Oleg Alexandrovich Troyanovsky( Lenin Prize laureate, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, President of the United Nations Association, an honorary Doctor of Diplomatic Academy of the MFA of Russia)
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Biography Oleg Alexandrovich Troyanovsky
Born November 24, 1919 in Moscow. Father - Alexander Antonovich Troyanovsky (1882-1955). Mother - Troyanovsky Nina. Wife - Troyanovsky Tatiana (1928. born.). Daughter - Maria Troyanovsky O. (1954 g. born.).
"A virtuoso of the art of diplomacy" - so wrote the newspaper "New York Times in early 1986 in the article, which was devoted to the departure of Ambassador OA. Troyanovsky from New York from the post of permanent representative of the USSR at the UN.
The major achievements in the diplomatic career Troyanovsky - ambassadorial posts in Tokyo, New York and Beijing. In the language of climbers to the top diplomat is the highest category of difficulty. And they obeyed Troyanovsky seemingly without visible strain. But the work on each of these posts - a colossal work, demanding that the concentration of all intellectual and physical strength, strong-willed qualities, skills, well organized and organize others.
. Oleg Alexandrovich Troyanovsky worked with all the leaders of the Soviet Union since 1944 and ending with the year 1990, directly observed many of them
. But with all the vibrations of the political situation, . for all that, . that the diplomat - a person instructions, . Oleg not "rebuilt", . some other, . with each change of regime and will not waive their fundamental beliefs, . chief among them - to do their duty honestly and soberly, . pragmatic assessment of the situation, . not being influenced by political or ideological stereotypes.,
. Especially for the diplomatic service, OA
. Troyanovsky not prepared. Much of it relies Oleg in his work, got it from his father - a man held an exceptional life and became one of the first prominent Soviet diplomats.
Alexander Antonovich Troyanovsky was from the landed gentry impoverished family living in Tula. He graduated from Voronezh Cadet Corps, he enrolled in the most prestigious Mikhailovsky Artillery School, where in addition to military affairs has acquired extensive knowledge in the field of mathematics, physics and other sciences. Being already a professional soldier, he successfully graduated from a volunteer once two faculty of Kiev University - Physics and Mathematics and Law. In April 1905 Second Lieutenant Troyanovsky was assigned to artillery units fought against the Japanese troops in Manchuria. However, the defeat of the Russian army, the expansion of autocracy regime prompted him to resign. Like many other intellectuals at that time, he became a revolutionary and concentrated on work in the military organization of the Kiev RSDLP Committee member of which was back in 1904. Have visited in exile and emigration, which has repeatedly met with VI. Lenin.
After the overthrow of the monarchy AA. Troyanovsky returned to Russia, and immediately joined the army. He participated in the fighting in south-western front. In November 1917 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly, and he participated in his first and only meeting on January 5, 1918. Since 1919, Alexander Antonovich served in the Red Army as head of the school senior instructors reserve the heavy artillery brigade, and in their spare time, the service worked in the Directorate on archival matters.
. Prior to 1927 - the appointment of ambassador to Tokyo - AA
. Troyanovsky engaged in economic work in the People's Commissariat of Internal and External Trade, . that will be useful to him later in diplomatic affairs (many years later Mikoyan wrote, . that "in its grip Troyanovsky no way inferior to American businessmen),
. For five years in Japan, he did a lot for the development of trade and economic relations with this country. But his main achievement has been, . what, . using a wide range of contacts in government, . military and social circles, . suggesting the necessary steps center, . He helped keep mettle of the most aggressive forces in Japan, . pushing a military confrontation with the Soviet Union.,
. In 1933, A. Troyanovsky, returns to Moscow
. In the same year after the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA was appointed as ambassador in Washington. He did a lot for the approval of the authority of our country in the U.S. and the development of relations between states in various fields. In 1937, for example, he has signed the first trade agreement between the two countries based on mutual granting each other most-favored nation.
. In 1938, A. Troyanovsky, after repeated requests to release him on health grounds from the post of Ambassador to the United States returned to Moscow
. Until his death he had worked fruitfully in the field of teaching and research.
