PLATEAU Matvei( The hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.)
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Biography PLATEAU Matvei
Platov Matvey Ivanovich (1751, village Starocherkasskaya - 1818, Novocherkassk), hero of the Patriotic War of 1812. Son troop sergeant, Platov was taught only to read and write and. 13 years entered the military; service. Distinguished themselves in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774, was made an officer, commanded a Cossack. In 1774 participated in the defeat of the uprising E.I. Pugacheva. In 1782-1783 he served in the Kuban and the Crimea, under the command of AV. Suvorov. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787 - 1791 for fighting differences in the assault Ochakov and Ishmael, was awarded the Order of St. George and the rank of Major-General. In 1796, for participation in the Persian campaign in Russian. Troops received a sword for bravery. In 1797 was suspected of conspiracy, exiled Paul I in Kostroma, and then imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. In January. 1801 was released and placed at the head of the Cossacks, to the conquest of India. In March 1801 returned to Alexander I, promoted to lieutenant general and appointed troop Ataman of the Don Cossacks. In the 1806-1807 war with Napoleon, commanding all the Cossack regiments. After the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit was involved from 1807 to 1809 in the Russian-Turkish war of 1806 - 1812, rising to the rank of general of cavalry. In the Patriotic War of 1812 commanded the Cossack regiments on the border, covered the retreat PI. Bagration to Smolensk. In the battle of Borodino has made a rapid raid in the rear of the left flank of the French Army. Evaluation of the raid is ambiguous. MI. Kutuzov reported to the emperor, that the Cossacks did not act ". He was famous for bravery and military skill during the pursuit of the retreating army of Napoleon, for which he received the title of Count. Distinguished Platov and during a foreign campaign in Russian. army in Prussia and France. After the peace agreement was accompanied by Alexander I in England, where the pay was awarded many honors, and Oxford University Press presented him with a diploma of doctor. Scientific biography P. not yet established.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997
Matvey Ivanovich Platov 1751 -1818 General of Cavalry. Ataman Platov, the hero of the Don, was born in Starocherkassk family troop sergeant, who gave him his early education and taught military affairs. At 19 he went to his horse to take part in the war with Turkey 1768 - 1774. For valor was observed commander V. Dolgorukov, promoted to captain, commanded a Cossack squadrons. In June 1771,. participated in the storming and capture of Perekopa, bravely distinguished himself in the battle of Kinburn. Produced in army sergeant and became commander of the regiment, this time he was little more than 20 years. In 1773, Mr.. acted in the Kuban. In 1774, Mr.. when accompanied by the transport was surrounded by the river Kalala forces of Crimean Khan Devlet Giray, built a fortified camp, beat off eight enemy attacks and lasted until the arrival of reinforcements. After this deed became known in the Russian army, was awarded a special gold medal.
In 1775, Mr.. Platov led the regiment was sent to Voronezh, and the Kazan province, where the suppressed past militias supporters Pugacheva. From 1778 to 1784, Mr.. participated in numerous campaigns and battles in the Caucasus against the Chechens, Lezghins and other mountain peoples. Here in 1782, Mr.. met with Suvorov, who commanded the Kuban Corps. Over the differences received grades of major, lieutenant colonel and colonel.
Since the beginning of Russian-Turkish war of 1787 - 1791 he. Matvey Platov in Ekaterinoslav GA Potemkin's army led by a Cossack regiment, which had acted bravely in the siege and capture of Ochakov (1788), awarded the Order of St. George's 4-th degree. He soon distinguished himself during the capture of Bender, in the battle of Causeni, promoted to brigadier and Ataman, participated in the capture of Ackerman. In December 1790, Mr.. at the council Suvorov in deciding on the taking Ishmael makes the first called for the storming of the mighty fortress, . the assault convoy commander, . then all the left wing, . set a personal example of courage, . for heroism was awarded the Order of St. George the 3rd degree and promoted to Major General.,
. In 1796, Mr.
. Catherine II requested Platov and his Cossacks to participate in the Persian expedition under the command of V. Zubov. For differences in the battles with the Persians and the mountaineers, he received a golden sword with diamonds and an inscription: "For Valor and the Order of St. Vladimir 2 nd degree.
. At the beginning of the reign of Paul 1 valiant Cossack general became the victim of allegations of abuse and disrespect to the throne, was exiled to Kostroma, and then imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress
. After the Senate court acquitted him, Paul Platov awarded the Order of Malta and instructed to lead the vanguard of the Cossack troops to march on India (January 1801). After three months on the throne, Alexander 1 and stop this painful and senseless campaign.
On his return Matvei was promoted to lieutenant general and appointed Ataman of the Don Cossacks (instead of the deceased chieftain V. Orlov). Platov remained in this position until his death, leaving only Don to participate in the wars. In 1805, Mr.. He moved the capital of the troops based in Starocherkasskaya of Novocherkassk. Were training Cossack troops, the development of their weapons, founded the first school in the Don.
