Ezhov, Nikolai Ivanovich( The party leader, one of the leaders of state security, the Commissioner-General of State Security)
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Biography Ezhov, Nikolai Ivanovich
Ezhov, Nikolai Ivanovich (19.4.1895, St Petersburg - 4/2/1940, Moscow). Party leader, one of the leaders of state security, the Commissioner-General of State Security (28/1/1937). Son foundry. Received his education in primary school (he graduated from Grade 1) and courses in Marxism-Leninism of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) (1927). In 1909-15 worked as a tailor's apprentice, then at the bedside factory Putilov. In 1915, drafted into the army, Private 172 Infantry Regiment, from Leeds, took part in the fighting, wounded. In 1916 demobilized and returned to the factory Putilovsky. At the end of 1916 once again called upon, served in the 3 rd Reserve Infantry Regiment (New Peterhof), a 5-s artillery workshops of the Northern Front. In May 1917 entered into RSDLP (b). Since October. 1917 POM. Commissioner in Nov.. 1917 - January. 1918 Commissioner station Vitebsk, both in Nov.. 1917 commanded the Red Guard here. In 1918-19 Head. Club Communists plant Volotina (Vyshnij Volochek). In 1919 joined the Red Army, Party secretary of the military subdistrict in Saratov. In 1919-21 commissar, commissioner radiotelegraph school, in 1921 Commissioner radiobazy while Deputy. Head. agitpropotdelom Tatar Regional Committee of the RCP (b). In Feb.. 1922 transferred to party work and in March was appointed Secretary of the Mari Provincial Committee of the RCP (b). Since October. 1922 Secretary of the Provincial Committee of Semipalatinsk, Head. Department of Provincial Committee, secretary of the Kazakh Regional Committee of the CPSU (b). Supervised suppression basmachi movement in Kazakhstan. Since the summer of 1927 an instructor, and then Deputy. Head. Accounting and distribution department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Was attracted. 1929 - Nov.. 1930 Deputy. People's Commissar for Agriculture Personnel. Participated in the deployment of collectivization and expropriation of the kulaks. In 1930, Deputy. prev. USSR Supreme Economic Council Personnel. On Nov.. 1930 Head. raspredotdelom, personnel department, the industrial department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). At the same time in 1933, Ezhov was appointed before. Central Commission for purging the Party. Since 1934 member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), from 10/2/1934 member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee and the Bureau of the Party Control Commission. On Feb.. 1934 Deputy. prev. in Feb.. 1935 - March 1939 before. Party Control Commission of the CC, CPSU (b). From 1/2/1935 secretary of the CPSU (b). Present at the shooting G.E. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev and others; bullets, which they were killed, he later kept in his desk as a souvenir. 26/9/1936 appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. Had purged nominees i.i. Berries, most of whom were arrested and shot. Liquidated political "Red Cross". In 1937 was elected to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. 12.10.1937 entered into the Politburo candidate. According to AI. Mikoyan (20/12/1937), "Ezhov created a wonderful core of the NKVD KGB, Soviet intelligence agents, expelling alien people. penetrated into the NKVD and hindered its work ". Mikoyan said that Ezhov had achieved this success thanks to the fact that he worked under the guidance of I.V. Stalin learned Stalinist style of work and was able to apply it in the NKVD. On Stalin's orders Ezhov began the deployment of mass repressions, which primarily affected the governing party, economic, administrative and military structure. Simultaneously with the same force continued repression of the "alien class". In a short time the name was Ezhova terrify the USSR, and later 1937-38. Soviet historians call "Yezhovshchina" (apparently, to remove him from the blame for Stalin's repressions). Soviet propaganda began a noisy campaign of glorification Ezhov, who was called "Iron Commissar ', at the same time a widespread phrase about the" iron hand ", in which the NKVD zazhmet opponents of Soviet power. Ezhov personally participated in interrogations in compiling lists of shoot, etc.. This could not but affect the individual Ezhova, even this degraded. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, to 1938, he became a complete addict. In 1937, for counter-revolutionary crimes had been arrested more than 936 thousand people (in t.ch. killed more than 353 thousand) in 1938 - more than 638 thousand (shot more than 328 thousand), in the camps were more than 1,3 million people. Headed the largest social cleansing the higher command of the Red Army (killed 3 Marshal, . 3 Commander of rank 1, . 2 the flagship of the fleet of rank 1, . 1 Military Commissioner of rank 1, . 10 commanders of rank 2, . 2 the flagship of the fleet of rank 2, . 14 army commissars of rank 2, etc.),
