Vorontsov, Mikhail Semenovich( military leader and statesman)
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Biography Vorontsov, Mikhail Semenovich
Vorontsov, Mikhail Semenovich (30/05/1782 - 18/11/1856) - military leader and statesman. Field-Marshal (1856). Adjutant-General (1815). Member of the State Council (1826). Serene Highness (1852), started service in 1801, Mr.. Lieutenant Transfiguration Regiment. Distinguished itself in battles with the mountaineers of the Caucasus (1803), in the wars with France (1805, 1806-1807), Russian-Turkish War 1806-1812. In World War II - Head of the summary-Grenadier Division in the 2-Army. In foreign campaigns of the Russian Army 1813 - 1814 he. commanded the vanguard of the 3rd Western Army, then - the northern army. In 1815-1818 he. commander of the corps of occupation in France, since 1819, Mr.. - 3rd Infantry Corps in Russia. From 1823, Mr.. Governor-General of New Russia and authorized the governor of Bessarabia. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. led the siege and capture of Varna. In 1844-1854 he. governor and chief of troops in the Caucasus. Supporter of the course of the merging areas of the Caucasus with the Empire. One of the largest Russian landowners. Liberal-minded.
Danilov AA. Background material on the history of Russia IX - XIX centuries.
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. Vorontsov, Mikhail Semenovich (1782-1856), a large military and statesman, Governor-General of the Novorossiysk Territory and Bessarabia (from 1823), governor of the Caucasus (from 1844), His Serene Highness Prince (from 1852), General-Field Marshal (from 1856)
. Childhood and adolescence spent in England, where his father, Earl S.R. Vorontsov (cont. ? 13), spent more than 40 years. Received in England, and education, decent young English lord, Vorontsov in 1801 returned to Russia to enlist. In 1802 it took part in the Russian-Turkish and Russian-French wars, in 1812, commanded a division in the army of Bagration was wounded in the Battle of Borodino. From 1815 but in 1818 commanded a corps of occupation in France, where he met the Countess E.K. Branitskaya, a wedding which took place on April 20, 1819 in Paris. Lived for some time in France, the couple went to England to visit her father and sister Vorontsov, Lady Pembroke. In 1823 ms. Vorontsov returned to Russia, with its inherent energy and knowledge assumed his duties as governor-general of the Novorossiysk Territory and the governor of Bessarabia. His able administration contributed to the prosperity of the region, development of foreign trade in the south of Russia and the beginning of shipping in the Black Sea.
Mikhail Semenovich Vorontsov 1782-1856 - Field-Marshal. In memory of descendants imprinted epigram Pushkin at Vorontsov:
"Semi-my lord, semi-merchant,
semi-villain, but there is hope
that will be complete at last ".
It is written as sharply as it is unfair - to most historians. Little-known details of the conflict between Vorontsov and Pushkin fully explain this brutal attack against the poet's very decent government and military leaders of Russia. But more about that later.
An ancient noble family Vorontsov had among its representatives a lot of famous people - boyars, provincial governors, diplomats. Father Mikhail Vorontsov - Semyon Romanovich was a wonderful person. Member of the Russian-Turkish war, the famous battle at Lar-Ki and Cahul, he moved to the diplomatic career and nearly 20 years, represents Russia in the UK as a plenipotentiary of the Russian ambassador. His sister was Princess Catherine Dashkova - the first president of Russia Academy of Sciences.
Mikhail Vorontsov, on the birth of the Count, his childhood spent in London, where under the guidance of his father received a very good education. From the age of four was enrolled in the Life Guards regiment willows in 1801, returning to his homeland, entered military service in the Guard lieutenant. Two years later, he voluntarily went to the Caucasus in the army of Prince Tsitsianov for action against the Highlanders. Soon distinguished himself in the storming of Ganja (1804), while made from the battle wounded P. Kotlyarevskogo subsequently famous hero of the Russian-Iranian war of 1804 -1813 gg.
