Briullov-Shaskol'skaya Nadezhda( The revolutionary)
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Biography Briullov-Shaskol'skaya Nadezhda
Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya Nadezhda (30 November 1886, St. Petersburg - October 9, 1937, Tashkent). Of noble family, the granddaughter of the architect and artist A.P. Bryullov. Upon completion in 1908 of History and Philology department of Higher zhenenskih (Bestuzhev) courses, where she specialized in the history of religion, was sent abroad on a business trip. In 1909 in Stuttgart, married a privat-docent P.B. Shaskol'skaya. When he returned to Petrograd, she taught in public schools, Nar. University, those engaged in scientific. work. She has worked in magazines, in Brockhaus and. Ephron. In 1916 he passed the test for a diploma of degree 1 of the Petrograd. Zap. Tsp. AKP since 1910. Maintained relations with the s-d. Trudoviks and, in particular with п-.пг. Kerensky. In 1915-1916 were twice detained by police in connection with the arrests of disloyal persons.
In 1917 worked in the district to Vasileostrovsky-cho AKP capital. Lectured "The current situation and the war" and others. He is famous as an expert on th. question. Published a brochure entitled: "Peoples of Russia and their requirements", "National. question in Russia "," Socialist-Revolutionary Party and th. question, "How to live with each other peoples of Russia?". Represented the AKP in the Council (Bureau) of the national-socialist parties (included Dashnaktsutyun, . Party of Georgian Social-Federalists, . Belarusian Socialist Gromada, . Jewish united socialist party, . Po'alei Zion ", . Polish Socialist Party and others),
. In May, participated in the Northern Regional Conference of the AKP. Delegate 3rd partner. Congress (25 May - 4 June). At the 1 st session of the Congress made a greeting from the Bureau of National and Socialist. parties; May 31 made DOS. Report from the subsection on th question:
"A nation is a social environment of personality ... Personality defines itself by what it belongs to the complex national, with whom she feels most connected ... Through the concept of personality and the people, through the concept of labor and creativity, we turn to our understanding of the socialist nation "(" Minutes of the 3rd Congress of the Socialist Revolutionary Party ". Stenografich. Report, P., 1917, with. 296): "The bourgeoisie has its own understanding of the nation. It proceeds from that false premise, which we must fight all the forces. It identifies the nation with the state. When she speaks about Russian interests, she said about the public interest "(ibid.,. 297); "We categorically distance ourselves from the bourgeois concept of the state and nation ... From the perspective of the socialist concept of nation is the concept of employment of the masses ... Our goal is not an old, somewhat naive cosmopolitanism, which dilute the idea of personality in the world, regardless of the national language, but monopolitizm, ie. World Union, an alliance of all the isolated nation in the employment sections of humanity "(ibid.,. 297-98). Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya have concluded "that the federal republic is ... purpose, but each nation should be given at its inaugural. meeting "to reveal his will: whether it is autonomy, not connected with the territory". According to the speaker, "the best solution is a regional territorial autonomy, with the unconditional guarantee of the rights of national minorities and proportionate participation in the budget of the municipal and provincial" (ibid.,. 298): June 3, Congress adopted a resolution on th. question, based on the text proposed Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya:
"... freedom of creative development of national collectivity is the best guarantee of personal ... existence of dominant nations, on the one hand, and the oppressed and downtrodden nations - the other, reduces the cultural level and of those, and others, sowing discord among the fraternal peoples of different classes ... and inhibits the development of class struggle ... principle of a federal context is the principle that the most relevant problems of regulation of mutual relations between different nationalities ... the task of overcoming the external imperialism puts on all across Europe and around the world organized by the problem of establishing a "society of nations", ie. broad international federation "(ibid.,. 481). Congress called for the introduction of Russia's federal form Dem. republic, with terr.-th. autonomy within the ethnographic. resettlement of peoples and ensuring OCH. laws of the country as the rights of th. minorities in areas with mixed populations, and the general public rights for all languages used to say ryh-working people in Russia ". National. minorities and the nation without a determined. territory "can be connected to the extraterritorial personally-autonomous unions, with their local and obschegos. present. bodies "(ibid.,. 481-82). A similar scheme of state. structure of Russia was going to hold the AKP in the inaugural. Coll. The resolution also stated: "In the construction of the socialist parties of Russia P.S-R. seeks to create Rossiyskogo Socialist International federate. In the field of designing the world of the Socialist International P.S-R. recognizes a valid representation of the socialist parties, not only in gosudarstvamvam, but, if necessary, and nationalities, regardless of frontiers "(ibid.,. 482).
Since the summer of 1917 Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya was a member of the provincial committee of the Petrograd AKP, after the party split (November) elected its chairman. Attended the 4 th Party Congress (26 November - 5 December). At its 1 st meeting, made a report on the work of the Council nats.-Sots. parties and offered to send a delegation to the WRC for the release of "prisoners comrades", December 4 - "refer to the CC ... the reorganization of the party on a federal basis "(" Summary of the 4-th congress of AKP, P., 1918, C. 139-40).
In 1918 Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya became a member of the Educational Society in memory of February 27, 1917 "Culture and Freedom", participated in the library section of the Committee of Civic Education. E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaya. At the central courses of society lectured "National. question "," History of the roar. movement in Russia ". Autumn 1918 (after the death of her husband) went to Ukraine. In 1919-1920 an extraordinary professor in the department of history of religion Kharkov University, from 1921 taught at the universities of Petrograd. By SR trial in 1922 was not involved. July 25, 1922 Bryullov-Shaskol'skaya was arrested and exiled by administrative order in Central Asia. Living in Ashgabat and Tashkent, engaged in research and museum work. Returning from exile in Leningrad, worked as a translator, literary activities, collaborated with the ed-tion "of the Society of Former Political Prisoners and Exiles". February 25, 1933 was again arrested and exiled to Tashkent. April 24, 1937 again arrested and the decision of the troika of the NKVD, dated 26 September condemned to death. Rehabilitated posthumously.