KUTUZOV Michael Illarionovich( Serene Highness the Prince of Smolensk, a Russian commander, General-Field Marshal)
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Biography KUTUZOV Michael Illarionovich
Kutuzov (Golenishchev-Kutuzov) Michael Illarionovich (1745-1813) Most Serene Highness the Prince of Smolensk (1812), Russian commander, General-Field Marshal (1812). Student A. V. Suvorov. Member of the Russian-Turkish wars of the XVIII century., Distinguished himself in the storming of Izmail. In the Russian-Austrian-French war of 1805 commanded the Russian army in Austria, and skillful maneuver brought them from under the threat environment. In the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-12 chief of the Moldavian Army (1811-12), scored a victory at Rushukom and Slobozia, concluded the Treaty of Bucharest. In the Patriotic War of 1812 the Russian army (August), defeated Napoleon's army. In January 1813 the army under the command of Kutuzov to transcend the West. Europe.
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Place from an old noble family. His father and. M. Golenishchev-Kutuzov had reached the rank of lieutenant-general and the title of Senator. Received an excellent education at home, . 12-year-old Michael after passing the exam in 1759 was appointed a corporal in the United artillery and engineer aristocratic school, 1761 was the first officer's rank, . and in 1762 as a captain was appointed company commander of Astrakhan Infantry Regiment, . headed by Colonel AV,
. Suvorov. Rapid career minor Kutuzov can be explained as a good education, and worries his father. In 1764-1765 he took part in the para military clashes of the Russian troops in Poland, and in 1767 he was assigned to the commission for drafting a new Code, established by Catherine II.
School of military skill was his participation in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, where he initially served as a divisional quartermaster in the army, General P. A. Rumyantsev and was in the battles at the Tomb of pockmarked, p. Largo, Cahul and the assault Bender. In 1772 fought in the Crimean army. July 24, 1774 in the liquidation of Turkish troops near Alushta Kutuzov, commander of the Grenadier battalion, was seriously wounded - a bullet through his left temple came from the right eye. Obtained for the completion of treatment leave Kutuzov used to travel abroad in 1776 went to Berlin and Vienna, visited England, Holland, Italy. Upon return to operation commanded various regiments, and in 1785 became commander Bug chasseur corps. From 1777 he was a colonel in 1784 - Major General.
During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 during the siege of Ochakov (1788), Kutuzov was again dangerously wounded - a bullet went right through him from the temple in the temple behind both eyes ". Surgeon who treated him Massot, commented on his wound: "He must believe that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, deaths by all the rules of medical science". In early 1789 he took part in the Battle of Causeni and in the capture of fortresses Ackerman and Bender. During the storming of Izmail in 1790, Suvorov instructed him to command one of the columns and, without waiting for the capture of the fortress, has appointed the first commander. During this assault Kutuzov received the rank of lieutenant-general.
Diplomat, soldier, courtier
At the conclusion of Jassy World Kutuzov suddenly he was appointed ambassador to Turkey. Stopping it their choice, the Empress took into account his broad outlook, subtle mind, a rare tact and ability to find common language with different people and their instinctive cunning. In Istanbul, Kutuzov was able to gain the confidence of the sultan, and has successfully led the large number of embassies in 650 people. Upon his return to Russia in 1794 was appointed director of the nobility Infantry Cadet Corps. When Emperor Paul I, he was appointed to key positions (inspector of troops in Finland, . commander of the expeditionary corps, . sent to Holland, . Lithuanian military governor, . Commander of the Army in Volhynia), . instruct the responsible diplomatic assignments,
Kutuzov under Alexander I
At the beginning of the reign of Alexander I, Kutuzov was appointed military governor of St. Petersburg, but was soon sent on leave. In 1805 he was appointed commander of the troops operating in Austria against Napoleon. He managed to save the army from the threat environment, but Alexander I, who came under the influence of young advisers insisted on holding a general engagement. Kutuzov objected, but was unable to defend his opinions, and at Austerlitz Russian-Austrian army suffered a crushing defeat. Ctav in 1811 the Moldovan army chief, . operating against the Turks, . Kutuzov was able to rehabilitate himself - not only defeated them under Ruschukom (now Ruse, . Bulgaria), . but, . showing his outstanding diplomatic skills, . signed in 1812 profitable for Russia Treaty of Bucharest,
. Not fond of the commander emperor awarded him the title of Count (1811), and then elevated to the dignity of His Serene Highness Prince (1812).
