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RAKOWSKI Christian G.

( The Party leader, diplomat)

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Biography RAKOWSKI Christian G.
photo RAKOWSKI Christian G.
Christian G. Rakovski (real name - Krystya Stanchev) (1.8.1873, Kotel, Bulgaria - 11/9/1941, Eagle), the party leader, diplomat. The son of a prosperous merchant. He studied at the medical faculties of universities of Berlin, Zurich, Montpellier. Educated at the University of Geneva (1897). Since 1889 participated in the social-democratic movement in Bulgaria, Switzerland, Germany, France. Romania. In 1899 - 1900 he served in the Romanian army. Repeatedly arrested and deported from different countries. In August. 1916 arrested by the Romanian Government, and in May 1917 released Russian garrison in Iasi, where he was detained. In 1917 joined RSDLP (b), led the Party work in Odessa and Petrograd. Member of the Civil War, members of the peace negotiations with Germany. Since 1919 member of the RCP (b). In 1918, one of the leaders of the KGB in the Ukraine, before the. Supreme Court for Combating Counter-Revolution. In 1918, before. Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government of Ukraine. From March 1919 to July 1923 before. CPC and the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. In 1919-1920 member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee. One of the organizers of Soviet power in Ukraine, which was accompanied by massive repression against its intellectuals, "bourgeois nationalists", etc.. He was a member of the Soviet delegation at the Genoa Conference (1922). Since 1933 Ambassador to Great Britain, in 1925-27 - in France. In 1927 he expelled from the Party XV Congress of the CPSU (b), among other members of the Trotskyist opposition. In 1928, exiled to Astrakhan, then to Barnaul. Since 1934, the beginning. control secondary medical schools of the RSFSR People's Commissariat of Health. In 1935, restored in the CPSU (b), before. Soviet Red Cross Society. 27/01/1937 Arrested. As the defendant subjected to mock the NKVD open the process up to "anti-Soviet bloc pravotrotskistskogo". Pleaded guilty to involvement in various plots, and that was in English and Japanese spy. 13/3/1938 Sentenced to 20 years imprisonment and 5 years' disqualification and confiscation of property. In their final statement said: "Our misfortune is that we were occupying positions of responsibility, the power gone to our heads. This passion is ambition for power blinded us ". After the start of the Great Patriotic War, was sentenced in absentia 08/09/1941 Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR to the death penalty. He was shot in Orel Centrale. In 1988, rehabilitated and restored in the party.

To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000


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Rakowski Christian G. (alias Insarov) (1873 - 1941). Grandson of the famous Bulgarian revolutionary Georgi Rakovski. Born August 13, 1873, Mr.. G. Kotel, Bulgaria. In fifteen years, was expelled from school for leading a student revolt, without the right to enter into any Bulgarian schools. At seventeen - helped to publish the work of Engels. To continue his education, he in 1891. went to Switzerland, where he found himself in an environment of political exiles, became an active member of the international circle of students, socialists, and simultaneously placed their papers in the Bulgarian journal "Social-Democrat. He studied at the medical school in Geneva, met with Russian revolutionaries Axelrod, Plekhanov and Zasulich acquainted with Rosa Luxemburg. In 1893 he organized the Second International Congress of Socialist Students. In the same year represented Bulgaria at the International Socialist Congress in Zurich and was its delegate to the International Socialist Congress in London in 1896. In 1897. graduated from the Medical Faculty at Montpellier, and his dissertation, "The causes of crime and degeneracy" was a great success in academic circles and often quoted in the special writings. But medical practice t. Rakovski not attracted, and he studied it only six months, and even in the Romanian army during military service. In 1899. t. Rakowski first visit to Petersburg, where he addressed one of the debates with a speech, then had to flee from arrest. In 1900, Mr.. He again came to St. Petersburg, but two weeks later was expelled and went to France to take part in the International Socialist Congress in Paris. In France, listened to a university course of law, while maintaining contact with the Bulgarian Social-d. and tying with the Serbian. Represented the Bulgarian and Serbian parties in Amsterdam II International Congress in 1904. In 1905, Mr.. t. Rakowski goes to Romania, where the bases of the Romanian Socialist Party organ "Working Romania". He headed the campaign to protect the sailors insurgent sailors, when they fled to Romania in 1905. In 1907, Mr.. Romanian Government to expel him, as a socialist agitator and the perpetrator of the peasant uprisings that had plagued the country. Due to the persistent demands of worker and peasant masses of the country, t. Rakovsky five years (in 1912) was allowed to enter Romania. During the expulsion of t. Rakowski represented the Romanian party at two international congresses, in Stuttgart and Copenhagen, as well as the conference of the Balkan socialist parties in Belgrade in 1911. On the eve of the first Balkan War, organized a conference of Balkan socialist parties in Constantinople in order to develop a plan of action against the threat of war. Participated in Zimmerwald Conference 1915. Since August 1914. to August 1916. t. Rakovsky together with the Romanian Social-d. had to endure a great fight, defending the neutrality of the country against the two war parties - Russophil and Germanophile. And as soon as Romania entered the war, t. Rakowski was imprisoned by the Romanian Government, which dragged him along with the retreat from Bucharest to Iasi. First of May, 1917. Rakowski was released Russian garrison in Iasi. Arrived in Russia in May 1917, in November, joined the Bolshevik party. After the October Revolution led by Political Department of the RVS. As an emissary of the Government of the RSFSR was sent to southern Russia in Sevastopol and Odessa. After the occupation of Ukraine by the Central Rada, t. Rakowski was placed at the head of the Soviet delegation for negotiations with the Ukrainian People's Republic, and later with the Government Skoropadsky. Tov. Rakowski concluded at the same time an armistice with the Germans, and then in September, 1918. was directed at the head of the emergency mission to Germany to continue talks with Germany's government on a peace treaty with Ukraine. From Berlin, he and t.t. Joffe and Bukharin was expelled and arrested on the way Germanic authorities, but the German revolution liberated his. In 1918-1923 he. - Chairman of the CPC, Ukraine. Since 1923, Mr.. - Ambassador to Great Britain, in 1925-1927 he. - France. In 1919-1927. - Member of the Party Central Committee. Member of the Central Executive Committee. CEC SSSR.Iz major literary works Rakovski, . published in several languages, . note: "The causes of crime and degeneracy", . "Russia in the East", . Sketches of modern France ", . "Metternich and his time", . "Our disagreement", . "Russian-Japanese War", . "The Socialists and the War",
. His numerous articles on international policy, scientific socialism and stories published in various magazines (Bulgarian, French, Russian, Polish, German, Romanian, and t. etc.). Subjected to repression, after six years of exile and an unsuccessful attempt to escape, broken in spirit and in poor health, in 1934 went to cooperate with authorities. He was arrested again in December 1936, repressed, in February 1988, was posthumously rehabilitated.


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