Rumyantsev Pyotr( commander)
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Biography Rumyantsev Pyotr
Rumyantsev Pyotr Aleksandrovich (1725, Moscow - 1796, with. Tashan Poltava gub.) - General. Genus. Family, General-in-Chief. Child was recorded as a private in the Life Guards Regiment. Until 14 years he studied at home. In 1739 was seconded to the Russian. Embassy in Berlin, but it soon became clear that Rumyantsev "to the civil service has no inclination". Returned to St. Petersburg in 1740, Rumyantsev was defined in the land Cadet Corps, to-ing soon left, taking advantage of his father's stay in foreign lands ". In 1743, together with his father was in Sweden and brought to St. Petersburg advantageous for Russia Turku peace treaty, for which he was promoted to colonel, and then got together with his father the title of Count. In the future, career growth is not due to ties, but at the expense of serious work and their own talents. At the beginning of the Seven Years' War 1756 - 1763 Rumyantsev successfully reformed Russian. cavalry. In 1757, skilled actions determined the outcome of the battle of Gross-Egersdorf. Excellent having trained his custody cuirassiers, Rumyantsev in the battle of Kunersdorf became one of the best commanders. In 1761 the first battalion columns used for drawing the enemy fast powerful attack, . created light battalions and combat tactics used in open order PRL siege and capture of the Prussian fortress of Kolberg, . defending the approaches to Berlin, . what was new in the martial art of the second half,
. XVIII century. In 1761 came to the throne of Peter III, concluding a peace with Prussia, made Rumyantsev in the commander in chief, and made commander of the army in the war with Denmark, not before it had begun because of the perfect palace coup of Catherine II. In 1764 he was appointed Governor-General of Ukraine. Doing the bidding of Catherine II, Rumyantsev held imperial policy of eliminating the autonomy and strengthening of serfdom in the Ukraine.
Taking care of strengthening the power of Russia and strengthen its southern borders, Rumyantsev Pyotr thought it necessary to move them to the Black Sea, the Bug and Dniester. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774 has been very active offensive. In 1770, won a brilliant victory in the pockmarked Tomb, . Larga, . Cahul, . earning the rank of Field Marshal and an enthusiastic letter to Frederick II: "Complete victory, . that you have won over the Turkish army, . brings you even more glory, . that its success was the fruit of your courage, . prudence and activities ",
. In 1774 successful operations in Bulgaria and the attack on the noisy, where they were concentrated, the Turkish forces, forced the enemy "without delay to conclude a permanent peace", named Kucuk-Kainarji. The honorary title "Transdanubia, the appointment of the principal chief of all the regular cavalry rus. army, rank and merit are not able to compete with the rise of GA. Potemkin, and Rumyantsev became commander of the name only, without leaving his estate. Military ideas Rumyantsev-Transdanubian outlined them in the "Instructions" (1761), "The customs service" (1770), "Thoughts" (1777), played an important role in the restructuring of Russian. Army, in the development of the domestic art of war.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Pyotr Rumyantsev 1725 - 1796 Field-Marshal. His childhood and youth Peter Rumyantsev held under the leadership of his father - Alexander Ivanovich, who was put forward by Peter I, then subjected to disgrace and exile under Anna Ioanovna, but was soon pardoned and successfully continued his career, from 1736 g. governor of the Ukraine and also participated in the diplomatic and military affairs, reached the rank of Commander in Chief. Of the more famous was his grandfather (maternal) Rumyantsev - Boyar Artemon Matveev, closest adviser and friend of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who was killed by rebel musketeers in 1682
. Pyotr Rumyantsev childhood differed ardent temperament, a lively imagination and quick wit
. In six years he was enrolled as a private in the Guards, but was primarily a home and education. An attempt to study in the land Cadet Corps (1740) was unsuccessful because of restlessness and pranks, . study lasted only four months, . after which the order of Field Marshal Munnich young Rumyantsev was sent to an army regiment lieutenant,
. Soon, he took part in the Russian-Swedish War of 1741 - 1743 he. Elizabeth brought to St. Petersburg a peace treaty with Sweden, signed at Abo, with the direct involvement of his father, a diplomat, was promoted from captain to colonel immediately. In Turku the peace treaty father was Count's dignity "with all the falling offspring, beginning with his son, who was then 18 years. Drafted father Count coat of arms was the motto (in Latin): "Not only weapon"; eventually it will become symbolic for her son.
