Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin( State and military leader.)
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Biography Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin
Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (1739-1791). The son of an officer, Potemkin gets an excellent education, studying ancient languages, history, philosophy, theology enjoys. In 1756 he, together with other brilliant young men sent to Count Shuvalov in St. Petersburg, where he presented to the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna.
Being expelled from Moscow University for the lack of diligence, he goes to serve in the regiment and participated in the coup in 1762, for which he zhaluyut 10 thousand. rub., 4 thousand. serfs and the rank of lieutenant. Having become acquainted with the Orlov brothers, he participated in 1767 in the work of the legislative commission, dealing mainly with religious development and aliens whose lives will be interested in it invariably. During the first Russian-Turkish war, he differs in Focsani, Brailov and Silistra. Having become in 1772 a lieutenant general, he is one of the close of Catherine II, and after Grigory Orlov had fallen into disgrace, was honored a title favorite, moved to the Winter Palace, receiving the title of Count and sits on the Board. In 1776 he was appointed governor of New Russia, Azov i.Astrahani. Energetically set about settling these territories, he invites there Slavs and Orthodox Christians from the Balkans and founded the city LOTS (1776).
Already in 1780 he pushes Catherine II to the conquest of the Crimea, and after his accession in 1783 there organize local governance and bases from Simferopol and Sevastopol naval base for the set up of the same Black Sea Fleet. Since assuming the presidency of the Military College in 1784, he introduced a new military charter. Catherine II's visit to the Crimea in 1787 marks the apotheosis of Potemkin, "the viceroy of the south" and His Serene Highness Prince Tauride. Potemkin pays attention to the development of the economy (thanks to him in 1786 signed a trade treaty with France) and, once again returning to his passion for religious matters, is the proposal for accession to the Russian Old Believers' Church. He died suddenly on 5 (16) October 1791.
Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (1736 or 1739, with. Chizhov Smolensk Province. - 1791, approx. g. Iasi) - State. and military leader. Genus. in the family of a retired major, landed gentry. At the request of his father Potemkin entered the Smolensk Seminary. In 1746 after the death of his father's family moved to Moscow. Here Potemkin Litke attended school in the German Quarter, and since 1756 he studied at the Moscow High School. Zap. For success in science was awarded a gold medal and ranked among the top 12 students presented Elizabeth. Subsequently ceased to engage in and in 1760 was expelled for his "laziness and nehozhdenie in classes". Since childhood recorded in the military service, after the exclusion Potemkin entered the cavalry regiment sergeant-major. Took an active part in a palace coup in 1762, vozvedshem to the throne of Catherine II, and was awarded the rank of lieutenant Guard and 400 farmers' spirits. An important role in the court was not playing. He served as chamberlain, took part in the work of the Legislative Commission as "guardian of the infidels and member of the commission of spiritual and civil". Since the beginning of Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774 distinguished skillful actions against the Turks of Focе?ani, Largo, Cahul, drawing the attention of the Empress. In 1774 was recalled to St. Petersburg, was appointed adjutant-general, vice-president of the Military Collegium and was elevated to the dignity of the Count's. Favorite Catherine II, Potemkin was one of her closest advisers, took an active part in resolving the majority of domestic and vneshnepolit. issues. Unlike other timeservers Potemkin retained its power and after the new favorite of the Empress. In 1774 he was one of the participants in the suppression of the uprising E.I. Pugacheva. In 1775, fulfilling his own plan, eliminated the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, with a swarm-are connected to all the uprising in Ukraine. In 1776, acquired the title of His Serene Highness Prince of the Roman Empire, was appointed Governor-General of the Novorossiysk, Azov, and Astrakhan Province. Dreaming of a grand plan for translating the gains of Turkey and education in its place "of the Greek empire" with the Russian. Government, Potemkin convinced Catherine II the need for colonization of the Crimea and the establishment of military and merchant fleet in the Black Sea. Skillfully held talks with the Crimean Khan Shahin Girey and achieved a bloodless the Crimea to Russia, he was awarded the title of His Serene Highness the Prince of Tauris. In 1787 Catherine II traveled to the Crimea. According to some researchers, . Potemkin, along with the actual achievements in the settlement of the edge, . construction of roads and cities, . establishment of military and merchant navy struck the Empress decorative buildings, . fake settlements ( "Potemkin villages"), . sham prosperity,
. Other historians believe that such claims - malicious slander foreigners. But whoever was right, who traveled with the Empress, Joseph II, rightly observed: "Here in anything do not make life and work of human. We, in Germany and France, did not dare to take what was being done here ... are built roads, harbors, fortresses, palaces in the swamps, forests are bred in the desert without paying workers who are not complaining, deprived of all ". In 1784 was promoted to General Field Marshal and appointed president of the Military Collegium. Held a number of reforms, particularly in the soldier's uniforms, giving the shape of the Prussian model, powder, curls, etc., protecting the health and combat effectiveness of soldiers. In 1787 - 1791 commanded the army in the Russian-Turkish War. One of his subordinates was AV. Suvorov. Potemkin died on the way from Iasi in Nikolaev, which went to peace talks.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin 1739 - 1791 Field-Marshal. Catherine II spoke about the Potemkin: "He was my dearest friend ... a genius. I there is no one to replace him! "Some believed that Gregory Potemkin did for Russia in the south than the north of Peter 1. He was respected and rewarded the monarchs of Prussia, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Poland. Derzhavin poet wrote about the Potemkin in solemn "choir": With one hand he is playing chess. Other hand he conquers nations. One foot, he reeks of friend and enemy, Other universes, he tramples on the coast.
Potemkin came from a kind of landed gentry, his family, headed by his father, a retired second major, lived in the village Chizhov Smolensk province. Initially, Grigory studied in Smolensk Theological Seminary, and then entered the gymnasium at Moscow University, demonstrated his ability, but soon dropped out because of its "uniformity". The energy and ambition pushed him to change his fate.
Hesitation in choosing future occupation, Grigory decided to decide on military service. Having gone to St. Petersburg, he enrolled in the Horse Guards, soon became a sergeant. Among the guards who participated in the coup of 1762, has made the Empress Catherine II, Empress was seen. She complained of his lieutenants in the Guard and gave 400 serfs. At this time Potemkin unsuccessfully tried to get close to the Orlov brothers, constituted a pillar of Catherine, he held various minor posts in the yard.
. Failing to get closer to the Empress, an ambitious young officer in 1769. went to the Russian-Turkish war, fought in the ranks of the 1 st Army, General-in-Chief Golitsyn, distinguished himself during the rout of the troops Moldavanchi Pasha and occupation Khotina, was awarded the rank of Major-General. Golitsyn noted that "the Russian cavalry so far has not acted with such courage and harmony, as under the command of Major-General Potemkin.
. Golitsyn, who replaced Rumyantsev, foreseeing the future of Potemkin, gave him the opportunity to express themselves in military campaigns
. The young general had acted bravely in Focsani, participated in famous battles Rumyantsev at Larga and Cahul. He first broke into the suburbs Qilya, distinguished bravery in battles against a nickname for Craiova and Tsimbrami, participated in defeating the forces under Osman Pasha Silistria. Awards for his prowess in battle became the rank of Lieutenant-General, the Order of St. Anne and St. George the 3rd degree.
His deeds and letters to Catherine Potemkin again attracted the attention of. Arriving at her call in February 1774. St. Petersburg, he became a favorite of the Empress, pushing Orlova. According to some reports, Potemkin and Catherine secretly married in July 1775, Mr.. had a daughter, Elizabeth, who under the name Elizabeth GRIGORIEVNA Temkina brought up in a family AN Samoilova - nephew of Potemkin.
. Getting around support for the sovereign, Grigory actually became her co-regent, the closest assistant in all state affairs
. He immediately took over the care of the suppression of the uprising E. Pugacheva, organizing military action against rebels. No sitting up for long periods in the capital, Potemkin began to plan for economic development and military strengthening of southern Russia. In a short time he was promoted to commander in chief and was appointed vice-president of the Military Collegium, . become a member of the Council of State, . Count, . awarded the Order of St. Andrew and St. George's 2 nd degree, . granted princely dignity of the Holy Roman Empire.,
. In 1775, Mr.
. Potemkin decisive action eliminated the Zaporizhzhya Sich and initiated the Zaporizhzhya Cossack, subservient to Russia's crown. In 1776, Mr.. he became Governor-General of the Novorossiysk, Azov, and Astrakhan provinces. The ruler of the south was considering a plan against Turkey until the destruction of the Turkish state and the rebuilding of Byzantium. At the mouth of the Dnieper to Kherson Potemkin laid the shipyard, supervised the construction of Ekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), development of the Kuban, the actions of Russian troops in the Caucasus. In his hands was focused management of the entire southern Russia from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea.
Potemkin was first understood the importance of accession to Russia the Crimea. He wrote to Catherine: "Crimea position their breaks our borders ... Put the same now that your Crimea, and that there is still the wart on his nose - then, suddenly, the boundaries of beautiful ... No Powers in Europe, not to share between them in Asia, Africa, America. The acquisition of the Crimea or to enhance or enrich you can not only bring peace ". April 8, 1782, Mr.. Empress signed the manifesto, finally consolidated the Crimea in Russia. The first steps of Potemkin to implement the manifesto began construction of Sevastopol as a military and naval port of Russia and the creation of the Black Sea Fleet (1783).