. As part of the detachment of General Gulyakova Mikhail Vorontsov acted on the river Alazani, in a battle in the valley Zakatala he almost died after falling from a mountain cliff in the attack Lezgins
. He participated in campaigns in Imereti and Khanate of Erevan against the Persians, on presentation Tsitsianov was awarded the Order of St. George's 4-th degree. When applying for this award, the Commander wrote that the lieutenant Count Vorontsov, "replacing my infirmity, is a big help to me". End of 1804, Mr.. 22-year-old Earl had to march on the Georgian Military Highway, beginning of the next - in the mountains Ossetia. At that time he never imagined that forty years later he would have to return to the Caucasus, as the governor of that troubled region.
In the Russian-Austrian-French war of 1805. Vorontsov in the paratroop general Tolstoy went to Pomerania, and participated in the siege of Gamelin. During the Russian-Prussian-French War 1806 - 1807 he. he acted valiantly in the battle of Pultusk to colonel, was appointed commander of the 1 st Battalion of the Life Guards regiment of the Transfiguration, which participated in the bloody battles of Gutshtadtom, Heilsberg and Friedland.
. In 1809, Mr.
. Mikhail Vorontsov, appointed commander of the Narva Infantry Regiment, goes to war with Turkey. Acting as part of the Moldavian army N. Kamensky, he distinguished himself in the storming of the fortress Bazardzhik and in 28 years made a major general. Then participated in the assault of noisy, in the battles of Sistovo batting and, awarded the Order of St. Vladimir the 3rd degree.
. In between battles, General Vorontsov was a unique document - "Manual of the officers of the Narva Infantry Regiment"
. Manual was preconditioned in Suvorov's spirit: it is explained in detail the tactics of columns in combination with the open order, seeks to advance as the main type of battle, emphasized the importance of training and educating soldiers. Manual contained the motto of the Vorontsov: "Persistence and fearlessness to win more battles than all the talents and all the art". The regimental commander instructed his subordinates: "The courageous people than ever can not be cut off, which would not have stopped the enemy, go and turns to go to him and smash.
Autumn 1810, Mr.. headed by a separate unit, General Vorontsov acted in the Balkans, took the town of Pleven, more agile and Selva, which destroyed the Turkish building. In a campaign in 1811, headed by Kutuzov, he distinguished himself in the battle of Ruschukom, was awarded a golden sword with a diamond. Then fought on the right bank of the Danube, not allowing the Turks to help the army of the Grand Vizier, cut Kutuzov on the left bank of the. Awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd degree and George the 3rd degree. Forgetting city life, Mikhail Semenovich is wholly owned by the army, "Russian military molodchestvo", written by contemporaries, became his "second nature".
Since the beginning of the war of 1812, Mr.. Count Vorontsov again took his place in the fighting ranks: he was given a summary Grenadier Division in the 2 nd Western Army P. Bagration. With her in a period of retreat he participated in a fierce battle near Dashkova, and heroically fought at Smolensk.
. In the battle of Borodino on August 26 Division Vorontsov was on the difficult parts of the position: in the front line, she defended Semenov (Bagration) Flash
. At 6 am on Flash were attacked by three divisions of Marshal Davout. Grenadiers stood Vorontsov to death, repeatedly passed in counter-acting hand to hand. Ahead was a divisional commander with a sword in his hand, smiling coldly and sternly. The division was melting in his eyes, take her remains to the next counter, Vorontsov said: "Look, brothers, as the generals die!" His overturned a blow to the thigh, is lying, he did not let go of the hand piece of a broken sword.
. When Mikhail Semenovich carried in the rear, someone said: "Where is your division?" She disappeared from the battlefield "
. Overcoming the pain, he replied: "She did not disappear from the battlefield, but on the battlefield". Of the four thousand of its soldiers in the battle of Borodino, only 300 survived, of the 18 staff officers only three.
. The award-winning Borodino for the Order of St. Anne's 1-st degree, Vorontsov went for treatment to his estate in the province of Vladimir, there by his order brought, and many others wounded
. Careful care, thanks to him, got up to 50 officers and 300 other ranks.
