Samuil Karlovich Greig( admiral)
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Biography Samuil Karlovich Greig
Samuil Karlovich Greig (1735, Mr.. Inverkeyting, Scotland - 1788, Revel) - admiral. Genus. family shipmaster. He graduated from the parochial school. Since 1750 began serving in the British Navy. In 1756 - 1763 participated in many battles of the Seven Years War, completing it in the rank of lieutenant. At the invitation of Russian. Ambassador Count S.R. Vorontsov Greig was adopted in Russian. Navy with the rank of captain 1-st rank. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774 Greig commanded the flagship in the battle of Chios and a detachment of ships in the squadron G. A. Spiridova where Greig actually directed the battle, which was destroyed by the Turkish fleet at Cesme (1770), for which he was elevated to the hereditary rus. nobility. In 1775 from the Mediterranean Sea in Kronstadt Greig delivered impostor "Princess Tarakanov, and was promoted to vice-admiral. In 1777 - 1788 commanded the naval division and was the chief commander of Kronstadt, showing himself as a talented engineer and shipbuilder. Historian fleet F. Veselago wrote about Greig: "He, . but the glorious victories over the Turks and the Swedes, . Russian fleet required the introduction of useful improvements in the maritime and military equipment and management of ships, . improving the port and the Admiralty and the formation of many excellent officers ",
. For these merits Greig in 1782 was promoted to admiral, was elected a member of the Royal Society of London and at the suggestion E.R. Dashkova - an honorary member Petersburg Academy of Sciences. The apotheosis of his work was the battle b. July 1788, when Greig, commander of Russian. fleet defeated the Swedish fleet at about. Hogland, for which he was awarded the Order of St. Andrew. Because of severe illness, went on-board the ship "Rostislav", send to Revel. He died on the ship on arrival in port. Greig was buried in the Dome Church in Vyshgorod Revel. His son, Admiral Alex Samuilovich Greig successfully continued his father's work.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Samuil Karlovich Greig, Admiral (1735 - 1788). Among the foreigners referred to the Russian service, were different people. Some were looking for easy money and rapid career, others served Russia honestly and devotedly, becomes a Russian citizen in spirit or in fact. Samuel Greig, the hero of Cesme and Hogland, was a native of Scotland. He served 14 years in the British Navy, where he received a good marine practice, visited more than 20 ports in Europe and North Africa, during the Seven Years' War 1756 - 1763 he. was quenched in sea battles. Russian ambassador to England, Earl R. S. Vorontsov for recruiting British officers in the Russian service, bowed his 29-year-old lieutenant of the British fleet to link their future with Russia. In 1764, Mr.. with the permission of King George III Greig entered the Russian service captain 1-st rank. In the Russian navy, he was recorded as "Samuel Greig," although he signed in the Russian documents "Samuel Greyk.
. Within five years, Greig swam in the Baltic Sea, in command of various ships, while engaged in improving the equipment of vessels, 66-gun battleship three hierarchies, which in 1768, Mr.
. he commanded, had he made improvements to the mast, sails and rigging. Greig offered to cover the underwater part of the ship is not one pitch, and mixed with sulfur, which was approved by the Admiralty Board.
How to combat marine commander Samuel Greig moved during the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774 he. When Catherine II decided to Archipelago expeditions - direct from the Baltic to the Mediterranean fleet, the captain in the rank of brigadier Greig was assigned to the 1 st squadron of Admiral Spiridova. After a long sea move around Europe began a series of brilliant actions Greig led Spiridova. He participated in the landings on the coast of the peninsula Morey (Peleponess), mastery of Turkish bases and fortresses. In March 1770, Mr.. Greig was promoted to rear admiral. He became one of the main heroes of the victory of the Russian fleet in Chios and Chesme sea battles 24 - June 26, 1770, Mr.. In these battles the Russian fleet commander-in-chief, General Alexander Orlov was holding the flag on the flag ship Greig's "Three Hierarchies", trusting naval art Samuil Karlovich.
. When attacking the enemy at bay Chesme Greig was appointed to lead the vanguard, consisting of four battleships, one bombardirskogo ship and four fire-(fire-ship)
. Having become acquainted with the Turkish navy ships Greig, swung, dropped anchor and opened fire on the enemy, then the commander of the vanguard of the attack sent a fire-ship, and one of them managed to set fire to a Turkish battleship. Despite the strongest return fire of the Turkish fleet and shore batteries, Greig did not go to the occupied position and ensure the entry into the main fighting forces of the Russian fleet.
. Count Orlov, interceding after Chesmenskaya battle to award distinguished themselves in it, singled out "especially this ingenious and indefatigable man" - C. Greig
. Catherine II bestowed the last great award - the Order of St. George's 2 nd degree. In 1770, Mr.. Samuel Karlovich was granted Russian nobility, for the Chevalier of the Order of the military it spread to his descendants. Greig crowned coat of arms raised arm in armor holding a sword, and was framed by a ribbon with the inscription: "Razi is true."
