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RYKOV Alexey

( Soviet party and state leaders.)

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Rykov, Alexei Ivanovich (1881, Saratov - 1938, Moscow) - Soviet party and state leaders. The son of a peasant, to migrate to the city to earn. Childhood Rykov was in need. With the help of elder sister was able to act in a classical gymnasium in Saratov. Despite the brilliant successes in school, received a "4" for the behavior, tk. defiantly not go to church. From 1898, he became a member of the RSDLP. In 1900 he entered the Faculty of Kazan University. Entering the local party committee, led the workers' circles. In 1901, he was arrested and deported to Saratov, where in 1902 became one of the organizers of the May Day demonstration, escaping from exile, went into hiding.

In 1903 he traveled to Geneva, where he met with VI. Lenin established contact with agents of "Iskra". After the II Party Congress became a Bolshevik. In 1904, did a great strike on Sormovo factory restored wrecked the Moscow organization RSDLP. At III RSDLP Congress was elected to the CC. In 1905 he was arrested in the St. Petersburg Committee, but was released on Manifesto October 17, 1905. Participated in the December armed uprising in Moscow. In 1906 was arrested again. "In brief glimmers of" freedom "in front of me, as in film, flashed villages, cities, people and events, and I'm always rushing somewhere in cabs, horses, steamboats. Repeatedly sent into exile, fled once again found himself behind bars. Conducted work in Moscow and Petrograd. Active participant of the October Revolution, Rykov became Commissar of Internal Affairs of the first Soviet government - SNK. beyond this there is only one way: retention of a purely Bolshevik government by means of political terror ". As head of the Moscow Food Committee, traveled to the south and organized the promotion stuck grain trains. Since 1918 he headed the Supreme Economic Council, was engaged in the nationalization of industry and the creation of the state mechanism of distribution of goods, provision of the Red Army. In 1921 due to illness, Lenin was appointed his deputy, in 1924 headed the Soviet government. Supporter Nappo (cm. X Congress Kavbureau), Rykov opposed the emergency measures during the collectivization and industrialization, and this view was qualified and. V. Stalin as the "Right deviation in the CPSU (b). Expelled from the Politburo, Rykov in 1931 - 1936 was People's Commissar of the USSR's. In 1937 was expelled from the Party and arrested. Shot in the case of Pravotrotskistskogo anti-Soviet bloc. Was rehabilitated in 1988.

Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.

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Rykov, Alexei Ivanovich (1881-1938). In 1900, Mr.. enrolled in the Law Faculty of Kazan University. Joined the party in 1889, was elected the first Central Committee and participated in the 1905 Revolution. After the February Revolution - Member of the Presidium of the Moscow Council. Opposed in the April Theses. I. Lenin, believed that the socialist revolution in Russia there are no forces and conditions. At the VI Congress of the RSDLP elected member of the CC. Since September 1917. - Member of the Presidium of the Petrograd Soviet. In November, 1917. long been the People's Commissar of the Interior in the first Soviet government, in disagreement with the policy of the Central Committee came out of the Council of People's Commissars and the Central Committee. Since mid-November 1918. - Deputy Chairman of the Moscow Council of National Economy and the Commissioner for food in Moscow Province. In 1918 - 1921 and 1923-1924,. - Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council, together with 1921. - Deputy Chairman of the SNK and STO, June 1919. - Extraordinary Plenipotentiary to supply the army and navy. In 1924-1930 he. - Chairman of the SNK. while in 1924-1929 he. - Chairman of the RSFSR SNK. In 1926-1930 he. - Chairman of the Special Theory of Relativity. In 1931-1936 he. - Commissar connection. In 1905-1907, 1917-1934 gg. - Member of the Central Committee, in 1922-1930 he. - Member of the Politburo, in 1920-1924 he. - Member of the Organizing Bureau of the Party Central Committee. Member of the All-USSR Central Executive Committee. Was declared a "terrorist" during the first trial, arrested and falsely convicted on the third trial, executed in 1938, in February 1988. posthumously rehabilitated.