In the U.S., AA. Troyanovsky gave an excellent education to his son, who graduated from high school and then studied in one of the most prestigious colleges. As a result, Oleg acquired a deep knowledge of spoken English language, which is largely determined his future career. Back in Moscow, OA. Troyanovsky entered the literary department of the then famous Institute of Philosophy, literature and history (the institute) where he gave an excellent liberal arts education. His students or graduate students have a. Twardowski, K. Simonov, A. Chakovski, L. Bezymensky and others became known writers and journalists. Institute deepen and consolidate knowledge Troyanovsky in literature and history.
In 1941 - the call in the army, where needed translators, and the direction of the Military Institute of Foreign Languages. Autumn 1942 OA. Troyanovsky was appointed editor-translator in the Soviet Information Bureau, . and since October 1944, he worked in was created by agreement between the USSR, . U.S. and UK joint committee on psychological warfare against Germany, . who was in London,
. Soon Troyanovsky was enrolled in the embassy as an attache. Thus, contrary to his original plans, he first stepped into the diplomatic path.
In London, OA. Troyanovsky was asked to work as part of the Soviet delegation, which participated in the negotiations on drafting the Charter of the upcoming Nuremberg trials, in which he then took part in as Secretary of the Soviet judges. In 1946 - the work of a translator at the Paris peace conference on the development of the peace treaties with the countries allies of Nazi Germany, and in early 1947 - the appointment of the secretariat of the Foreign Minister VM Molotov.
In early 1951 at the suggestion of the Central Committee OA. Troyanovsky moved to the editorial board of the newly established journal in English "News". Since April 1953 he worked as Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs and at the same time, in 1956, graduated from the Institute of Foreign Languages.
From 1958 to 1967, OA. Troyanovsky was an assistant chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Working with Khrushchev and Kosygin, he participated in almost all the meetings of Foreign Ministers and the Summit, was involved in drafting the speech of the government and the important government decisions.
Accumulated a lot of international experience, OA Troyanovsky not want to turn into eternal officials of the secretariats. In 1966, Kosygin went against his wishes and allow the dedicated switch to diplomatic work. Soon he was appointed ambassador to Japan. He arrived in Tokyo in 1967 and took his seat behind the desk, for whom he had once worked for his father. After a few years, like his father, he became the Dean (elders) of the diplomatic corps.
OA. Troyanovsky worked in Tokyo for much longer than other Soviet ambassadors - almost 9 years and has achieved results that surpassed the achievements of his predecessors in Japan and a number of parameters considered unsurpassed to this day. By virtue of their merits and personal qualities of Ambassador Oleg enjoyed most of our ambassadors fame and popularity in Japan. Through its activities the Soviet-Japanese relations in the years acquired a qualitatively different nature: in this period after the two postwar decades of mutual hostility and wariness of the USSR and Japan began to grope for ways to improve relations, . gradually, . and then increasingly open to each other as neighbors.,
. Area of activity of the Japan-Soviet and Soviet-Japanese economic cooperation, which was marked by a number of major joint projects, which brought Japan to the place of one of our major business partners
. Establish contacts between parliamentarians. In the Japanese Diet was created a massive, numbering in the time of greatest activity of up to 600 members, the Association members for friendship with the Soviet Union. Significantly increased cultural cooperation, human exchanges, etc.
In October 1973, Moscow hosted the first Soviet-Japanese summit. Establish rather regular contacts at the level of Foreign Ministers. Clearer Soviet diplomatic efforts to free themselves from hampering the development of so-called "problem of the northern territories". Of course, the question was not about meeting the Japanese claim, but about creating an atmosphere in bilateral relations, in which their progress is not impeded would, "as Andrei Gromyko, the problem.
. To achieve such significant results would have been impossible without extensive contacts in the political and economic elite of Japan
. OA Troyanovsky established friendships and business contacts with dozens of prominent members of Japanese society - politicians, parliamentarians, businessmen. He was elected president of the Tokyo tennis club, honorary members who were Crown Prince and his wife. Dating with representatives of the imperial family opened the doors of the other influential Japanese homes.
. In 1976, OA Troyanovsky returns from Tokyo to Moscow and a few months later received the appointment to a senior diplomatic posts in the hierarchy - the post of Permanent Representative to the UN, where he worked, as in Japan 9 years
. Before leaving for New York with him in detail spoke Andrei Gromyko, who strongly recommended not to get involved in polemics with representatives of other countries. The Soviet Union, he said, great power, his word should be strong, and should not waste your time on mutual altercation.
. The situation in the UN in those years was complicated by the events that unfolded away from the glass skyscraper on the East River in New York, but echoed the verbal political debate in its walls
. This never-ending conflicts in the Middle East, the U.S. aggression against Grenada, a tiny, they have heated battles between the Sandinistas and the contras in Nicaragua, the war in Kampuchea, etc.. Even greater deterioration in the UN debate brought the conflict in Afghanistan associated with entering the country by Soviet troops.
On the other hand, a new and positive factor in the life of the UN has increased its membership to 150 States. In the arena of big politics dozens of former colonies, now independent states united in the Non-Aligned Movement, which has become a strong political force. In the process of their release, the Soviet Union made a significant contribution. This large group of new members of the UN demanded the attention. For influence on him began to fight two other forces - the major powers of East and West.
At this time of the Soviet Union and led OA. Troyanovsky. He was using the English expression, "the very man in the same place, at the same time". His erudition, and gentle manners helped him find the right words and approach in its relations with Western diplomats, especially Americans, who perceived him as almost a family tradition in the past, bound him with America. The good, trusting relationship had been established between him and many colleagues from the non-aligned states.
. Presentations Troyanovsky was not more aggressive, polemical expressions, but they contain a lot of thin and tag arguments, which impressed the professional diplomats and commentators
. "In the audience - as rightly observed by one of his deputies VL oleanders - speech Troyanovsky were not intended". And it was for the better. During his stay in New York, despite the overall strained atmosphere between East and West, the diplomacy of great powers, though very slowly, but was entering a phase of relaxation of international tension.
. Troyanovsky himself has manifested itself in New York as an interesting and skillful interlocutor
. As an experienced diplomat Oleg gave an example of calm and restraint in the most unexpected and urgent situations. Once in the UN hooligan Maoists, hitting the guise of journalists in the courtroom of the Security Council, poured red paint on it and one of the American representatives. Our permanent representative smiled and said: "Better to be red than dead". Everybody present was well received this joke. In the morning she came in many newspapers and magazines as the quote of the day. The fact that Troyanovsky quickly improvised and twisted popular in the years of anticommunist hysteria in the U.S. the phrase "better dead than red" ( "better dead than red").
. Volume of work at New York representation was a huge
. Often, his staff had to remain in service long after midnight, the Ambassador signed the day, two dozen shifrotelegramm. At the same time preparing draft speeches, the main of which he pronounced. In the eventful and difficult conditions of working as a solidly-established mechanism. In the team there were no misunderstandings and squabbles. This was also a merit Oleg. One of the diplomats, who worked at the time in the Soviet mission, said: "With Troyanovsky we got into a" golden age "of Catherine.
Great importance Oleg attached protocol events - receptions, breakfast, dinner. For a diplomat is an opportunity to strengthen contacts and obtain information, clarify their position. Troyanovsky selects a suitable group of guests who were interesting and helpful to each other's company. The Soviet representation comes from foreign countries, American businessmen and financiers (D. Rockefeller), prominent journalists (W. Cronkite, Dzh.Reston, B. Walters), writers (G. Mailer).
. After returning from New York in early 1986 OA Troyanovsky was appointed as ambassador to China
. This was unexpected for him and many others, including for Beijing. Explained the move as serious political reasons. In foreign and domestic policies of China was time to radical changes. "The Chinese leadership - wrote Troyanovsky, - in fact, begun to reform, which we have just theorized, not knowing where to start". The question arose of the need to align, or, as was said at that time, the "normalization" of relations between the two countries, ie the cessation of the hostility and ideological debates that have long prevented them to be good neighbors. This urge to gradually matured in the two capitals. To help make it a matter, . Moscow instead of man from the ranks of the party-state nomenclature, . representatives of which in the past, one after another held the ambassadorial post in Beijing, . went out, . to go to send a well-known professional diplomat,
. The Chinese side highly appreciated this decision.
. During the first meeting with Foreign Minister Wu Syuetsyanem Oleg said that he sees the new post of ambassador to China as the most important and responsible appointment of his life
. This was not a diplomatic way, the desire to please the Chinese, because before meeting with them, he said the same team of the Embassy.
