Benckendorf Alexander Hristoforovich( Military and statesman)
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Biography Benckendorf Alexander Hristoforovich
Benckendorf Hristoforovich Alexander (1783 - 1844, St. Petersburg) - Military and State. figure. Of the noble family of General of Infantry. In 1798 began serving non-commissioned officer in the Guards Regiment Semenovski. In 1803, fought bravely in the Caucasus. In 1806 - 1807 participated in the battle of Preussisch-Eylau.V 1809 in the Turkish campaign to run the most difficult and dangerous assignments. Distinguished in the battle of Ruschukom - rapid attack overthrew the Turkish detachment that threatened the rear of the Russian. Army and received the rank of Major General. In the war of 1812-1814 demonstrated outstanding qualities of military generals, being in the vanguard and the rearguard under attack during the withdrawal. Excellent acting in a battle with Velizh. Held bold and skilful attack on Volokolamsk, defeating the enemy and capturing more than 8 thousand. man. He was commandant of Moscow. In pursuit of Napoleon's army before the Neman, captured three generals and 6 thousand. different ranks. Fought at Leipzig, in Holland, Belgium. He was awarded the Order of Anna 1-st degree. In 1821, Lieutenant-General Benckendorf own accord submitted a memorandum to Alexander I, . K-swarm competently presented his collection of information about the "Union of Welfare and called for urgent and effective measures, . but the Emperor left the report ignored,
. Zeal Benkendorf rated Nikolai 1, by appointing him head of the Division III created his own pulse. Majesty's Stationery - powerful punitive organization. Benckendorf invited to serve in his office many, especially privechaya yesterday freethinkers. When sitting in the Investigation Committee in the case of the Decembrists and the perceived weakness of Russia. punitive institutions "Benkendorf wanted to create not despised community of spies, and respected by all authoritative Ministry of Police for the public good. It was said that Nicholas I gave Benckendorff handkerchief, Kojima chief of the Division III instructed to wipe away the tears as much as possible. The king instructed Benckendorff oversee A. S. Pushkin. As wrote pushkinist N. J. Adelman, "Benkendorf sincerely did not understand what this Pushkin, but clearly understood clearly that to him, the general, and the supreme authority. Therefore, when Pushkin deviated from the correct path to the good, the general wrote him a polite letter, after which did not want to live and breathe ". Benckendorf explained to PO Box. Chaadayev that both past and present, and future of Russia are great, but the one who thinks differently - crazy. In 1832 Benckendorf was elevated to Count's dignity. In 1834 he was awarded the Order of St. Andrew. Personal friend of Nicholas I, he accompanied the emperor in his travels in Russia and abroad, and the last day of their duties faithfully carried. A. I. Herzen wrote: "Maybe Benkendorf and did all the evil that could be done, as chief of this terrible police, standing outside. the law and above the law, which had the right to meddle in everything - I am willing to believe, especially remembering the fresh water on his face - but the good he has done, to this he was lacking energy, will, heart,.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Since Inception III Office and before his death, Chief of Police was Count A. H. Benkendorf. In 1844 he was replaced by Earl (later Duke) A. F. Orlov.
Alexander von Benckendorff moved as a brave combat general still under Alexander I and in 1819 received the title of king of the Adjutant General. Even at that time, he discovered a taste for the cause of the secret police, but did not get promotion. December 14, 1825, he commanded part of the government troops, and then was appointed to the commission of inquiry into the cause of the Decembrists. In this post he made friends with the young king, only began to be their police and investigative talent. We already know the note submitted by Benckendorff on the organization of the Ministry of Police. For all of these services to it as a cornucopia, poured in the king's mercy. He not only became a close friend of the emperor and the head of the large public institutions, but received a number of less honorable, but no less significant offerings in the form of tens of thousands of acres of land, serfs, and so on.