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RYKOV Alexei Ivanovich (1.2.1881, Sloboda Kukarka Concept Handicraft County Saratov province - 15.3.1938, Moscow), statesman. Son trader. He studied at the Faculty of Kazan University (not finished). In 1899 he joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. Conducted party work in Saratov, Kazan, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, St. Petersburg. Repeatedly arrested. In the 1905-07 term, in 1907-17 a candidate member RSDLP. In 1910-11 in exile in France. In 1917, a member of the executive committee of the Moscow City Council. from Sept.. 1917 - Petrograd. On 26/10/1917 Commissar of the Interior in the first Soviet government. Vavg. 1917 elected a member of the Party Central Committee. As a supporter of a coalition government with the participation of all leftist forces, P. 4/11/1917 resigned from the ANC, and CC. Nov 29. withdrew his resignation from the Central Committee. Member of Constituent Assembly. In April. 1918 - May 1921 before. Supreme Economic Council of the RSFSR, and also Deputy. prev. SNK (May 1921 - Feb.. 1923) and STO (May 1921 - July 1923). In 1919-20 Extraordinary Plenipotentiary of the SRT to supply the Red Army and Navy. 5/4/1920 - 23/5/1924 Member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee, with a member of the Politburo 3/4/1922. 6.7.1923 appointed before. Supreme Economic Council of the USSR and vice. prev. SNK and STO USSR. Given that before. SNK Lenin was seriously ill, in the hands of P. focused leadership for all activities of the Government. 2.2.1924 appointed before. SNK. At the same time in Feb.. 1924-May 1929 before. SNK of the RSFSR and January. 1926 - before. SRT USSR. After Lenin's death was actively supported I.V. Stalin in the fight against LD Trotsky, and later - against G.E. Zinoviev and L.B. Kamenev. At the XV Congress of the CPSU (b) in 1927, when they broke Zinoviev, said: "I bring a broom to Stalin, that he sweeps her our enemies". In 1928-29 opposed the closure of the NEP, forcing the industrialization and collectivization, which was declared a "Right deviation" in the CPSU (b). At the April Plenum of the CC (1929) severely criticized and "crushed". 19.12.1930 removed from the post before. SNK, and 21.12.1930 removed from the Politburo. On 30.1.1931 Commissar of Post and Telegraphs, the Soviet Union (17/1/1932 Commissariat renamed the People's Commissariat of Communications). At the XVII Congress of the CPSU (B) said in his speech about Stalin: "He is as leader and as an organizer with the victories of our greatest strength has shown itself in the very first time". In 1934, transferred from the members as a candidate member of the CC, CPSU (b). 26,9.1936 removed from his post as commissar and stayed out of work. At the plenary meeting in Feb.. 1937 expelled from the party and arrested on 27.2.1937. As one of the main culprits brought to an open trial "Pravotrotskistskogo anti-Soviet bloc. In their final statement said: "I want those who have not yet been unmasked and disarmed so that they immediately and publicly done ... help the Government to expose and eliminate the remnants, rump counterrevolutionary organization ". 13/3/1938 sentenced to death. Shot. In 1988, rehabilitated and restored in the party.

To use material from the book.: Zaleski KA. Stalin's empire. Biographical Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Veche, 2000

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Rykov, Alexei Ivanovich (13 Feb.. 1881, Saratov-15 March 1938, Moscow). From farmers. Schoolboy in 1898 joined RSDLP. In 1900-01 student Juridical. Faculty of Kazan, Zap: tsp. Kazan, to-ta RSDLP, in February. 1,901 arrested in Sept.. exiled to Saratov, where he went into a T-RSDLP, one of the organizers of the May Day demonstration in 1902. In 1903, with the help of agents gas. "Iskra" traveled to Geneva, where he met with VI. Lenin, after 2-th Party Congress (1903) Bolshevik. The summer of 1904 participated in the reconstruction of Moscow. org-tion RSDLP. Affairs. 3rd Party Congress (1905), elected a black. CC. In May 1905 arrested in St. Petersburg, but was released on October 17 Manifesto. Elected to the St. Petersburg. Council RD. Participant December. armament. uprising of 1905 in Moscow. Since late. 1905 tsp.

