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Raskolnikov Fedor Fedorovich

( The Party and military leader, diplomat)

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Biography Raskolnikov Fedor Fedorovich
photo Raskolnikov Fedor Fedorovich
Raskolnikov (real name - Ilyin) Fyodor (28.1.1892, St Petersburg - 12.9.1939, Nice, France), party and military leader, diplomat. Illegitimate son of archpriest Sergeevskoe. He studied at St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute. Educated in the individual classes midshipman (1917). In 1910 he joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. In 1917, promoted to warrant officers, in military actions did not participate. In March 1917 sent to Kronstadt to edit the newspaper "Voice of Truth", as he led the Bolshevik faction of the Board. He was one of the organizers of the July mutiny in Kronstadt, responsible for the killing of marine officers. In late July, was arrested, but on October 11. released. In November. 1917 headed the detachment of seamen sent to Moscow to suppress the anti-Bolshevik speeches. Arriving in Moscow, sailors Raskolnikov launched a real terror: the pretext of searching for stores of weapons was carried out house searches and arrests, executions were practiced on the spot. As soon as possible detachment of Raskolnikov crushed all resistance in the city. Member of Constituent Assembly. On 29/01/1918 Deputy. People's Commissar for Naval Affairs, then a member of the Revolutionary Military Council (PBC), the Eastern Front, and from 2/9/1918 member of the Revolutionary Military Council. At the end of 1918 was appointed deputy. Commander of the 7 th Army, Marine and member of the PBC of the Baltic Fleet. At the head of a large detachment (battleship, cruiser, 2 destroyers), which was to oppose the British navy. He proved himself incompetent commander and in early 1919 was bzyat prisoner in the destroyer "Spartacus". 27.5.1919 was traded for 17 prisoners, the British officers. In 1919-20 commander of the Astrakhan-Caspian (then the Volga-Caspian) military. Flotilla. Cultural and educational department of the fleet headed wife Raskolnikov - LM. Reisner, and the political department - her father, MA. Reisner. In June 1920 - January. 1921 Baltic Fleet Commander. During the discussion on trade unions (1920) was one of the most active supporters L.D. Trotsky. The fleet was in a half-decayed state, and Raskolnikov could not do anything to strengthen it, in addition, extremely awkward Raskolnikov's actions led to a sharp increase in the fleet of discontent by the Bolsheviks. A month after the departure of Raskolnikov in Kronstadt rebellion broke out. From disorder Raskolnikov ill, broke MI. Kalinin, "gave the wine, a special table, drugs, and the crisis has passed". In 1921-23 Ambassador to Afghanistan, which was the first country to establish diplomatic relations with Soviet Russia. Too active and inept actions Raskolnikov called Britain's demands for its withdrawal from Afghanistan. The Soviet government refused to Britain, but some time later withdrew under the pretext of Raskolnikov. In the 1924-30 editor of "Young Guard", the chief editor of "Moscow Worker". Soon Raskolnikov was also the editor of Krasnaya Nov; his predecessor was accused of "counter proletarian culture" and removed. In 1928, before. Chief repertory Committee, which carried out the most severe censorship of dramatic, musical and cinematographic works. Since 1929 member of the Board of People's Commissariat of Education of the RSFSR and the beginning. General Directorate for the Arts, which entered and Glavrepertkom. Under his direct leadership is banned play MA. Bulgakov, conducted mediocre market-determined editing works by writers. In 1930 released a social tragedy, "Robespierre," which immediately began to put in many theaters. Even the most generous to Raskolnikov Soviet criticism of those years, noted that he "lacks the vitality and realism". In 1930-38 Ambassador to Estonia, Denmark, Bulgaria. In March 1938, summoned to Moscow. How could a prolonged return, and then to the departure date 1/4/1938 received a message that he was found guilty of "desertion". Refused to return and become defector. In 1939, in absentia expelled from the party, and the Supreme Court of the USSR 17/7/1939 Raskolnikov declared an "enemy of the people", "outside the law" and deprived of his Soviet citizenship. Posted in France (October. 1939), a widely known "Open Letter to Stalin" (written 17/8/1939), which became the most dramatic and at the same time, the most credible allegations Stalin's mass repressions. "Stalin, you have declared me" outlaw ". By this act you call me in the rights - more precisely, . of powerlessness - all Soviet citizens, . are under your dominion live outside the law, . - Wrote Raskolnikov - you started the carnage with the ex-Trotskyites, . Zinovievists and Bukharinites, . then transferred to the extermination of the old Bolsheviks, . then destroyed the Party and non-personnel, . grew up during the Civil War and who bore the brunt of the construction of the first five, . and organized the extermination of the Komsomol ",
. In this case, very convincingly denouncing the dictatorship of Stalin, Raskolnikov is focused only on the allegations of repression against the Bolsheviks, farmers, workers. He did not touch, and could not touch, mass executions of "class enemies", the huge masses of people who did not have any relation to the party nomenklatura. He died under suspicious circumstances (dropped out of the window), one of the most common versions - murdered by agents of the NKVD. In 1963, rehabilitated.
To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000