. 17 years stood Benckendorf led Division III and, strange as it seems, could not get to say nothing of love, and even hatred of the oppressed III Office
. The reason is that very soon became clear to everybody that Benckendorf actually plays a very minor role in the affairs of the gendarmerie. This was a man loose faith, devoid of any government was talented, but boundless devotion to the king and the ability to gain his friendship. On his absent-mindedness go anecdotes most unlikely properties - to the point that he forgot his name and could not remember it without the help of a business card. In cases Benkendorf was great muddlehead, besides did not understand their nature. His attitude toward public issues well illustrated by the following story in a scrapbook, Baron M. A. Corfu:
"Once the State Council, Minister of Justice, Count Panin, uttered a very long speech. When she had already lasted for half an hour, Benckendorf turned to his neighbor, Count Orlov, with the exclamation:
. - Sacre Dieu, voila ce que jappelle parler! 1
. - Have mercy, little brother, so do not you hear what he says half an hour against you.
. - Really? - Benckendorf replied that it was only then realized that it was. Panina have an answer and objection to its presentation:
. Five minutes later, glancing at his watch, he said: "A present adieu, il est temps que j'aille chez 1'empereur" 2 - and left the other members to unravel the controversy it with Panin, at their discretion. "
. Thus characterize Benkendorf quite favorable to it memoirists
. Even loyal servant Division III Grech calls his "stupid courtier," "good, but empty". In the same proper direction, we can find reviews and from the opposite camp.
. Thus, Herzen made the following sketch of the external and internal qualities of chief of police:
. "Outer chief of police did not have anything bad in itself, his appearance was quite common Ostsee nobles and aristocracy in general German
. His face was crumpled and weary, he had a deceptively good view, which often belong to people evasive and apathetic. Maybe, . Benkendorf and did all evil, . which could make, . as chief of police of this terrible, . standing outside the law and above the law, . who had: the right to meddle in all, . - I am ready to believe, . especially remembering the fresh water on his face, . - But the good he did, . this he lacked the energy, . will, . heart.,
. No wonder that with such properties, Benckendorf limited representation of their institutions, without interfering in detail in its case
. Subordinated quickly realized that to please the boss, you can quickly and firmly answered, even if taken from the ceiling, and all went well. Himself Benckendorf remained unchanged brilliant minds have been holding under him the apparatus and its own indispensability.
. Succeeded Benkendorf, Alexei Orlov, in no way superior to him in terms of state capacity, but in understanding and experience, even inferior
. His only merit was his friendship with the king. In a practical activity he differed full laziness and no, actually, the indentation on the physiognomy of the Division III did not impose ... Wound in Benckendorf system remains fully intact, and only reported in place of the deceased chief's new.
Contemporaries immediately realized why the head of the secret office are complete nonentity. Remembering the death of Alexander's Chief of Police Miloradovich, who was dying, worried about his old doctor, Herzen wrote:
"Prosaic, autumn reign of Nicholas did not have. such people who, wounded to death, remember the old doctor, and dying do not know what to bequeath, but the request for her son friend. These people are generally clumsy, . speak loudly, . rustle, . sometimes argue, . judged at random, they, . true, . always ready to shed their blood on the battlefield and to serve until the end of his faith and truth, but the war was in sight when the external, . and for internal, they are unable,
. It is said that Count Benckendorf, going to the Emperor - but he walked him five times a day - every time pale: that's what people need the new sovereign. He needed the agents, rather than helpers, performers, and not advisers, orderlies, and not the warriors. He never could figure out what to make of the cleverest of all the Russian generals, Ermolov, and left him in idleness to live out age in Moscow.
(Fragment from the book and. Trotsky's "Third Branch of Nicholas I.")
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. 1 Damn, that's what I call the ability to speak! (French)
. 2 Well, goodbye, I must go to the emperor (French)
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. Benkendorff (Benkendorff), Alexander Hristoforovich, Earl (1783 - 1844), son of General Christopher Benkendorf, the former under Emperor Paul the military governor of Riga
. His grandmother on his father was a teacher of Grand Duke Alexander, and his mother, nee Baroness Schilling - childhood friend of Empress Maria Feodorovna. After receiving a superficial secular education in the then fashionable boarding Jesuit Abbe Nicolas, Benckendorf in 1798. entered military service and participated in military actions in Georgia, with Prince. Tsitsianov (1803), and in the wars against Napoleon. Appointed, . in 1819, . Chief of Staff of the Guards Corps, . he, . the disease corps commander, . Prince Vasilchikov, . acted for the senior during the disturbances soldiers Semenov regiment (1820) and its impolicy gave movement to take unusually large size, . which aroused against himself the displeasure of the Emperor Alexander,
. Generally Benkendorf in official matters has been extremely sloppy and a lot of confused, unable to even properly write in any language, and he did not aspire to knowledge and to disseminate it saw only a threat to the existing system. The narrowness of thought made him on policy matters extraordinarily callous and intolerant. Emperor Alexander was in no mood to Benckendorff, who apparently did not like it. His real attitude to Alexander Benckendorf expressed not in dithyramb, . often lavished on his memory, . in a frank correspondence, . example, . when comparing the court of Emperor Nicholas and Alexandra: "(Now) all lit up; gaiety again joined their rights and reward themselves for years, . lost to her cult; youth again taken for dancing and has much less engaged in the device state, . policies of both hemispheres and mystical ravings ",
. Maybe, . is the desire to improve its reputation prompted Benckendorff submit to Alexander two notes: 1) secret societies (according to some reports - composed not of, . but it is a direct denunciation of the number of persons including their comrades Benkendorf on a masonic lodge "Amis reunis", . in which he participated from 1816 to 1818), . and 2) to organize a secret police,
. These notes Benkendorf, however, has not reached its goal. His situation has changed dramatically for the better only after the coronation of Emperor Nicholas, which had long Benckendorf in different ways. Invested with the confidence of the young emperor, . Benckendorf participated in the meetings before the December 14, . this day accompanied the emperor during the inspection of the location of the rebel, . commanded troops, . located on Vasilevsky Island, . and was later a member of the commission to investigate the Decembrists,
. Tradition and some historians attribute Benckendorff in the Decembrists very ugly role; Benkendorf himself in his memoirs certainly does not tell the truth about this case and in particular his participation in it. However, as in this case, and in some others (for example, Pushkin and Chaadayev) Benkendorf difficult to distinguish between the role of the emperor Nicholas. Being unable to understand the essence of the Decembrist movement, especially the participation of well-known to him representatives of the aristocratic society, Benckendorf explains everything very depravity of mind and will of the Decembrists. Any criticism, at least in essence, the benevolent attitude toward the existing system Benckendorf considered dangerous and therefore undesirable. Benckendorf believed that "only one service, and long-term service, gives us the right and opportunity to judge the affairs of state. It is dangerous for the government to citizens talked about them ". Strengthening and development of censorship and surveillance, detention and skilful direction in favor of the power of education and the press, are the main means of preservative from the danger. A sincere and staunch monarchist-conservative, Benckendorf represented the emperor sees the focus of, around which rallied class. Austria, under the rule of Ferdinand insignificant, causes Benkendorf deferential sense of emotion: "all in awe of the throne, almost idle, all united around the government, representing a ghost of the monarch". Future of Austria, and the whole of Europe, inspired him, however, fears, although the "precariousness of the views prevailing in a representative government ... already beginning to open his eyes by the liberals about disadvantages associated with a representative form of government ". Yet everywhere restless, and in essence "a Russia" remains in its "menacing stillness observer of ... political