Mosk. Region. Bureau RSDLP. Affairs. 4 th Party Congress (1906): Speaking at the Congress of the Mensheviks criticism, saying: "If t. Axelrod was a good look at the Russian. reality, even with the Alps, he would have seen that after the famous manifesto of Prospect went so far as never. He would have seen the gallows, bayonets and the old and new prisons ... The logic of life moves to a new path of the Mensheviks. The logic of life brings the Mensheviks to the Cadets' G4-Q (Obedinit.) Party Congress. Protocols ", M., 1959,. 306]: elected member of. Central Committee. The summer of 1906 was arrested in Moscow, was exiled to Arkhangelsk Province., In 1907 ran. In May 1907 again arrested in Moscow and in 1908 exiled to Samara. At the 5 th Congress of the RSDLP (1907) in absentia was elected candidate. in tsp. CC. In April. 1909 went abroad on assignment Eng. Bureau RSDLP (in 1907-10 a member of the Bureau of the CC). In June 1909, the Meeting of the expanded edition of gas. Proletarian. Since autumn 1909 in Moscow, has repeatedly been arrested, cited, fled options. 1911 secretary. Zagray. org. Commission to convene the 6-th Conference. RSDLP. In August. 1,911 arrested in Moscow: exiled to Arkhangelsk Province. Released under an amnesty in connection with the 300 th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty in February. 1913. Since the summer of 1913 in Moscow, tsp. MK RSDLP. Soon arrested and sent to Narymsky Territory, in 1915, escaped, but re-arrested and returned to exile.

Released Feb. roar-tion 1917. In April. arrived in Moscow, has been working in the MC and Moscow. Region. Bureau RSDLP, K-those societies. org-tions in Moscow. Council RD. At the 1-st Moscow. Region. desks. Conf. (19 -21 May.) Supported PG. Smidovich on the need for control of the Council over operations of the RNC. Prospect Island. Affairs. 7 th (April) Vseros. Conf. RSDLP (b) (24-29 May.) From Moscow. org-tion, speaking in the debate on the report of VI. Lenin said: 'Can we count on the support of the masses, throwing out a slogan span. Revolution of? Russia - the chalk-koburzh. country in Europe. Count on the sympathy of the masses Sots. Revolution of impossible ". Believe that the support rate for Sots. roar-tion will lead the party to break away from the masses and turn it into a propagandist. circle. "The impetus for social roar-tion should be given to the West ... We have no forces, the objective conditions for this ". The Party must fully implement the minimum program "to socialism, but because of it, and must constantly focus our attention. Although it took 2 months. after the Revolution of "Dem platform. change not only carried out to implement it even would proceed. Before us lies the boundless sea of work on the development of revolutionary. gains on deepening roar-tion, and especially in the countryside. The broad mass of the population of Russia is only just awakening to the Revolution of (7-I (April) conference. RSDLP (b), with. 106, 107) In concluding remarks, said: "We must do so to give scope top [roar. struggle in Russia-Author]. We are faced with the question of passage, Revolution of, but we should not overestimate the forces "(ibid.,. 107). In May, elected member of. Bureau and Deputy. before, Moscow. Council RD; Affairs. 1-st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC (Petrograd, 3-24 June); elected candidate. in tsp. VTsIK. In July, when considering the issue at a meeting of Moscow. RD Council on coalition. Provisional. pr-ve on behalf of the Bolshevik faction announced that it is impossible to provide any support to such Prospect-woo; prestige 'roar. parties "in the country has fallen sharply, because" nowhere to be as quiet as the Council of Workers 'Deputies at the time, as the Cossacks and the cadets were searched in Petrograd workers' quarters, closing the trade unions and left-wing smashed printing. R. also made for the establishment of workers' control of production-ve and cons aimed at combating the roar. movement restoration of the death penalty (see: Ignatov EN, Moscow. RD Council in 1917, Moscow, 1925, with. 291-93). Affairs. 6 th Party Congress (July 26 - August 3.), Elected member of. CC. During performances gene. L.G. Kornilov (25-30 August.) Participated in the preparation of Moscow to resist the rebels, in the org-tion units Kp. Guard. Sep 4. was before. Joint meeting of the executive committees of Soviets of the RD and SD, adopted the statute of Kp. Guard. Sep 13. the meeting RSDLP (b) elected member of. Commission on the elaboration of a declaration of the Bolshevik faction in the Dem. Meeting: There was a supporter of the Bolsheviks' participation in the Pre. Sep 23. Party Central Committee adopted a decision to move Rykov from Moscow to Petrograd to work in Petrograd. Council RDA. Was introduced in the Bureau of the Petrograd. Council, but continued to work in Moscow.