At the beginning of the 1812 campaign against the French Kutuzov was in St. Petersburg on a side as commander of the Corps of Narva, and then the Petersburg militia. Only when a quarrel in a general environment have reached a critical point, he was appointed commander of all the armies operating against Napoleon (8 August). Kutuzov was forced to continue to retreat strategy. But, behind the requirements of the army and society, gave battle at Borodino (promoted to General Field Marshal) and the military council at Fili took a difficult decision to leave Moscow. Russian troops, carrying flanking maneuver to the south, stopped at d. Tarutine. Kutuzov himself was sharply criticized by a number of senior military commanders.
After waiting for departure of French troops from Moscow, Kutuzov accurately identified the direction of their movements and block their path in Maloyaroslavets. Organized then parallel pursuit the retreating enemy resulted in the virtual death of the French Army, . Although critics accused the army chief of passivity and the desire to build Napoleon 'golden bridge' to exit from Russia,
In 1813 he led the allied Russian-Prussian army. The pre-tension forces, colds and 'nervous fever, complicated by paralytic phenomena', led to his death 16 (28) April. His embalmed body was transported to St. Petersburg and buried in the Kazan Cathedral
. FROM RUSSIA TO THE ANCIENT EMPIRE ROSSIYSKOY
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. Kutuzov (Golenishchev-Kutuzov) Michael Illarionovich (1745, St. Petersburg - 1813, Buntslau, Saxony) --general
. Place of an old noble family, his father was a prominent military engineer. In 1757, Kutuzov acted in an engineering school, where, along with military discipline he studied academic subjects, listened to lectures M.V. University, seized four foreign languages (and later learned two more). In 1759 he graduated from the course ahead of Kutuzov was left for teaching. In 1761, Kutuzov was promoted to the rank of ensign and commanded a company of the Astrakhan regiment was then appointed adjutant to the governor of Revel, in 1764 transferred to Poland, where he received a baptism of fire in the battle against the Polish Confederates. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - -1774 Kutuzov distinguished himself as a brave and capable staff and field officer, in a battle near Alushta was seriously wounded in the temple and right eye: After the war, visited for medical care and continuing education Prussia, . Austria, . Holland, . Italy, . England,
. In 1777, returning to Russia, Kutuzov was. appointed commander in the Crimea at the beginning of AV. Suvorov and was an excellent school of education and training of troops. In 1784 at the request of Suvorov, Kutuzov was Major General. In 1781 - 1791 participated in the Russian-Turkish war, was seriously injured, stormed Ochakov, distinguished himself in the storming of Izmail. Introducing him to the award, Suvorov wrote: "General Kutuzov walked with me on the left wing, but it was his right by my hand". In the battle at Machц-n Kutuzov defeated the superior forces of the enemy, showing the quality of the brilliant tactics. One of the most famous and recognized by Russian generals. army, Kutuzov in 1793 - 1794 by order of Catherine II was in the diplomatic service in Turkey, which has made foreign policy and trade benefits for Russia. Kutuzov wrote to his wife: "Diplomatic Careers no matter how mischievously, but, by God, not so surprising, as the military, if it must do both". In 1794 Kutuzov returned to St. Petersburg and was appointed Director of Infantry Cadet Corps, which did much to train officers in Russian. army, while performing duties of commander in Finland. In 1797 Paul I Kutuzov sent to Berlin to prevent Prussia's rapprochement with France. After the murder of Paul I, Kutuzov for a short time was appointed to St. Petersburg, the military governor, but then dismissed from the army for a "health" and went to his estate in Ukraine. In 1805, Kutuzov was appointed commander of Russian. Army aiming to help Austria, waging a defensive war against Napoleon. Offers Kutuzov to change the nature of war had not been taken, and, despite his objections, the allies agreed to the general Battlefield, which ended with an unconditional victory for the French: Kutuzov managed to retain part of Russian. Troops from the final defeat, which did not save him from the disgrace of Alexander I. Kutuzov was appointed military governor of Kiev, and then the Lithuanian-Governor-General. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1806 - 1812 Kutuzov led Russian. army in Bucharest (1811). After defeating the Turkish army under Ruschukom, Kutuzov wrote: "The victory left completely on our side, and the troops under the command of my standing in this day crowned a new imperishable laurels". K, managed to sign a lucrative contract for Russia to Turkey, just a month before the invasion of Napoleon. Kutuzov again proved himself the able military commander and a skilled diplomat, and Alexander 1, disliking Kutuzov, awarded him the title of prince. Since the beginning of the war of 1812, Kutuzov was elected head of the Nobles' Petersburg and Moscow. militias to-rye played an important role. Alexander 1, contrary to his wishes, approved the decision of the Emergency Committee, and signed a decree on the appointment of Kutuzov commander in chief. In August. 