. Led by Yezhov apparatus of the NKVD prepared largest counterfeit open political processes of the end of 1930. 8/4/1938 simultaneously became Commissar of Water Transport of the USSR. According to the memoirs NS. Khrushchev, Ezhov this time literally lost his human form, simply stared. He was so drunk that itself was not like ". 17/11/1938 VM. Molotov and Stalin signed the ruling ANC and the Central Committee of the arrest, prosecution authority and conduct the investigation, where there were distortions in the work of the NKVD, 23 Nov.. Ezhov wrote to Stalin asking to be relieved of his duties Commissar of the Interior in connection with his admitted mistakes, 25 Nov.. his request was granted. 10/3/1939 Ezhov lost positions before. CPC., Secretary of the Party and removed from the Politburo and Organization Bureau, and 9/4/1939, in connection with the re-formed People's Commissariat of Water Transport - and the post of Commissar. 10/4/1939 arrested, was caused by a denunciation early. Office of the NKVD in the Ivanovo Region VP. Zhuravleva. Accused in the preparation of terrorist acts against Stalin, in the well of homosexuality. Sentenced to death. Shot. At the XX Congress of the CPSU, NS. Khrushchev called Ezhova "criminal" and "People's Commissar, deserved to be punished". Nevertheless, on Jeе+owe almost never mentioned in any references, either in historical studies, and only in 1987 it became clear his role in the repression, but not as their sponsors, as well as the obedient executor of the will of Stalin. In 1988 the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR refused to rehabilitate the Yezhov.
To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000
Ezhov, Nikolai Ivanovich (1895, St. Petersburg - 1940, Moscow) - Soviet party and state leaders. Received only primary education (incomplete lower "). Apart russskogo owned by the Polish and Lithuanian languages. He worked as a tailor, working-fitter. In 1913 he was drafted into the army during the war was on the Northern Front. After the February Revolution of 1917 joined the Bolshevik party. A member of the October Revolution, after which served as a commissioner in parts of the Red Army until 1921. Aimed at the party work, Ezhov made racing career. In 1927 he became an employee of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and deal with personnel matters. In 1928 - 1930 Ezhov as deputy commissar was sent to the Commissariat for the "great change" and successfully coped with the assigned duties. In 1930 - 1934 Ezhov was head of the distribution department and the personnel department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), successfully creating a higher range. Notable for an enormous capacity for work, executive, and earned the approval I.V. Stalin.
At the XVII Congress of the Party Kommuunisticheskoy Ezhov was elected a member of the CC, CPSU (B), a member of the Party Control Commission of the CC, CPSU (B) and head. Industrial Division of the Central Committee. In 1936, Ezhov had served as chairman of the Party Control Commission and the Secretary of the Central Committee, responsible of the NKVD, prosecutors and judicial authorities. In 1936, on the recommendation of Stalin, Ezhov, differed in the purges, he was appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs, succeeding Mr.. G. Yagoda. Pathologically cruel, vindictive Ezhov with great energy and dedication destroying enemies of the people, being the executor of Stalin conceived of the Great Terror. NKVD officially allowed to use torture. There was a limit to the simplified mechanism of repression, but the CCA was introduced "two" and the "troika", which for sentencing was sufficient record of the investigator. Was destroyed by the highest of the army, many officers of the NKVD and the Party of the Soviet elite, significantly increased the number of concentration camps. In 1937, Ezhov was promoted to Commissioner General of state. security, was awarded the Order of Lenin, endorsed a candidate member of Politburo. AI. Mikoyan urged to learn "from Comrade Ezhov Stalinist style of work". The newspapers praised the "iron hand". Akд¦n Jambul sang Ezhova:
You - a bullet for all the scorpions and snakes.
You eye the country, that the clearer the diamond.
2 months after the NKVD prepared and successfully conducted the trial participants pravotrotskistskogo block when they were destroyed NI. Bukharin, AI. Rykov, i.i. Berry et al, Ezhova actually removed from cases, appointing him to the post of Commissar of concurrent water transport. Once this person is very small in stature, with moderate intellectual disabilities, carried out the role assigned to him, he was needed only as a scapegoat for Stalin's crimes. In 1939, Ezhov was arrested on charges of espionage and anti-Soviet conspiracy and executed by sentence of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR.