded the right wing of the 1 st Army. Appointed MI. Kutuzov head rearguard and provided departure rus. Army Tarutine. When the MI. Kutuzov's command of the vanguard, becoming one of the favorite commanders, the idol of the soldiers and a folk hero. During foreign campaign rus. Army in 1813-1814 participated in the most dangerous battles and was awarded the title of Count Alexander I and the Order of St. Andrew. From 1818 was military governor of St. Petersburg. After Alexander's death, 1 in 1825 Miloradovich became one of the main actors in the interregnum. Not wanting to Nicholas 1 took. throne, and knowing that "someone 60 000 men in his pocket, he may speak boldly," Miloradovich demanded and obtained oath Konstanpshnu Pavlovich. When the latter refused to rule, needed oath-swearing Nicholas I, incomprehensible to the people. This situation benefited Decembrists. December 14. 1825 Miloradovich appeared at the Senate Square, trying to convince soldiers to stop a rebellion, and was mortally wounded by a bullet PG. Kahovsky.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Mikhail Miloradovich 1771 -1825 - General of Infantry. Glorious war general Miloradovich always remained an example of selfless service to Russia, and his sudden death at the hands of Decembrists became bitter reproach the Russians for infighting. Mikhail came from a Serbian family, settled in Russia under Peter the Great 1. His father was a member of the Russian-Turkish wars of Catherine's time, attained the rank of lieutenant-general and governor posts in the Ukraine, then known as the Ukraine. His son Michael in addition to home education had an opportunity to learn abroad, where he attended classes at several universities and military schools. Even as a child Miloradovitch was enrolled in the Life Guards regiment Izmailovskiy in its ranks, he began his military career, participated in the Russian-Swedish war of 1788 - 1790 gg., In 1796, Mr.. already held the rank of captain. Alex was dashing and chief executive officer safely survived the parade, parade and drill testing in the reign of Paul, 1 in
1798. became a Major General and commander of the Absheron musketeer regiment.
Important role in the formation Miloradovich as a combat commander was his participation in the Italian and Swiss campaign Suvorov in 1799. At the beginning of the Italian campaign of the regiment commander Absheron showed resourcefulness, agility, and contempt for death in battle of Lecco, and Suvorov brought him in, did their duty, General. Miloradovich learned Suvorovian boldness, enterprise and good attitude toward the soldier, who later brought him popularity and fame. In the battle of Novi troops under the command of Bagration Miloradovich and made a decisive contribution to victory, defeating the French part of the defensive in the center position. Shock detachment Miloradovich predestined defeat of French troops defending Lake Ober-Alpes approaches to the Gotthard Pass.
On the march through the Gothard related a curious incident. In descending a steep hill into the valley occupied by the French soldiers Miloradovich ranged. Seeing this, Mikhail exclaimed: "Look, take a prisoner of your general!" - And rolled on his back with a cliff. The soldiers, who loved their commander, happily followed him.
Took active part Mikhail and in the battle for the Alps, facilitating the exit of the army of Suvorov environment. For trips
1799. He was awarded the Order of St Anne's 1-st degree, St. Alexander Nevsky and the Order of Malta.
During the Russian-Austrian-French War 1805. Miloradovich commanded a brigade in the army Kutuzov. During the retreat of the Russian army from Braunau, he distinguished himself in hot battle with the French in Amstetten and the battle of Krems. In the latter he was given a frontal attack on the enemy positions, for courage and valor in battle, which lasted all day, he was awarded the Order of St. George the 3rd degree and the rank of lieutenant general.
. Always elegantly dressed and elegantly dressed, Mikhail the bullets could calmly lights his pipe, correct orders and joke
. Surrendering music contest, he always managed to rouse the troops by example, the first to sit on the horse and get down to his last, when all were arranged on vacation.
. In 1806, with the beginning of Russian-Turkish war, Miloradovich headed Corps crossed the Dniester, in the Danubian principalities came and, taking Bucharest, Wallachia saved from ruin
. Continuing to operate as part of the Moldavian army I. Michelson, distinguished himself in Turbat and Obileshti, was awarded a gold sword with the inscription: "For courage and salvation of Bucharest". In 1809, Mr.. for the battle of Rassevate Mikhail was promoted to general of infantry, becoming at 38 years of full general. He then engaged in administrative activities, performing office Governor-General in Kiev.
Since the beginning of the war of 1812, Mr.. Miloradovich was entrusted the formation of reserve and reserve troops in the region of Kaluga - Volokolamsk - Moscow. August 18 he was 15-thousandths of reinforcements joined the main army at Gjatsk. In the battle of Borodino Mikhail, acting in the 1 st Army Barclay de Tolly, commanded three infantry corps on the right flank and successfully repelled all attacks of the French troops. August 28, two days after Borodino, Kutuzov was appointed his chief of the rearguard of the Russian army, and from that day the valiant general was the guardian of the army, and if needed - an edge.