storms, terrible for rebels and encouraging for the monarchs'. Benckendorf dreams of a universal alliance of monarchs, in which the leading role belonged to Russia and its sovereign. And this problem seems to him appropriate the whole of Russian history. "The past Russia was amazing, it now more than great, but that the future, it is above all that can draw a very bold imagination". July 26, 1826, Mr.. Benckendorf was appointed Chief III Chief of the Immediate Office of His Imperial Majesty's Chancellery. Wanting to be answerable directly to the higher authority oversight of the entire, . what is happening in the State, . Nicholas at the head of this body set Benkendorf, . who shared the skepticism of the Emperor to public, . and partly bureaucratic circles,
. Choosing the emperor was due, . probably, . and so, . that this close friend of his, . have already proven themselves with the police point of view, . himself (apparently, . not without the influence of von Fock) worked on the creation of new institutions, . and his personal qualities gave the emperor an opportunity for continuous interference in the affairs of the new institution,
. The terms of reference of the third branch, from the outset covering almost all aspects of contemporary Russian life, in practice, proved to be even wider, was composed of censorship and some judicial functions. Even earlier, on June 25, Benckendorf was appointed Chief of Police. Gendarme police again composed of two, in fact not completely homogeneous parts: 1) Gendarme Regiment, carrying a military-police service in the armed forces, and 2) the gendarme guard the internal parts of the body. The gradual merging them only ended in 1842, Mr.. Gendarme parts were for the most part the special local branch III, their most important task, apart from the old police, is an observation activity. Benkendorf heavily recruited and undercover officers in the center and on the ground, picking them all strata of society. To elevate the establishment, . the head of which he was, . and raise it in the eyes of society, . Benkendorf, . with the same purpose appointed (July 26, 1826) Commander of the Emperor's headquarters, . issued a magnificent and long-winded-mushy instructions and tried (in which partly succeeded) to attract a vowel staff members of high society,
. Of course, these measures have not created the popularity of either him or he headed the establishment. Observing the lack of public order and administration, . desire to stop the abuse of power and authority and eliminate mistakes and weaknesses in management have led to the Third Department of intervention in almost all departments and called on their part, . apparently, . not always sympathetic attitude toward him,
. Benckendorf could affect the disaffected chiefs separated departments and force them to accept the exigencies of their situation. Especially a lot of trouble gave III office and its chief magistrate, require strengthening surveillance and control. Sometimes, however, the third branch could surely look at the needs of the country, so, in 1838, Mr.. but points to the need to construct a railway between Moscow and St. Petersburg and the general grumbling about recruiting, in 1841, Mr.. the need for greater concern for people's health, in 1842, Mr.. reports on general dissatisfaction with the high customs tariffs; repeatedly drew attention to the harmful to people's moral and economic impact of leases. However, the good side of this oversight, generally manifested rarely lost a lot of those techniques that have made their own Third Division. The political part of the problem III office at the beginning of the reign of Emperor Nicholas was limited to orders regarding convicted of the Decembrists and supervision of the literature and for individuals and circles, . which for some reason aroused suspicion of power,
. Only the Polish uprising complicate this side of the compartment III: he had to oversee the activities of Polish organizations and, as it seemed to him to wait for echoes of the uprising in the actual Russian provinces. Excessive strictness censor Benkendorf and extremely tough on him all those who seemed to him politically dangerous, a heavy burden fell on the spiritual development of Russian society. With persistence and intolerance of narrow views and dimwit, Benckendorf tried all independent aspirations of individuals and the whole Russian society to find and destroy the germs of a terrible future. He little embarrassed by considerations of humanity and even the law. At the mention of Baron Delvig the law Benkendorf said: "The laws are written to his subordinates, and not for the bosses, and you have no right to be explained to me linking to them or their excuses". Benckendorf tried to create their own literature and had it in publications such as, for