. The young count plunged into the "deleted life", . his leprosy so exasperated father, . that he wrote to Peter: "I come before: and his ears and sew up your lean not hear cases, . or deny you ... "At the insistence of parents Rumyantsev married Princess EM Golitsyn (marriage was not very successful, . wife have lived in harmony only six years old),
. It is easy to test for him was part of a campaign praising Russian corps to the Rhine in support of Austria, which threatened to Prussia (1748). Father's death in 1749, Mr.. Rumyantsev, taking possession of a large property, gradually changed, and became serious. More evenly and went to his military service.
In the Seven Years' War, which brought him military fame, Petr joined by Major General. In the battle against the Prussians at Gross-Egersdorf (August 1757) Chief S. Apraksin instructed Rumyantsev reserve of three infantry regiments. Located on the other side of the forest, which borders Egersdorfskoe field, the head of the reserve at the critical moment of the battle itself has decided to move out ahead. The sudden appearance Rumyantsev regiments and their radical attack turn the tide of battle: the enemy was stopped, and then Russian troops forced him to retreat in disarray.
. After becoming a lieutenant-general (1758), Petr received under his division chiefs, with whom he acted valiantly in the battle of Kunersdorf (August 1759)
. According to the plan of battle, developed by Chief P. Saltykov, Division Rumyantsev defended the position of Russian troops in the center, at an altitude of Big Spitz. After the Prussians overturned the Russian left flank, they attacked the Grand Spitz, but were repulsed. Then Frederick II entered into battle their best forces - cavalry F. Seidlitz. Russian troops center, reinforced part of the right wing and reserve, repulsed the assault and this. Then shelves Rumyantsev counterattacked bayonet attack overthrew the Prussian infantry, forcing her to flee from the battlefield. For Kunersdorf Petr was awarded the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky.
Underdog Kunersdorf - Prussian King Frederick II supposedly said: "Beware of dogs - Rumyantsev. All other Russian commanders are not dangerous. "
In 1761, Mr.. Corps Rumyantsev, in collaboration with a squadron of the Baltic fleet blockaded the fortress of Kolberg (Kolobrzeg) on the Baltic Sea. The approaches to the fortress covered the fortified camp, where the 12 thousandth detachment Prince of Wц+rttemberg. In August, Rumyantsev attacked the camp and took him in early September besieged Kolberg. Notwithstanding the recommendation of Chief A. Buturlina lift the siege and withdraw to winter quarters, Rumyantsev his insistence forced the garrison to surrender in December. During the siege of Kolberg the first time in the history of Russian military art have been used elements of the tactical system "column - loose system". Soon, Peter III, who succeeded to the throne of Elizabeth deceased, brought Russia from the war with Prussia. The new emperor awarded the rank of Rumyantsev's commander in chief, the Order of St. Anne's 1-st degree and St. Andrew. It was assumed that he wanted to use a talented military commander for the war with Denmark, which is not held in connection with the premature violent death of Peter III.
. After accession to the throne of Catherine II Petr did not take the oath of the new empress, . not yet ascertained the death of Peter III, . Catherine reacted with anger to the deed General, . but then, . appreciating his ability, . decided to use them for the benefit of the State, . In 1764, Mr.,
. Rumyantsev was appointed Governor-General of the Ukraine and chief commander of Little Russia Cossack regiments, Zaporozhye Cossacks and Ukrainian Division. Regarding Ukraine's empress then complained: "From this fertile and populous country Russia not only has no income, but had to send there every year for 48 thousand rubles. In the Governor-General of Little Russia, leaving no military activities, Petr remained until his death.
Talent commander and commander Rumyantsev clearly revealed in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 - 1774 he. Samu this war is often called "Rumyantsev," because the main victory of Russian troops in it connected with his name. Since the beginning of military action against Turkey Petr was appointed to command the 2 nd Ukrainian Army, which was to distract the Turks from the action against the 1-st Russian army advancing on the main line. But soon Catherine, wanting to make war more actively, appointed him commander of the 1-st place of the army commander in chief Golitsyn. Rumyantsev fully justified expectations of the Empress. Khotina migrated from the Danube, he was in the autumn-winter campaign of 1769/70 g. purged from the Turks Wallachia and took Zhurzhu. In June 1770, applying the principle of "apart to move together to fight," Rumyantsev defeated 20-thousand Turkish-Tatar army at the battle of pockmarked the Tomb on the west bank of the Prut.