Great success of Soviet diplomacy was almost a coincidence in time of appointing a new ambassador to Beijing and Vladivostok speech, Gorbachev, with whom he made in July 1986. It was stated that the Soviet Union is prepared to consider the main channel of the Amur river as the boundary line between the two countries and begin negotiations on how to reduce military confrontation along the Sino-Soviet border. Gorbachev also announced that the Soviet Union is discussing the issue with Mongolia on the reduction of its troops and that by the end of 1986 to conclude the six regiments from Afghanistan.
. Chinese leaders have interpreted this statement as a signal of the beginning of important changes in the policies of Moscow
. However, they did not intend to immediately erase the past. More than one year continued to repeat his thesis about the "three obstacles" to normalize relations between the two powers (Afghanistan, Soviet troops in Mongolia, Cambodia). But step by step, the barometer of the relationship was inclined to clear weather.
. In the end, though it had to spend a few years and a lot of effort, managed to debug the disputes with China and on the territorial issue, and on military detente along the border
. Advanced business and to expand trade and economic ties. This was the great merit of the Soviet Ambassador Troyanovsky.
Much has been able to Oleg Alexandrovich, thanks to his good business contacts with Chinese leaders. Particularly constructive, . and in personal terms, and friendly relations established between him and the smartest and distinguished diplomat, . Chinese Foreign Minister Qian Qichen, . who became simultaneously the deputy prime minister and a member of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party.,
. OA Troyanovsky immediately put into practice what had previously been in the embassy has not been applied, - regular press conference for the Chinese, Soviet and foreign journalists
. He usually spent these press conferences, not ducked the most tricky questions.
His diplomatic skills demonstrated in the work with a very solid, highly professional diplomatic corps in Beijing. And in the Chinese capital could hardly have been such an ambassador, who have come into the circle of his acquaintances. The Soviet and other embassies followed an active exchange of information, business methods were a big part of the Ambassador, and from there tried to keep up, and other diplomats.
. During his stay in Beijing OA Troyanovsky took the correct note - the Soviet Union was never meant to posturing "big brother" to China, . markedly than sinned Soviet policy in previous years, to discuss and resolve problems with the Chinese side, . without looking at the past, . and turning to the future,
. Speaking at the Chinese audience, he stressed the closeness of the positions of both countries on many international issues (in the UN, for example, they fell about 85 percent of cases). He noted that in the field of economic reform movement also occurs in about one and the same direction. It was appropriate to his thesis that the Soviet Union did not seek to engage China in a political-military alliance or to interfere with the development of its relations with third countries, whether the United States, Japan or other countries.
. I must say that the movement toward each other was shown on both sides
. By mid-1980's, Chinese leaders began to realize that the international position of China is changing, particularly as a result of detente between the USSR and the USA.
. In late 1989, Oleg Alexandrovich Troyanovsky, submitted his resignation, believing that it should be replaced by a young and dynamic personnel
. In September 1990, he left the Chinese capital with a feeling of legitimate satisfaction that "managed to do something good for the two countries whose relations will largely determine the shape of the new twenty-first century."
. Retirement for him - not vacuous "deserved rest" and being filled with many useful and varied pursuits: writing his memoirs, speeches with interviews and lectures here and abroad, participation in international conferences
. In 1996, OA. Troyanovsky elected president of the United Nations Association. He is an honorary doctor of Diplomatic Academy of the MFA of Russia. Transfer to other experiences have for him no less important than the professional work.
In 1959, OA. Troyanovsky co-authored the book "Face to Face with America," which was awarded the Lenin Prize. In 1997, the publishing house Vagrius "published a book of memoirs diplomat" Through the years and distance, which contains many valuable not only for Russia, the evidence about events and famous people of the recent past and of our time.
OA. Troyanovsky was awarded two Orders of Lenin (1976, 1982), the Order of the October Revolution (1979), three orders of Red Banner of Labor (1951, 1966, 1989), the Order of Honor (1969), medals.
. Until now, Oleg likes to return to his original profession, engage in literature, especially - Russian and English
. Now add to this the study of political literature. In previous years, a lot of playing tennis. Now, trying to watch the tennis competitions from the podium or on television.
His favorite poets - F. Tiutchev and A. Block. Not for nothing, he anticipates his memoirs epigraph from a poem Tyutchev: "Happy is he who visited this world in its fateful moments".
Lives and works in Moscow.
|Wanderer for Oleg Alexandrovich Troyanovsky
|Dear Oleg Aleksadrovich! Happy New Year to you! Ivan Alexandrovich Troyanovsky