example, "Northern Bee" Buе-haryn, "Tygodnik" (from 1832. Official Gazette of the Kingdom of Poland ") Przhetslavskogo. In separate articles to order. Writers and journalists tried to buy roughly. Benckendorf tried to organize printing and abroad, where at times an article of his officials in defense of the Russian government. The organization of the foreign government press, as the organization of the foreign police, Benckendorf acted, apparently, in agreement with Metternich, seeking, perhaps, to implement their plans for general union of monarchs. In 1826, Mr.. Benckendorf was appointed senator in 1828, Mr.. made a general-from-the cavalry, in 1831, Mr.. appointed member of the State Council and the Committee of Ministers. Activities Benkendorf in these institutions, as well as in those committees, of which he was, was not large. Sam Benckendorf rarely took part in the debate, even on issues they themselves brought. In 1832, Mr.. Benckendorff was erected in the Count's Russia's imperial dignity, and, in the absence of his sons, the Count's dignity has been extended to his nephew, Konstantin Konstantinovich Benkendorf. When, in 1837, Mr.. Benckendorf dangerously ill, the Emperor and his family surrounded him with marks of attention and participation. Some foreign sovereigns (Austrian, Prussian, Swedish) have expressed their sympathy for him, hastened to place on record their feelings and representatives of the Russian nobility and the higher bureaucracy. There are indications (from the notes of the Benkendorf and Baron Korf), which is feared for his life and the lower strata of the population, among whom he might be popular for the patient, gracious attitude to asylum and for assistance in cases of judicial. Soon, . however, . influence Benkendorf begins to waver, . partly because some careless of his actions, . displeasing the emperor (in particular - because of his undoubted indirectly responsible for the death of Pushkin), . partly due to the elevation of people, . which Benckendorf could not get along peacefully, . and successfully fight, . shattered confidence in the sovereign, . Neither could,
. Prior to 1838, Mr.. he is constantly accompanied the emperor to travel in Russia and abroad. In 1840, Mr.. Benckendorf prisutstvovaniyu was appointed to the committees of the yard people and the transformation of Jewish life, in which he was sympathetic attitude toward the Jews. In 1841, Mr.. Benckendorf developed a great activity during the agrarian movement in the Baltic region, where he went. He was entirely on the side of the landlords against the peasants, the Germans and Latvians Russian Orthodox clergy, embroiled in this struggle the desire of some groups of peasants to move to Orthodoxy. In 1844, Mr.. disease caused Benkendorf go to foreign waters, with the benefit of 1 / 2 million USD. silver, only a small part of which remained, however, in the hands of heavily indebted Benkendorf. On the way back to Russia Benckendorf died suddenly. - Wed. M. Lemke, "Nikolaev gendarmes and literature 1826 - 1855 years" (St. Petersburg, 1908), Schilder, "Emperor Alexander I" (1897 - 1890); his own, "The Emperor Nicholas I" (St. Petersburg, 1903); K. Borozdin, "The experience of the historical genealogy of the nobility and graphs Benckendorff" (St. Petersburg, 1841); In. Quadri and M. Sokolovsky, "A brief historical overview of the Emperor's headquarters" (St. Petersburg, 1902) "C. Adrianov, "Ministry of Internal Affairs" (St. Petersburg, 1902); Baron Korf, "Notes" ( "Russian Antiquities", 1899, Prince. 5 - 12, and 1900, Prince. 1 - 7), September. Fischer, "Notes" ( "Historical Journal, 1908, Prince. 1 - 12); Vigel, "Memoirs" (Moscow, 1892). "Notes" Benkendorf printed in excerpts Schilder in the second of these his works. Part of his memo notes collected in the works of Lemke and Schilder. As excerpts from "Notes" Benkendorf and memo of his notes and letters are explained in historical journals and other publications, the letters are especially important message to Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich (Russian Archives ", t. I, 1885), to Vorontsov ( "Archive of Count Vorontsov"), Pushkin (Case III Branch Immediate E. I. V. Office of the writer to be allowed to enter the capital city of Pushkin, St. Petersburg., 1905). Excerpts from the reports on Pushkin grouped into T VI. "Antiquity and novelty". During the life Benkendorf were published two of his works on military history: 1) Description of military operations unit, who was under the command of General Wintzingerode in 1812 "(" Military Journal, Vol. when the headquarters of the Guards, 1817, t. III, Prince. 26 - 41) and 2) Action by the detachment of Major-General Benkendorf in Holland "(ibid., 1817, t. VI, Prince. 22 - 33). Both works - in Russian translation of the French text of the author.