1812 Kutuzov arrived in the army with universal rejoicing. Continuing the tactics of retreat Birklaya de Tolly and Kutuzov gave battle at Borodino, caused the irreparable loss of the French Army. Kutuzov was elevated to the rank of Field Marshal. After passing Napoleon to Moscow without a battle, Kutuzov retreated from Moscow to the south-east along the Ryazan road, and then secretly crossed the Kaluga road, and stood up camp in an area with. Tarutino. As a result of this maneuver the strategic environment has changed in favor of Russian. Army. Kutuzov had prepared a counterattack and, . resting at Tarutino, . with the support of an expanding guerrilla movement led Napoleon's retreat from Moscow by the French plundered the Smolensk road: "I could be proud of, . I first general, . to whom the haughty Napoleon escapes ", . - Wrote Kutuzov at the end of December,
. 1812 Kutuzov reported in St. Petersburg: "The war ended in complete destruction of the enemy". Kutuzov developed a plan overseas trips rus. Army, to "complete defeat of the enemy on his own fields, but did not manage to make it a reality. Taking Berlin, Hamburg and crossed the Elbe, Kutuzov went to the Leipzig area, where Napoleon's troops were concentrated. Caught cold on the way, Kutuzov fell ill and died. His body was embalmed and sent to St. Petersburg for burial. In 1831, in St. Petersburg on the draft B.I. Orlovsky front of the colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral was built majestic monument to Kutuzov. According to A. S. Pushkin, "Kutuzov alone was vested in the people's power of attorney, which is so wonderful, he lived!"
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Mikhail Kutuzov Illarionovich 1745-1813 Field-Marshal. The victory in the war of 1812, to crush Napoleon's army and its expulsion from Russia forever immortalized the name of Kutuzov. He went to school Rumyantsev and Suvorov, taken over from them invincible military and patriotic spirit, but as a general had his own, unique face. His strategy was based on the art of defensive war, achieving victory through the battles and operations, stretched in time and space, but united by a common idea. Along with samples of the bold leadership of the troops on the battlefield, he gave a priceless example of an organizer of military victory, the implementation of large-scale military leadership plans. But his path to victory was far from straightforward.
Mikhail Kutuzov (Golenishchev-Kutuzov), born in a noble family, which had ancestral roots in the Novgorod land. His father, a military engineer, lieutenant-general and senator, had a great influence on the education and upbringing of her son. Since childhood, Kutuzov was gifted with a strong addition, combining curiosity, enterprise and playfulness with thoughtfulness and good heart. Military education in the artillery and engineering school, graduating in 1759, Mr.. among the best, was left with the school teacher. In 1761, Mr.. promoted to first officer rank (lieutenant), and at his own request sent to a company commander in the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment. Due to the excellent knowledge of languages (German, French, and later Polish, Swedish and Turkish) in 1762, Mr.. was appointed adjutant to the governor-general Revel. In 1764 - 1765 he. served in Poland in the Army NG Repnin. In 1767, Mr.. recruited to work in the "Commission on the drafting of Law Code," in 1769. again served in Poland.
Since 1770, the period of major events of Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774. Kutuzov was sent to the 1-S. Danube army Rumyantsev. Post combatant and a staff officer, he participated in the battles, which constituted the pride of Russian arms - at the Tomb of pockmarked, Largo and Cahul; at Larga commanded a battalion of grenadiers, Cahul have acted in the vanguard of the right wing. During the battle of the year 1770 promoted to majors. Chief of Staff Corps distinguished themselves in battle with Popesti (1771), granted the rank of lieutenant colonel.
In 1772, Mr.. because of the manifestations of good-tempered (sometimes imitated gait and speech chiefs, including the commander), Kutuzov was sent Rumyantsev in 2-w, the Crimean army VDolgorukova. Since that time, Michael Illarionovich has changed dramatically, learning to completely control his behavior and the expression of thoughts. In 1774, Mr.. in a battle with Krymchaks near Alushta it with a banner in his hand, leading the troops into battle in pursuit of the enemy was severely wounded: bullet entered below the left temple and came out near the right eye. Michael Illarionovich was awarded the Order of St. George's 4-th degree, and sent by Catherine II for treatment abroad. Recovering, at the same time acquainted with the experience of military affairs in Austria and Prussia, had a conversation with Frederick II the Great.