. Retain the initiative in operations against a numerically superior enemy, the army Rumyantsev (38 thousand
. people) at the mouth of the river Larghi attacked the troops of the Crimean Khan Kaplan Giray (65 thousand. Tatar cavalry and 15 thousand. Turkish Infantry). Regrouped during the night the troops, the Russian commander at dawn on July 7 struck the right flank of the enemy and after the 8-hour battle drew the enemy to flight. When Larga Rumyantsev safely used dissected battle formations - divisional and regimental square, skillfully employed artillery and maneuver forces. After the battle Petr personally approached each of the chiefs and expressed his appreciation for their diligence and courage, and their subordinates - for the zeal and courage. For the victory at Larga Rumyantsev was awarded the Order of St. George the highest, 1-st degree. Apart from Catherine II, imposing on themselves this order as its founder, he became the first knight of the highest degree of the Military Order of Russia empire.
. Especially loud glory Rumyantsev brought the battle over the river Cahul July 21, 1770, which was won by one of the biggest victories of the Russian army in the XVIII century
. In this battle his army (38 thousand. men, 149 guns) was opposed by the Turkish army of the Grand Vizier Halil Pasha (up to 150 thousand. people, 150 pieces). Success was achieved through the massing of forces in the direction of the main attack (against the left flank of the enemy), the use of dismembered combat orders, skillful maneuver by fire and the troops. At the critical moment, . when the Russian faltered before the sudden counterattack Turkish Janissaries, . Rumyantsev, saying: "Now it came before us," rushed into the midst of the retreating soldiers, and commanded: "Stop, . guys! "His appearance and the call in one moment changed the situation, . and Russian, . restoring order, . withstand, . repulsed the enemy onslaught and went ahead, . to victory,
. Hero Cahul Rumyantsev was awarded the rank of Field Marshal. Soon his army cleared of the enemy left bank of the lower reaches of the Danube. And in 1771,. been reclaimed and the right bank.
Successes Rumyantsev were fixed victories GA Potemkin, A. Suvorov, M. Kamensky. At the conclusion of Kucuk-Kainarji Catherine commander bestowed an honorary prefix to the name - "Transdanubia, a sword with diamonds, and ordered in honor of Marshal dislodge a special medal. She wished that the example of the Roman generals, he had entry into the capital through a triumphal arch, but Rumyantsev modestly declined the honor. After the war, Petr returned to the Office of Ukraine. At this time, G. Potemkin became a favorite of Catherine, pushed his former chief of the first roles in military affairs. When the Russian-Turkish War of 1787 - 1791 gg. Rumyantsev was appointed commander of the second, the Ukrainian army, which operated on secondary directions, while the command of 1 st Ekaterinoslav army was instructed to Potemkin. Burdened dependent on His Serene Highness Prince Tauride situation, although Potemkin and called him his "mentor", Rumyantsev soon handed a second army Grigori Aleksandrovich, who joined her to her. At the conclusion of Jassy World Rumyantsev received from the Empress sword, studded with diamonds, for engaging in Moldavia at the beginning of the war. In 1794, Mr.. Catherine II entrusted the their "Belisarius," as it is sometimes termed Rumyantsev, the main command of the troops, collected for the campaign in Poland - where a rebellion broke out under the leadership of T. Kosciuszko. 69-year-old field marshal has done much to prepare the campaign and its material support, but the laurels of the winner of the Poles, he gave Suvorov, responsible for military operations.
. In advanced years Petr liked to spend time in the rural seclusion
. In the village, he is richly furnished house, but kept it simple and oak chairs. "If the great room - he told neighbors - inspire me to think that I'm above any of you, then let these simple chairs reminded that I am the same person as you are."
. A few weeks before his death, Rumyantsev said: "More and more I'm afraid to survive a
. In the case with me will be a blow, I order you to leave me to die quietly, and give me help ". He hit him really grasped (December 8, 1796), Marshal 14 hours gestures never let myself to anyone, accelerating their death. On the occasion of the death of the glorious commander Paul I announced in the capital three days of mourning.
Activities Rumyantsev as a military leader to a large extent determined the development of Russian military art in the second half of XVIII century. His mind was deprived of templates, enterprise and determination combined with calm and clear argument. Ideas Rumyantsev described them in "Rite of service" (1770) and "Thoughts" (1777), were used in the formulation of regulations and the reorganization of the Russian army. Rumyantsev was able to inspire the troops, was demanding, strict boss, but in a fatherly care of soldiers. Knowing his worth, he preferred to praise the only other, loved reading, was able to joke, differed wise simplicity.
The commander had three sons - Sergei, Michael and Nicholas. The latter achieved important government posts (the Chancellor, Chairman of the State Council), distinguished by high level of education and became the founder of the famous "Rumyantsev Museum, opened in 1831, Mr.. in St. Petersburg, and in 1861,. transported to Moscow in the former house Pashkova.