. The commander of the Russian rearguard managed to wrest consent from the Marshal Murat, who had led the vanguard of the French troops, on the smooth progress of the Russian Army in Moscow
. "Otherwise, - said Miloradovich Murat - I'll fight for every house and street, and leave you to Moscow in ruins". The transition of Russian troops at the old Kaluga road rearguard Miloradovich his energetic attacks on the enemy, unexpected and clever movement provided covert conduct this strategic maneuver. In the hot battles and skirmishes he repeatedly forced to retreat rushing ahead of the French.
. When the Corps of Maloyaroslavets Dokhturov Rajewski and blocked the path of the French army in Kaluga, Miloradovich from Tarutine made such a rapid march to their assistance that Kutuzov called it a "winged"
. Napoleon after the failure of Maloyaroslavets was forced to retreat along the Smolensk road, and Kutuzov ordered an immediate pursuit of the enemy, Mikhail Andreyevich. In the battle of Vyazma (28 October) with the support of the vanguard Miloradovich Cossack Platov's detachment defeated four French corps, and took the city. On the shoulders of the French he mastered Dorogobuzh, and then distinguished himself in the battle of red, forcing French troops to turn in the lanes to the Dnieper. In Vilna (Vilnius) 1 Alexander personally handed the brave general diamond signs the Order of St. George's 2 nd degree. On behalf of the king Miloradovich was sent to occupy the Duchy of Warsaw, where he managed almost bloodless oust the Austrians and occupied Warsaw. Patriotic War of 1812. made a name Miloradovich extremely popular and famous.
His military glory Mikhail did not drop in foreign campaigns of the Russian Army 1813 - 1814 he. After Lyuttsenskogo battle (April 1813) he spent three weeks covered the retreat of Russian-Prussian troops without allowing Napoleon to exploit success. In the battle Bautsenskom Miloradovich steadfastly stood on the left flank all the attacks of the French troops and more than once he passed in counterattack, delighting overseeing the battle Alexander 1. Under the command of Barclay de Tolly valiant general successfully acted in the famous battle of Kulm (August 1813), where the allied Russian and Austrian troops surrounded and defeated the French corps Van Dame.
. After Leirtsigskoy "Battle of peoples", in which Mikhail Andreyevich was entrusted with command of the Russian Guards, Alexander 1 have made it to the Count's dignity
. The motto of his coat of arms Miloradovich elected: "Integrity supports me". In addition, the king gave him permission to wear a soldier's St. George's award - a silver cross on the St. George's Ribbon, saying: "Wear it, you - each soldier". In 1814, Mr.. Miloradovich commanded the Guards and Grenadier Corps, participated in the battles of Arcis-sur-Aube, Brienne, Fere-Champenoise, and Paris.
After returning to Russia led by a color graph Miloradovich Army - Guard, and in 1818, Mr.. was appointed to the post of governor-general of St. Petersburg. Knowing for myself only one decent employment - a war he did not meet the mayor from office. Only when all sorts of accidents, especially during floods, the general saw to use creative, bold and energetic. Affordable and condescending, he tried in all cases to respect justice and humanity. Treat their merits in peacetime skeptical, Michael A. King wrote: "I ask your Majesty does not reward me ... Give me the tape to beg other than to receive them, sitting by the fireplace.
The revolt of the Decembrists in 1825, Mr.. turned to Miloradovich trouble. Of the two possible successors of the deceased Alexander 1 - Constantine Pavlovich, and Nicholas, he preferred to Constantine, which even in 1799. participated in Suvorov's campaigns. Perhaps that is why the Governor-General of the capital did not take vigorous measures to prevent the mutiny on the Senate Square. Arriving on December 14 in the Horse Guards Regiment, the chief of which was Constantine, Miloradovich not want to lead them against the insurgents, sparing Russian blood. "I will go myself," - he said, and galloped on the Senate Square. There, he raised himself on his stirrups, and picking up the golden sword, turned to the soldiers: "Tell me, who among you was with me at Kulm, Liitzen, Bautzen?" Silence has become an area. "Thank God, - exclaimed Miloradovich - there is no single Russian soldier!" In the ranks of the rebels there has been confusion, and then sounded the fatal shooting of a retired lieutenant Kahovsky: mortally wounded the general toppled from his horse in the snow.
. When Mikhail died in the barracks Horse Guards regiment and saw the bullet extracted from his body, he said with relief: "Thank God, it bullet rifle, not a soldier"
. At 3 am on 15 th December, he was not. Nearly three decades Miloradovich was in the military campaigns and battles, countless times in danger, but survived. Death in the middle of the capital from the hands of compatriot became a reproach to Russia.
Mikhail had an open, generally cheerful, sincere, direct character. He was not married, but had many friends, his extravagance and generosity knew no bounds. "I do not know what interest to live without debt" - joked General. After his death, sold the estate was barely enough to cover the debts.