After Cesme Greig was involved in the siege of fortresses on the islands of Paros and Lemnos, in 1771,. - In the bombing Negroponte. Then, commanding a detachment of ships led by "Saratov" and a detachment of auxiliary vessels, he moved to the island of Tasso, which destroyed the Turkish logistics base near the town Orifanto. Under the leadership Spiridova participated in the blockade of the Dardanelles and the Turkish violation of communications in the Aegean Sea.
In 1773, Mr.. Greig returned to St. Petersburg, but soon headed the new squadron was sent to the Greek Archipelago. At the conclusion of peace with Turkey, he bestowed the Order of St. Anne's 1-st degree. In Leghorn, he contributed to an ingenious operation of Count Orlov on luring to the flagship "Isidore" Princess Tarakanova (or "Princess Volodymyrska"), self-styled pretender to the throne, pretending to be a daughter of Elizabeth. On the ship she was arrested and transported to St. Petersburg, where she was expecting a strict court of Catherine II and the death in a cell of the fortress. Less than a month after returning from a voyage Greig Empress made him vice-admiral and appointed chief, commander of the port of Kronstadt. Catherine gave the Admiral his personal dacha "Sanzanyui in Oranienbaum, fully furnished. On the occasion of the return of the last squadron of the Archipelago expeditions of the Empress in July 1776. arranged at the Red Hills review of the Baltic Fleet, commanded by Samuel Greig. Russian sailors received prize money and medals, Greig was awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky.
Commander of the Kronstadt port showed tireless in improving the ships, their structures, sails, ship equipment, weapons. He insisted that Russian ships are not only not inferior to the best at the time - in English, but also surpassed them. In 1782, Mr.. Samuel Greig was promoted to admiral and was awarded the Order of St.
Vladimir 1-st degree. In 1785 - 1786 he. He has held various administrative positions, led the consolidation of the Kronstadt fortress, transposition of the Admiralty from St. Petersburg to Kronstadt, the creation of a set of signals for the Russian Navy, has developed several projects built new ships. On the proposal of the Director of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences of Princess E. Dashkova indefatigable Admiral was elected an honorary member.
Since the beginning of Russian-Swedish War 1788 - 1790 he. Greig was asked to man up and take the lead squadron for the protection of Kronstadt and St. Petersburg. With the advent of the Gulf of Finland Swedish squadron under the command of the Duke K. Zyudermanlandskogo Greig moved his fleet from Kronstadt to Krasnaya Gorka, where he enhanced exercise command at the guns and sails. Three days later he received from Catherine's prescription: "Follow God willing, forward, look for the enemy fleet and shalt attack.
Categorical and rush the order of the Empress did not embarrass the admiral. Received in support of a squadron of Rear Admiral Fondezina, Greig moved westward. July 6 for the island of Hogland, he found the Swedish navy, and went with him to the convergence. In the 17 hours began a battle that took place on the rules of linear tactics and identify benefits Greig, act more decisively and purposefully. Its flagship "Rostislav", causing heavy damage by fire 74-gun ship "Prince Gustav, was able to capture him. Despite the lack of obuchennst crews and evasion of battle Fondezina, most ships Greig bravely fought battle. Particularly distinguished squadron of Rear Admiral Kozlyatinova. The fierce fire from both sides was carried out more than five hours. Gunpowder smoke enveloped both the fleet, and at nightfall the battle ended. Both sides suffered heavy losses. Swedish squadron went to Sveaborg, and Greig returned to Kronstadt, but soon after, bringing its fleet in order, went to Sveaborg and blocked there Swedes.
. Battle of Hogland was a major achievement of Russia's Navy: plans Swedes to win dominance in the Baltic and capture Petersburg were disrupted
. Empress bestowed admiral highest order - St. Andrew. Distinguished officers of his fleet were awarded medals and a gold sword with the inscription: "For courage", frightened demoted to the sailors.
. Interesting facts of the battle with the Duke Greig Zyudermanlandskim at Hogland has the commanders of both belonging to the Masonic lodge of Neptune, with the Swedish Duke had over the Russian admiral seniority in the Masonic hierarchy
. But both of them in battle had to abandon the Masonic obligations to each other and shed blood abundantly sailors.
In October 1788, Mr.. Greig, fell seriously ill and was allowed on the flagship "Rostislav" go to Revel. October 15, he died and was buried in a tomb of white marble, as ordered Catherine. On the occasion of his death, was struck more gold medals on the one hand it shows the Russian navy sails to half-mast and crossed yards, on the other - the emblem Greig, entwined with a chain of the Order of St. Andrew.
. Samuil Karlovich was married to Seir Cook - cousin of the famous English navigator James Cook
. Of the five children Greig's eldest son - Alex Samuilovich, continuing the traditions of his father, also became famous for Russia's naval commanders, Admiral.