In 1776, after returning to Russia, Kutuzov was sent by the empress to the Crimea to help Suvorov, ensured over the order. Win their confidence implementation of responsible tasks; to submit Suvorov was promoted to colonel (1777), and later Brigadier (1782). In 1784, Mr.. on behalf of G. Potemkin negotiated with Crimea-Girei, recent Crimean khan, to persuade him to abdicate and to recognize Russia's right to land from the Bug to the Kuban, for it granted the rank of Major-General. Starting next year, Michael Illarionovich commanded them also formed Bug chasseur Corps, directing his training, worked for rangers new tactics and presented them in the special instructions. In 1787, Mr.. awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd degree.
At the beginning of Russian-Turkish war of 1787 - 1791 he. Kutuzov, with his corps guarded the south-western borders of Russia on the Bug. As part Ekaterinoslav Potemkin's army, he took part in the siege of Ochakov (1788). Here, at the time of reflection attacks of the Turks, was again badly wounded (shot in the cheek and went into the back of the head). When he recovered, a doctor who treated him, said: "Apparently, Providence maintains this man for something unusual, because he was healed from two wounds, each of which was fatal". The following year, commanding a separate body, Kutuzov successfully fought under Ackermann Causeni, participated in the capture of Potemkin Bender, received new awards.
In November 1790, Mr.. Kutuzov, Suvorov joined forces besieging Ismail. At the storming of this formidable fortress, he led the 6-th column. "General Kutuzov walked with me on the left wing - said Suvorov, - but it was my right hand". At one point, when the success of the assault seemed doubtful, the messenger of Suvorov said Michael Illarionovich that he was appointed commandant of Ishmael. Realizing what he calls the commander Kutuzov in the first burst into the fortress. For Ishmael, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general and awarded the Order of St. George the 3rd degree.
Repulsed the attempts of the Turks to regain Ishmael, he in June 1791. surprise attack routed the 23 thousandth Turkish troops in Babadag. Acting in the Army NG Repnin soon distinguished himself in the Battle of Machin, inflicting a decisive blow to the flank. He was awarded the Order of St. George's 2 nd degree. Then the third time, was sent to Poland for action against the rebels.
In 1792, Mr.. Catherine, trusting perceptive and flexible mind Kutuzov sent his ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to Turkey. There he gained great confidence in the Turkish court and could decide in favor of Russia a number of important diplomatic issues. In 1794, Mr.. Michael Illarionovich was appointed Director of Infantry Cadet Corps, has proved a wise mentor and educator, he often lectured on tactics and military history.
Since 1795, Mr.. Kutuzov was the commander and inspector of troops in Finland. Board (1796 - 1801 gg.) Restless and wayward Paul 1 it does not hurt. In it, he successfully managed the two-month diplomatic mission to Prussia, the post of governor-general of Lithuania, was promoted to general of infantry, was awarded the Order of St. Andrew.
. With accession to the throne Alexander 1 Kutuzov was appointed to the post of St. Petersburg governor-general
. Unable to find understanding with the young emperor, he was in 1802, Mr.. resigned and left the village. But his rest was short-lived: in August 1805. He was appointed commander of the Russian army is designed to assist Austria in the war with Napoleon. Barely in bounds Austria, Kutuzov's army because of the surrender of the Austrians at Ulm proved to be face to face with more than twice its French army. From October 13 to November 10, Kutuzov made famous retrograde maneuver from Braunau to Olmutz. Reflecting on the way the French attack from the flanks and under the cover of the rearguard, which successfully operated Bagration and Miloradovich, he resigned from the trap and came up with a united Russian Corps General Buxhowden.
. Hurry arrived to the troops of Alexander 1 and the Austrian Emperor Franz 1 resulted in little prepared to attack the allied armies and their defeat at Austerlitz (20 November)
. In this battle Kutuzov only formally served as Chief of the Union Army, he was constrained by the presence of two emperors and the battle plan drawn up by the Austrian General Weyrother. Austerlitz Kutuzov was killed near the husband of his daughter Tiesenhausen, who rushed to the banner forward, Mikhail himself Illarionovich injured. Frustrated by the defeat, Alexander held his offense to it. In 1806, Mr.. war in Europe broke out again, but she had already passed without the participation of Kutuzov, whom the king identified in Kiev governor-general.