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Raskolnikov (cf.. Pham. Ilyin) Fedor Fedorovich (January 28. 1892, St. Petersburg, - 12 Sept.. 1939, Nice, France). From the priest's family. After real-uch я+п¦ (1908) student of Petersburg. politekhnich. Inst. Since 1910 tsp. RSDLP, Bolshevik. In 1911-12 employee gas. Star ', secretary. editors 'Truth'. In 1914 he called for the Navy, he studied at the Dept.. midshipman's classes (he graduated in 1917, on March 25 produced in warrants).

After the February. Revolution of 1917 on behalf of the editors 'Truth' on March 17 sent to Kronstadt Bolshevik Received. gas. 'Voice of Truth', introduced in Kronstadt to-t Bolsheviks, was elected vice. prev. Of Workers, Soldiers. and Sailors' Affairs. Affairs. 7 th (April) Vseros. Conf. RSDLP (b) of the Kronstadt org-tion. In June, a delegation of the mountains. Council with information about the Kronstadt affairs traveled Vyborg, Helsingfors, Abo, Revel. July 4 is one of the leaders of armament. demonstration of sailors and workers in Petrograd, July 5, Kshesinskaia appointed commandant of the palace, which housed the Central Committee of the Bolsheviks and the PC: organized the protection of the palace. July 7 returned to Kronstadt, and on 13 July, pursuant to an order ACCESSED. Prospect Island, which required (under the threat of deprivation of Kronstadt bread and money) to arrest the 'ringleaders' of the July demonstration, voluntarily arrived in Petrograd, and was imprisoned for 'Crosses'. I hoped the court to expose antinar. Provisional policy. Prospect Island and defend the honor of the party, proving that the Bolsheviks are not germ. agents. October 11. pressure sailors and workers released on bail in 3 thousand. Rub. to court. At the Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region. (Petrograd, 11-13 October.) Elected a member of the Executive Committee of Soviets of the Northern Region. October 14. commissioned RSDLP (b) traveled to Novgorod and then in Lugu to study the situation on the ground.

October 20. spoke on behalf of RSDLP (b) a lecture on 'Prospects for passage, Revolution of' (at a rally in the circus 'Modern' in Petrograd), called on the workers and soldiers to armament. rebellion: during the rally cold and 21-25 October. was ill. On October 26. tsp. Petrograd. WRC: one of the leaders of the fighting against the troops п-.пг. Kerensky - P.N. Krasnov at Pupkova. Nov 2. headed sailor detachment, sent to the aid workers of Moscow. 13 Nov.. appointed Commissioner Moore. Staff, 1 st All-Russia. Congress Military. Navy (Petrograd, Nov. 18-25.) for the roar. merits as a lieutenant of the fleet.

Elected members to establish. Coll. (from Petrograd. izbirat. District). January 5. 1918 to offer VI. Lenin read at meeting, established. Coll. declaration of the Bolsheviks that the Bolshevik. fraction leaves the meeting.

On January 30. 1918 Deputy. Commissar for mor. Cases. Feb. 23. In the days of the onset of germ. troops Joint. with Deputy. Commissar for mor. Cases I.I. Vakhrameev and member of the board of the Commissariat S.E. Sachs made in 'Proceedings of Helsingfors Soviet of the Army, Navy and working with an appeal to the sailors to defend the Soviet. Republic. One of the leaders 'Ice' campaign Baltic Fleet ships from Revel in Helsinki and Kronstadt. In May, one of the organizers of the sinking of ships Chernomordik, Fleet in Novorossiysk to prevent 'capture of their germ. occupiers. Since July, a member of the PBC Vost. Front, from August. teams. Volga Military. Flotilla. In Sept.-Dec. Member RMCR. In December. headed razvedpohod destroyer, 'Spartacus' by Revel, where the ship crashed and was captured by the British, Raskolnikov was jailed in London. In May 1919 at the request of the Soviet. Prospect Island was released in exchange for 19 English. officers captured in the territory. Owls. Russia.