Hardly recovered from his wounds, Mikhail Semenovich again went to war and was appointed commander of the same composite Grenadier Division of the 3rd Army P. Chichagova. In early 1813. He distinguished himself in battles with Bromberg and Rogazen, took Poznan. Manufactured in Lieutenant-General, acting in Magdeburg and the Elbe River. Upon resumption of the military campaign in Russia and its allies against Napoleon Vorontsov, his division was part of the various Allied. Participated in the Leipzig "Battle of the Nations" (October 1813). In 1814, Mr.. gallantly distinguished himself in battle with Kraone, where he spent the day withstood the attack of superior enemy forces led by Napoleon himself, and retreated only by order. The reward for Kraon became the Order of St. George's 2 nd degree. Then participated in the battles at Laon and Paris.
In 1815-1818 he. Count Vorontsov commanded a corps of occupation in France, and left about yourself and Russian very good memories from the French. He was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 1-st degree. When care facility to the home, in 1818, he paid the debts incurred by Russian officers in France. Pushkin's "polukupets" probably this would not do.
Returning to Russia, Mikhail Semenovich commanded the 3 rd infantry corps, and in 1823, Mr.. was appointed governor-general of New Russia (Northern Black Sea Coast) and Bessarabia, and he remained in that post 21 year. Much effort he expended on the economic development of these areas, especially in Odessa and the Crimea, the device navigation on the Black Sea. Governor-General patronage exiled to the south of Pushkin. Tensions between them began because of the enthusiasm of the temperamental poet's wife Vorontsov. Rigid reaction Mikhail Semenovich entailed bile offense Pushkin and his stinging epigrams addressed to the "insulting".
In 1825, Mr.. Vorontsov was promoted to general of infantry. In 1828, during the Russian-Turkish war, he replaced the wounded Alexander Menshikov as commander of the body under siege of Varna and soon mastered it and was awarded a golden sword with the inscription: "For the capture of Varna". In campaign 1829. ensure uninterrupted supply of Russian troops operating against Turkey in the Caucasus. In 1834, Mr.. tireless civil and military works awarded the Order of St. Andrew, in 1836, Mr.. appointed chief of the Narva Infantry Regiment, who once commanded.
Since 1844. Vorontsov - Chief of the troops in the Caucasus and the Caucasian viceroy. He had a difficult task - to fight with the leader of the highlanders Shamil that shocked the quiet in the province. In May, 1845. Chief spoke with the troops in the famous Dargin expedition, which after 2 months of heavy campaign has been completed the capture of Dargo village - a strong point of Shamil. Loss of troops were large. The return trip was even more difficult and dangerous, but the 63-year-old chief example of personal courage and endurance of the soldiers managed to inspire subordinates to the successful completion of the expedition. During this campaign Vorontsov was elevated to princely rank and appointed chief of the Kura Jaeger Regiment.
. Later he renounced the long military expeditions and acted in the spirit of AA Ermolov: methodically, . combining civil and economic arrangement of land with private military operations of his assistants - Generals Andronnikova, . Bebutov, . Bariatinskii, . Baklanov,
. In 1847, Mr.. He personally led troops operating in Dagestan, led the assault and capture of Gergebil Salta. In 1852, Mr.. complained to the illustrious prince.
In 1853, due to the approximation of the Crimean war, Vorontsov concerns were addressed to strengthen the border with Turkey and the protection of the Black Sea coastline. Soon after his old age he asked to go Nikolai 1 in retirement. With pain experienced Mikhail Semenovich loss and other failures of Sevastopol in the Crimean War. In 1856, Mr.. the day of the coronation of Alexander II Vorontsov was granted in the Field Marshals. He died in the same year, on November 6, in Odessa, where he was buried in the Cathedral.
From marriage to the Countess Elizabeth Ksaverevnoy Branitskaya Mikhail Semenovich left only son, Prince Semyon Mikhailovich, who died childless.