During October. armament. Restore. was in the Smolny: Minister. 2-nd All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RNC, member. Presidium of the Congress, elected as a candidate. in tsp. VTsIK. A Candidate. in tsp. Mosk. SRW, but did not participate in the work, tk. was in Petrograd. In the first part of SNK Commissar ext. Affairs; first decree signed by P 'was the decree "On the workers' militia" (Oct. 28)..

Became a supporter of creating a "homogeneous Sots. pr-va ". At the meeting RSDLP (b) 1 Nov.. stated that "... is not serious about the negotiations [with the Vikzhel - Author) If we stop them, then we shrink back from those groups to support us, rye, and we will be able to retain power. Kamenev rightly negotiated. Essentially we have to fight for dominance in the CEC, CEC for defensist totally unacceptable "[" The Protocols RSDLP (b). August. 1917 - Feb.. 1918 ", Moscow, 1958, with. 1271 Nov 4. Joint. with G.E. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev, VP. Nogin and VL. Milyutin signed a statement in the Party Central Committee, in a rum-indicated that the Steering Group of the Central Committee "determined to prevent the formation of pr-va cos. parties and to defend a purely Bolshevik. pr-in to whatever has been and what would be the victims of the workers and soldiers at all costs. We can not be responsible for this disastrous policy of the Central Committee, carried out against the wishes of the vast part of the proletariat and the soldier, who crave an early end to the bloodshed between otd. parts of democracy. We put ourselves in the title so members of the Central Committee ... "(ibid.,. 135). On the same day signed a collective declaration of People's Commissars of the All-in-a rum stated: "We are at the point of view of the need for education Sots. Prospect Island from all the owls. parties ... We believe that beyond this there is only one way: retention of a purely Bolshevik. pr-va means his political terror. In this way joined SNK. We are on it can not and do not want to join. We see that this leads to the mass transit, org-tions of hand-va his political life, to the establishment of irresponsible. regime and to crush the Revolution of the country and. Be responsible for this policy, we can not and therefore cease to be before the CEC title nar. Commissioners "(ibid.,. 136).

On 9 Nov., in Moscow, headed by Moscow. Ask. to-t, to ensure Moscow's bread went to the southern. p-HN country. Was Commissioner for food in Moscow. Region. Council in Feb.. 1918 tsp. Collegium of the RSFSR People's Commissariat of Food. In March - April. Commissioner for Food in Moscow. SNK. On April 3. prev. VSNKh. Tsp. Party's Politburo in 1919-30. Since 1921 Deputy. prev. SNK and STO RSFSR in 1923-24 - the USSR and the RSFSR in 1924-30 before. SNK and in 1926-30 before. SRT USSR. In late. 20-ies. opposed the use of exceedingly. measures during the collectivization and industrialization, which was declared a "right-leaning in the CPSU (b). In the 1931-36 People's Commissar of the USSR's.

At the February-March Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) in 1937 and expelled from the Central Committee of the Party. In Feb.. 1,937 arrested: in March 1938 in the case of Pravotrotskist. antises. Block sentenced to death Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR. Rehabilitated in 1988.

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