Since 1919 the military., Dipl.. and journalist, working. Since 1930, the Soviet Ambassador to Estonia, Denmark, Bulgaria. In 1938 it was withdrawn. Due to the threat of arrest, refused to return to the USSR. In 1939 declared 'enemy of the people', expelled from the Party and deprived of owls, citizenship outlawed. In France, published: July 22, 1939 public statement, "How I made the 'enemy of the people'", in October, 'Open letter to Stalin'. In the publications came out against crime I.V. Stalin, in defense of themselves and other innocent victims of the Party and the Soviet. gos Islands. Rehabilitated 10 July 1963.

Used materials article VN Zabogina in the book.: Politicians Russia 1917. Biographical Dictionary. Moscow, 1993.


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Raskolnikov (cf.. Pham. Ilyin) Fyodor (1892, St. Petersburg - 1939, Nice, France) - member of the revolutionary movement, the Soviet military and statesman. Bastard Priest. He was brought up in an orphanage, in 1908 graduated with honors real uch-School and a year later went to St. Petersburg Polytechnic Inst. Here, in 1910 entered into a roar. movement ( "made me a Marxist, Plekhanov, Lenin - Bolshevik"). Since 1911, published in the Bolshevik newspaper "Star" under the pseudonym "Raskolnikov". In 1912 became secretary of the editorial board of Pravda. First arrested in 1913 and sent abroad; amnesty on the occasion of 300 anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. "It has long been gravitating to the marine element, with the beginning of the First World War, Raskolnikov, not stopping roar. work done in individual classes of midshipman; made two further training hike (Japan, Korea, Kamchatka); released a midshipman at the Baltic Fleet. After the February roar. directed the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party in Kronstadt Deputy. Chairman of the Board and the editor of gas. "Voice of Truth". In April. 1917 met with Lenin. For participation in the July demonstration (the column headed sailors) is imprisoned, but soon released. Actively participated in the October uprising and in battles with units of Kerensky - Krasnov at Pupkova. On Feb.. 1918 Member of the board of the People's Commissariat for Naval Affairs. During the fighting in the Baltic Sea was taken prisoner by the British and spent 5 months. in a London prison, was exchanged for 19 British officers. Upon his return was appointed commander of the Volga-Caspian Flotilla, was a member of the RVS Vost. Front and the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. Since June 1920 - Baltic Fleet Commander. In a number of military merit Raskolnikov's victory over the White fleet under the command of the king, Admiral Stark, daring liberation "of the barge of death" with prisoners owls. employees and others. He was awarded two Orders of Red Banner. In 1921 - 1924 was in the diplomatic service in Afghanistan, is the first joint. diplomat, foreign decorations awarded for the consolidation of friendship between the two countries. Since 1924 - the USSR, edited by J.. "Young Guard" and "Red Virgin Soil," led by publishing house "Moscow Worker". He is famous as a writer, playwright, author of the book. "Kronstadt and St. Petersburg in 1917, Tales Sub-Lieutenant Ilyin and others. However, Raskolnikov is involved in the formation of the administrative-command system in the field of culture: in 1928 - 1930 and headed Glavrepertkom Glaviskusstvo. Then again was in the diplomatic service in Estonia, Denmark, Bulgaria. During the "Great Terror" 17 July 1938 Raskolnikov was sentenced to capital punishment. This prompted him to become a "defector" and published in the foreign press, two open letter: "As I have done an" enemy of the people "and" Open Letter to Stalin ", . where he accused the "Great Leader" in the destruction of the Leninist party and replace it with its own "autocracy",
. Raskolnikov is to Stalin prophetically predicted: "Sooner or later the Soviet people will seat you at the dock as a traitor to socialism and revolution, the main villain, a true enemy of the people, the organizer of hunger and judicial fraud". Rehabilitated in 1963.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.


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Raskolnikov Fedor Fedorovich (1892-1939). Member RSDLP from 1910. He studied at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, later - in the midshipman classes. During 1912 - 1913 i.i. was secretary of Pravda. After the February Revolution - Deputy Chairman of the Kronstadt Soviet, editor of the newspaper "Voice of Truth". During the events of July was arrested but soon released on demand of the sailors. Participated in the October armed uprising, to reflect the attack on Petrograd Kerensky-Krasnov. Since 1918. - Deputy People's Commissar for Naval Affairs, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Eastern Front, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. In 1919-1920. - Commander of the Volga-Caspian Flotilla. In 1920-1921,. - Baltic Fleet Commander. In 1921-1923 he. - Ambassador to Afghanistan. In 1924-1930 he. - Executive editor of several journals, publishing houses, "Moscow Worker", etc.. In 1930-1938 he. - Ambassador to Estonia, Denmark, Bulgaria. Absentia expelled from the party, from abroad did not return, declared an enemy of the people. He was rehabilitated posthumously.


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