Gotz Abram Rafailovich( One of the leaders of the Socialist Party, a member of the CC)
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Biography Gotz Abram Rafailovich
Gotz Abram Rafailovich (1882, Moscow - 1940, Lower Ingash, Krasnoyarsk region) - one of the leaders of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, a member of the CC. ECD. a wealthy merchant family. He graduated from the real uch-School. In 1900 he entered the Philosophy Dept., Berlin Zap, participated in overseas circle with the SR ND Avksentiev etc.. Since 1906 Gotz entered into a militant organization, according to B. Savinkov "was taken with the same readiness for all, the most thankless job terrorist". During the preparation of attempt on Colonel Riemann in 1907 was sentenced to 8 years in prison, to-Rui served in the Alexander Centrale. After the February roar. 1917 took an active part in the roar. developments in Irkutsk and was elected to the Petrograd Soviet Socialist faction leader. Calling "the peoples of the belligerent countries to force their governments and their nations classes abandon predatory aspirations; take the cause of peace in their own hands", . At the same time rejected a separate peace treaty and considered it necessary to "bring the army in full combat readiness", . and avoiding "making the army demagogic sermon out of any forward movement of the trenches and defiance the orders of the revolutionary government",
. Menshevik NN. Sukhanov, wrote of him: "Gotz played a very significant role in the first period of the revolution ... Gotz, undoubtedly, an excellent technician, organizer, perhaps even the administrator. But this is not a politician. Not the slightest resources leader, no political ideas, inquiry, independent thought, he showed absolutely no ". As a member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee 1-th convocation, Gotz actively opposed the Bolsheviks, and after the seizure of power came in the All-Russia. "Committee to Save the country and the revolution" and led the revolt of the cadets in Moscow. Elected member of the Constituent Assembly, Gotz after the crackdown involved in fighting the Socialist Revolutionary Party and the work involved in the formation of armed groups. In 1920 he was arrested, had behaved courageously in the process of the SR in 1922 and was sentenced to death. At the suggestion L.B. Kamenev's Central Executive Committee approved the sentence, but its enforcement was suspended, and depended on the behavior of the SR, remaining at large. Only in 1924 was replaced by a penalty 5 years imprisonment. Subsequently Gotz repeatedly subjected to repression, accusing it of anti-Soviet activities. In 1939 was sentenced to 25 years imprisonment. Died in camp.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
In the 1917 revolution
Gotz Abram Rafailovich (1882, Moscow - 4 August 1940, Nizhny Ingash, Krasnoyarsk Territory). Genus. a rich kupech. family; grandson of the famous tea merchant VL. Vysotsky: brother M.R. Gotz - Narodovolets, then one of the founders of the Socialist Revolutionary Party (AKP). Graduated real uch-School in Moscow. In the roar. movement since 1896, belonged to the North. Socialist Alliance. In 1900 he entered the Philosophical. Dept., Berlin Zap, participated in Halle-Heidelberg circle of "young" SR (Joint. with ND. Avksentiev, I.I. Fondaminsky, VM. Zenzinov etc.). The spring of 1906 tsp.
Fighting org-tion AKP. BV. Savinkov Gotz characterized that period as "the orthodox Socialist Revolutionaries, who saw in terror" the highest form of revolutionary. struggle "(Savinkov BV, Favorites, L., 1990,. 169). In 1907 he was arrested, tried and sentenced to 8 years in prison, to-Rui served in the Alexander Centrale. Upon emerging in the "free instructions" in Irkutsk, a member of a so-called. "Sib. tsimmervaldovtsev "(IG. Tsereteli, FI. Dan, VS. Voitinsky, MA. Vedenyapin etc.). Supervised gas. Siberia. According to VM. Chernoff, the group stated, "that the Russian Revolution was doomed to be merely a bourgeois revolution and that any attempt to go beyond these natural and inevitable framework will be harmful adventure" (Chernov VM, before the storm, New York, 1953,. 334).
After the February. Revolution of 1917 participated in the creation of the Committee in Irkutsk societies, org-tions, of the RNC and the Military. org-tion: personally arrested the governor-gen AI. Pilz. He returned to Petrograd on March 19, was elected on March 29 member of the presidium Vseros. meetings of the Boards RSD (from SR) on the same day entered into the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council. April 14 was elected to the Bureau and RGM. department of the executive committee of the Council. During April. participated in crisis meeting leaders of the Petrograd. Council about joining them during. pr-in; insisted on joining the SR, with the involvement of-d. in pr-ve. April 28. at a meeting of the Executive Committee, the Petrograd. Council after refusing S. d'. from entering the Prospect of voting against the coalition with the capitalist ministers ". May 1. after the executive committee of the Council nevertheless decided to participate in the coalition of socialists, Gotz joined the commission for talks with the pr-tion. Thus he Gotz and would not hear at all about any ministerial post ", he explained his refusal evr. origin (ibid.,. 315). According to NN. Sukhanov, Gotz was part of a so-called. "Star Chamber", to discuss and decide on private mezhpart. meetings DOS. questions of the country. In Petrograd. Council was the leader of the faction SR. May 12 Executive Committee of the Council approved Gotz member of the editorial board of "Izvestia", concurrently. was a member of the editorial body of the PC AKP - gas. "It's the People". May 18 Vseros. Congress of Soviets KD elected to the Executive Committee Gotz Vseros. Council KD. As of May 22, Comrade. prev. Petrograd Soviet of RSD.