. Ousted from Catherine other favorites, Grigory has not lost its support in the state and military affairs
. He continued active in building commercial and military fleets in the Black Sea, when it moved a glorious admiral Ushakov. Potemkin led major diplomatic work.
In 1784, Mr.. Catherine made her assistant in the Field Marshals, appointed by the President of the Military Board and governor-general of the Crimea, to name Taurichesky area. As president of the Military Collegium, Potemkin was concerned about the development and strengthening of the Russian army, held a series of reforms in the military service and equipping of personnel (undo braids and curls, introduced for the soldiers comfortable clothing and shoes, etc.). In 1787, Mr.. Grigory accompanied the Empress on a trip to the south, to the very Sevastopol, Kharkov, in parting with it, pleased by what he saw in the south, bestowed on him the title "His Serene Highness the Prince of Tauris.
. Since the beginning of Russian-Turkish war of 1787 - 1791 he
. indefatigable Potemkin headed 1-S, Ekaterinoslavskuyu, army (2-I. Ukrainian, was assigned to Field Marshal Rumyantsev), while Serene Highness Prince Tauride directs the actions of the Black Sea Fleet. In June 1788, Mr.. Potemkin and his army approached Ochakov several months trying to break the garrison blockade and bombardment, but the Turks did not give. December 1 commander gave the order to prepare to storm the fortress, in which he wrote: "Introducing the courage and valor to the troops of Russia ... I look forward to a safe full of hope of success ". December 6, the day of St. Nicholas, miracle worker, Potemkin attack took Ochakov receiving trophies - three hundred guns and mortars, 180 banners, and many prisoners. For this success he was awarded the Order of St. George's 1-st degree, in honor of Potemkin's Empress had to knock the gold medal. For winning the Dnieper estuary, he also was awarded a sword decorated with diamonds, which was sent to him on a golden plate with the inscription: "Commander Ekaterinoslav land and sea power, like a builder of military courts.
. Winner founded near Ochakov at the junction of the rivers Bug and Ingul, the city, to name them Nikolayev (in honor of Nicholas the Miracle Worker)
. On his arrival in Petersburg, the Empress arranged Grigori Aleksandrovich unusually splendid and solemn reception, . awarded a laurel wreath, . specially constructed and richly decorated field-marshal baton, . as well as the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky,
In 1789, Mr.. Potemkin with the consent of Rumyantsev joined both armies and led them. In this year Suvorov famous victories at Focsani and Rybnik, Repnin defeated the Turks on the river Salcie, and the Prince of Tauride mastered Bendery. In 1790, Mr.. He received the title of Cossack Hetman Ekaterynoslavsky and the Black Sea Forces. By shifting its headquarters in Iasi, Potemkin thence led a 1790 campaign year in which once again distinguished himself Suvorov, who took Ishmael proved to Gudovich (took Kiliyu) and Ushakov (broken Turkish squadron near Kerch).
. The fact that in those years shone Suvorov, great was the role of Potemkin
. From the outset of the war singled Suvorov among all the generals and entrusted him with the most responsible business. In implementing its plan for war, Potemkin Suvorov gave full autonomy to choose the means of action. Do not forget commander and the promotion of an ambitious military leader awards. Suvorov in 1789. wrote of him: "He is an honest man, he is a good man, he was a great man: my я+п¦я¦я-я-п¦ for him to die."
In February, 1791. Potemkin went to St. Petersburg, where he donated to the Tauride Palace, organized a magnificent celebration in honor of Catherine, who actually began their farewell. He tried unsuccessfully to remove her from the influence of the brothers Zubov and felt a moral devastation. After the battle at Machц-n, where Repnin utterly defeated the army of Yusuf Pasha, began peace negotiations with Turkey, and Potemkin returned to the south, to dictate their own terms of peace Constantinople. But this time his health was already seriously weakened, in Iasi, he felt unwell, patients expressed a desire to travel to Nikolaev, and died on the way. With great solemnity Potemkin had built it buried in Kherson.
. His body rested there, in a beautiful vault, long: in 1798, when the new Emperor Paul 1, hated the mother's favorite, the vault was destroyed, and the remains of the deceased disappeared
. In 1836, Mr.. in Kherson, a monument was unveiled Potemkin (after 1917. not preserved).
Grigory was tall, had a stately figure and handsome face, which spoiled little damaged in the eyes of youth. All rank and wealth he has achieved thanks to the untiring labors for the benefit of the fatherland and the Empress. Had a controversial nature: sometimes arrogance and gracious, generous and stingy, love and simplicity and luxury. Rumyantsev and Suvorov, with whom he was arguing with glory, paid tribute to his intellect, energy and public capacities.
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