During the Russian-Prussian-French War 1806 - 1807 he. Platov Cossack Corps commander. Since the war started in international military fame Platov and Don Cossacks. Corps took part in the battle of Eylau (January 1807), . during the subsequent movement of the armies of Napoleon Platov continually harassed her surprise raids, . caused considerable losses to the enemy in battles at Landsberg, . Gutshtadta, . Heilsberg; participated in the battle of Friedland (June 1807),
. Napoleon called the Cossacks' offspring of the human race ". For the differences in the war Matvei awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevski and St. George's 2 nd degree, and the Don Cossack rewarded commemorative banner.
. In Tilsit, . where peace was signed, . Platov became acquainted with Napoleon, . which, in recognition of military successes chieftain gave him a rich snuff-box, from a French Legion of Honor chieftain refused, . saying: "I am Napoleon did not serve and serve can not.",
. In early 1808
. Platov was sent to Moldavia to the Russian-Turkish war of 1806 -1812 gg. Fighting in the Army P. Bagration took Girsova, distinguished himself in the battle of Rassevate and at the siege Silistria, was awarded the rank of general of cavalry, for the Battle of Tataritsy bestowed the Order of St. Vladimir 1-st degree. In late 1809, Mr.. Matvei ill (suspected tuberculosis), returned to the Don, and then treated in St. Petersburg. When he was in the capital, asked: "Is not it better here than in the Don?", He replied: "Everything is fine, but the Don is better, everything is there except the luxury that we, the Cossacks, is not needed."
Since the beginning of the war of 1812, Mr.. Matvei led Cossack Corps, which was a 1-Army Barclay de Tolly, but because of its location covered the retreat 2 nd Western Army Bagration. In the village of Mir 27 - 28 June corps Platov defeated 9 regiments advancing enemy, bringing the Russian army first victory in the war of 1812. Cossacks successfully acted against the avant-garde of French troops have Romanovka, Saltanovka, near Smolensk.
In the difficult period of withdrawal from Platov almost had an accident. In Semlevo his rearguard missed ahead of the French, and Barclay de Tolly removed him from command of the rearguard. Barclay believed that Ataman "slept" the French because of drunkenness, besides, he did not like Platov for criticism in connection with the continual retreat. Even leaving for Don Matvey Ivanovich returned to the army a new chief Kutuzov (he knew with Platov 1773). In the battle of Borodino ten Cossack Platov fought on the right flank. In one of the critical moments of the battle they participated in a cavalry raid into the enemy's rear, upsetting its ranks.
. At the military council at Fili, decides the fate of Moscow, the brave chieftain Don called for a new battle with Napoleon, but the wise Kutuzov took the liberty to give the order to retreat
. Platov was the initiator of an additional mobilization of the Don, and Tarutinskij camp, where the Russian army rallied its forces, in late August, arrived 22 thousand. Cossacks. Ataman was appointed to lead the newcomers Cossack regiments. 7 October the French army began to retreat from Moscow, and Platov's Cossack cavalry took an active part in the persecution and defeat the enemy along the Smolensk road, conducted successful operations of Vyazma, Smolensk, the Red. At the request of Kutuzov's decree of October 29, king of the leader of the Cossacks was made in graphs.
Leaving the borders of Russia, Napoleon recognized that it was the Cossack cavalry and artillery destroyed the retreating French army. In Poland, he uttered a phrase that became famous: "Let me alone, Cossacks, and I will conquer the whole of Europe". After a victorious battle in the Polish city of Danzig Kutuzov wrote Platov: "Services rendered to your country for the continuation of the current campaign, have no examples, You have shown throughout Europe the power and strength of the blessed inhabitants of the Don."
. In 1813-1814,
. Platov was attached to the imperial headquarters, performing the important task of defeating certain enemy groups. Earned respect in Western Europe not only for his military successes, but also the humane treatment of the vanquished. Participated in the famous "Battle of the Nations near Leipzig, to prejudge the sunset of Napoleon, was awarded the Order of St. Andrew. Acting in France at the head of a Cossack detachment stormed Nemyur. After the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris was accompanied by Alexander 1 trip to London, where he met an enthusiastic reception of the British. Together with three especially distinguished generals Allied - Russia's Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly, . Prussian Field Marshal Blucher and the Austrian Field Marshal Schwarzenberg he received an award from the City Council of London special honorary saber excellent work (located in Novocherkassk, in the Museum of History of the Don Cossacks),
. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate degree from Oxford University.
Upon returning to the Don Matvei engaged in the internal affairs of the Don Cossack. -His health diminishes, and January 3, 1818, Mr.. died. He was buried in the crypt of Novocherkassk Ascension Cathedral. There he rests next to the remains of three other heroes of the Don - VV Orlov, IE Efremova, and J. P. Baklanov. On the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Nicholas Platov 1 in Novocherkassk "vortex-chieftain" was a monument to the famous sculptor P. Klodt (after the revolution of 1917. Monument destroyed).
. Matvei always maintain the natural qualities of his character Don, he had a sharp wit and vivid imagination and loved to joke, a simple word could inspire the Cossacks, and to support their combat power, and enjoyed great prestige among them
. Platov was married to the widow Martha Dmitriyevna Kirsanov, had two sons (both Ivanov), and four daughters.