In 1808, Mr.. Michael Illarionovich was sent to the Russian-Turkish war of the Moldavian army corps commander. The officers and men liked him, but he felt wounding his pride of mandated positions and differences with the commander maloiskusnym A. Prozorovskii. In 1809, Mr.. He left the army and was assigned to the Governor-General of Vilna. In 1811, when the war with Turkey at an impasse, and the increasing threat from France presaged trouble again Kutuzov was appointed to the Moldovan army, but in the rank of commander. Soon he showed his generalship in the battle at Ruschuka, where under his leadership, 15 thousand. Russian defeated the 60 thousandth Turkish army. Realizing that the pursuing Turks and fight with them along the length of the Danube more than 1000 miles yielded promising results, Kutuzov chose a different path to achieve a military victory. He deliberately took his army back to the left bank of the Danube, led the enemy to attack, breaking away from the bases, got the dismemberment of the Turkish troops. Then part of his forces captured the right bank of the river and cut off the 40 thousandth the Turkish army who are lured to the left bank. Completely blocked it, and without almost any losses, Kutuzov made Grand Vizier to capitulate.
The award for the victory over the Turks, the title of Count and Prince Kutuzov, the commander still not regained full confidence in the king. Patriotic War of 1812. found him in St. Petersburg without a cause. At that time, as the Russian army in the west led by Barclay de Tolly and Bagration, Kutuzov was elected head of St. Petersburg and then Moscow militia. Only after the French surrender of Smolensk, Alexander 1 was obliged to meet the requirements of the public and the troops and to appoint Michael Illarionovich chief of two armies, which by this time joined. "Do you hope to break Napoleon?" - Asked at this time Kutuzov. "Split - no, a trick - I hope" - he replied with a smile.
Enthusiastically greeted on the way people, Kutuzov, arrived Aug. 17 to the troops. Disagreed with the proposals immediately give the French general engagement, he still led the army a few days ago, and 22-second stop in the village of Borodino, where preparations for battle. At dawn on 26 August the Russian army (155 thousand. man with the host) met with the army of Napoleon (about 134 thousand). By building its forces in the deep order of battle, Kutuzov energetic maneuver forces and disrupt all attempts by Napoleon to achieve decisive advantage, he successfully counterattacked. At the cost of huge losses the French managed to press the Russian on the left flank and center, but, recognizing the futility of further efforts. Napoleon in the evening led his troops to their original positions. Russian army in this battle lost 44 thousand. man, French - 40. Kutuzov, not only destroyed Napoleon's dream - a battle to win the war, but to keep battle-worthy, morally strong army.
. Implementing the strategic plan of winning the war, Kutuzov was left to the enemy on Sept. 2 Moscow, but already at this time began to replenish the reserves of the Russian army, turned guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines
. Secretly committing maneuver to the village Tarutino, Kutuzov closed the French route to the south, where they could get food and fodder. Realizing the critical situation. Napoleon sent his adjutant to Kutuzov with a proposal for peace talks, but he replied that the war is just beginning. By this time, is famous Krylov's fable "The Wolf at the kennel," which Michael Illarionovich himself with pleasure.
. After leaving Moscow on October 7, Napoleon marched to Maloyaroslavets, where Kutuzov blocked his way and after a bloody battle forced the French to retreat to their same devastated Smolensk road
. By deploying a counter-offensive, the Russian army inflicted on the retreating French troops attacked at Vyazma, Lyakhov, red. Characteristically cautious attitude Kutuzov to his soldiers: seeing the gradual depletion of the French army, he said: "Now for one Russian, I will not give ten Frenchmen". Hunger and cold were due growing demoralization of the French army, and after the Berezina its retreat became a flight. Napoleon in Russia has lost more than 500 thousand. killed, wounded and prisoners, almost all the artillery and cavalry. December 21 Kutuzov in order to the army greeted the troops with the expulsion of the enemy from the borders of Russia. Over the able leadership of the Russian army in 1812. He was granted the rank of Field Marshal and the title of Prince of Smolensk. He received an award as the Order of St. George's 1-st degree, becoming the first full knight of Russia's Military Order.
. The decision to move the army of Alexander 1 further west Kutuzov met without much enthusiasm: he was worried about the future loss of life and a possible strengthening of European rivals France
. With the arrival of the king to his troops, he gradually moved away from the main cases in command, his health weakened, and the 16 th April g.Buntslau (Poland), he died at the age of 67 years. His body was transported to St. Petersburg, where buried in the Kazan Cathedral in the universal sorrow of the people. Name Kutuzov's always remained venerated by the Russian people.
Michael Illarionovich left five daughters (his only son, Nicholas, died of smallpox in 1770). As Field Marshal left no descendants in the male line, name Golenishcheva-Kutuzov in 1859, Mr.. was transferred to his grandson, Major-General P. Tolstoy.
Used materials kn.: Kovalevsky N.F. History of the State Rossiyskogo. Biographies of famous military leaders XVIII - early XX century. M. 1997