On May 25 opened the 3 rd Congress of the AKP was elected Comrade. prev. Congress, May 27 presented a paper "On War". June 1st Congress adopted a resolution Gotz: "We call upon the peoples of the belligerent countries to make their pr-va and its ruling class to abandon predatory ambitions: to take the cause of peace in their hands ... We declare that the Russian. people, the masses of workers and cross-va, imperialistich. alien to the aims of the war and that Russian. Democrats did not want and do not want any seizure "(" Minutes of the 3rd congress of AKP-, P., 1917, with. 477), the resolution demanded "that the time. Roar. Production of all measures taken to review and eliminate the secret treaties between the king's pr-tion "; further stated that Congress had" categorically rejects a separate peace and a separate armistice, as fundamentally contrary to the methods of internationalization. action, "believes" unacceptable entering the army demagogich. sermon out of any forward movement of the trenches and disobeying orders of the roar. Prospect Island "and finds it" necessary ... bringing the army in full combat readiness and capacity of its force, capable of active operations in the name of the tasks of Russian. Revolution of and Intern. policy "(ibid.,. 477-78), with elections to the Central Committee of the AKP Gotz scored Naib. number of votes.
June 3 he was elected to the Presidium of the 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC. During the June crisis, June 11 at the joint meeting of representatives of parties. factions of the Congress of Soviets with the Bureau of Congress and members of the Executive Committee of Petrograd, the Council Gotz sided with the proposal IG. Tsereteli on the need to disarm the military units that support the Bolsheviks, offered to call a composite detachment from the front to the Central Executive Committee. From June 24 tsp. Presidium of the Central Executive Committee 1-th convocation. During the July events on the night of July 3 and 4 at the joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council adopted a resolution CD YU.O. Martov and Gotz, condemning armament. demonstration, call waiting the decision authority of democracy on the crisis of power "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 3,. 138, 316). July 5 came to the commission for the restoration of order in the capital. "
During his speech, the gene. L.G. Kornilov on the night of 27 to 28 August. in the delegation held talks with the All п-.пг. Kerensky on org-tion of power ( "Roar-tion 1917, t. 4,. 104-05). Gotz was tsp. Commission of the Central Executive Committee inquiring into the case against L.B. Kamenev, in cooperation with the Police Department: August 30. Bureau of the Central Executive Committee decided to bring to the public opinion of the commission of the insolvency of the charges. In August. 7 th Council AKP Gotz included in the list of mandatory Candidate. to members to establish. Coll. Also included in the commission of the Central Committee of inaugural. Coll. After the adoption of the Petrograd. By Bolshevik. resolution on the "power" Gotz, Sep 6. with others. members of the Presidium of the Petrograd. Council resigned. Eve Dem. Meeting, 12 Sept.., Gotz, Zenzinov and Avksentiev met with Kerensky to discuss a coalition with the propertied elements. In connection with the beginning of the Dem. meeting Avksent'ev Gotz and demanded an urgent meeting of the Central Committee of the AKP to discuss the question of, . what stance should take at a meeting of the SRs on the coalition with the Cadets, they themselves are at the meeting did not appear, . and vote at a meeting of the faction AKP Dem,
. meeting for coalition. Sep 17. MA. Vedenyapin protested against the violation Avksentiev and Gotz desks. Discipline. According to Chernoff, "open accession" Gotz ( "indigenous" Centrists "") to the right wing "political party. sensation "(Chernov VM, decree. cit., with. 344). Sep 21. Gotz participated in the meeting of his political leaders with п-.пг. Kerensky, in a rum-talked about coalition. study and the establishment of Provisional. Council Ros. Republic - Pre-parliament, the formation of-cerned Gotz entered into its composition. Taking part in Joint. meeting time. Prospect Island with Dem. meeting and members of the Kadet Central Committee, called for Gotz formulating a program agreement on the basis of the Declaration roar. Democracy, issued a ruling on State. meeting August 14. At the first meeting of the Pre-parliament was elected in his Presidency.
Gotz belonged to that part of the SGP to-heaven has an active opposition to the Bolsheviks. October 22. participated in a meeting with the commander of the Petrograd. IN GP. Polkovnikova with representatives of the Central Executive Committee. Evening Oct. 24. FI. Dan N.D. Avksentiev and Gotz brought Kerensky "formula" Pre-Parliament of the need for urgent action to combat armament. speech in t.ch. immediate promulgation of the decree on the transfer of land under the jurisdiction of the Earth. to-ing, the proposal allies proclaim peace terms and to begin peace talks. On the night of 24 to 25 October. participated in a joint emergency meeting of the Central Executive Committee and Board Vseros. Council KD, condemned the taking of power by the Bolsheviks. October 25. went into the All-Russia. K-t save the country and the Revolution. October 28. participated in the meeting of military. Commissions to-one and the AKP Central. on the f-rum was developed plan revolt. As before. to-ta led performance of the cadets that started on the night of Oct. 29. The signature of Gotz. prev. Provisional. Council Ros. Republic Avksentyev etc.. been distributed telegram to-swarm offered "to provide full support to commissioners and officers to obey orders of the commander of the Salvation Army Polkovnikova and arrest all commissioners TN. VRK ... All military units, coming from the Bolshevik. adventure and willing to serve the cause and the Revolution of liberty orders immediately contracted in Nikolaev engineering uch-School and the Engineers' Castle. Any delay will be seen as a betrayal of revolutionary-tion and would entail the adoption of the most decided. measures "(TEV-tion 1917, t. 6,. 24). It was later revealed that the signature Gotz was put to the Secretary-ta save the country and the Revolution of M. Brown, without coordination with Gotz arrived in Gatchina, Gotz met with Kerensky, October 31. from the Gatchina Palace was sent to all Army telegram: "Time. Council Ros. Republic Vseros. K-t save the country and the Revolution of the CEC of the Soviets, RSKD urged the army to send troops immediately, at least one hex. shelf from the nearest army and perhaps urgent, the most effective means, not stopping at nothing; express train to deliver the trains to Gatchina and Luga. The entire burden of responsibility for the delay falls on promedlyayuschih. ? 174. Kerensky Avksentiev, Gotz, Voitinskii, Stankevich, Semenov "(" Roar-tion 1917, t. 6,. 37). Responding Petrograd. WRC decided to arrest Gotz After the failure antibolshevist. Gotz performances went to GHQ. 6 Nov.. Board Vseros. KD Board decided to protest against the arrest order Gotz. As a member of the Board Gotz demanded transfer exceedingly. Congress of the CD in Mogilev. 9 Nov.. a conversation on the direct line of betting with the members of the Central Executive Committee 1-th convocation Gotz and Chernov noted: "... no doubt the country will suffer for some time the state of collapse, . has not set a counterweight to the Bolshevik adventure in otrezvevshih and rallied Democratic circles "(" Roar-tion 1917 ", . t,
. 6,. 109). In fact, t the same day private meeting of delegates Vseros. Cross, Congress decided to apply for a guarantee of the inviolability of T 'to enable him to arrive for a report to the Congress. But VRK confirmed in "Izvestia" arrest warrant Gotz, Nov 13. Gotz, made a presentation at a meeting of representatives of the chain of command the 1 st Regiment of shock, followed by adoption of the platform Obschearm. to-ta at GHQ on the non-recognition of CNS. Plans for the establishment of Socialist. Prospect Island, headed by Chernov, a rye-developed Obschearm. to-volume in Mogilev, sabotaged Gotz, preferred to Prospect in a hand. Avksentyev. Gotz was elected members to establish. Coll. (from Penza izbirat. distr.). In the 4 th congress of the AKP did not participate, but sent greetings to the congress, delivered 26 Nov..: Elected member of. CC AKP. Arriving in Petrograd, Dec. 18. arrested. December 19. by order of the People's Commissar of Justice left SRs I.Z. Steinberg was released.
After the dissolution of inaugural. Coll. actively participated in combat work AKP. The spring of 1918 entered the military. headquarters of the Union of the Renaissance "in Petrograd. Was engaged in the formation of armament. groups and moving them to the "Volga Front. On the territory Komuch get him not; left to Penza, then south to Odessa. In Yuzhnorus. Bureau of the Central Committee of the AKP was standing on the positions of the "struggle on two fronts: from the Bolsheviks and White movement. In Feb.. 1919 at the party. conference in Odessa, said that the AKP would authorize intervention in the Russian. Foreign affairs. Powers, but "only if this intervention was carried out in the presence of close communication rus. democracy with the democracy of the West "(" The past ". East. almanac in. 2, Moscow, 1990,. 43-44). In 1920, arrested in 1922 Top. Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced to death, commuted in 1924, 5-year sentence. Then repeatedly subjected to reprisals for alleged antises. activities. June 20, 1939 Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to 25 years' imprisonment, died in Kraslag.
Used materials article Y. Leontiev and M. Jansen, in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993