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Nikolai Sukhanov

( The Menshevik)

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Biography Nikolai Sukhanov
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Sukhanov (cf.. Pham. Himmer) Nikolai Nikolaevich (27 Nov.. 1882, Moscow, 29 June 1940). Father (of Russified Germans) - J. small-d. employee, mother - midwife. (Dramatic. events of family life Himmer, later served for LN. Tolstoy basis for writing the play "Living Corpse," seriously affected the formation of the personality of Sukhanov: close Sukhanov, noting his fairness and personal integrity, spoke about the harsh harsh.) At the end of 1902 1-st Moscow. school he studied in Paris, in the Supreme. school, society, science (University are free to grow. roar. youth), listening to lectures VI. Lenin YU.O. Martov, LD. Trotsky, VM. Chernoff. After returning to Russia from the middle. 1903 Member of the wash. SR org-tion: he entered the economical. Dept., Moscow. Zap In May 1904 he was arrested, released by the Revolution of 1905-07, took part in Moscow. Restore. In 1907-10 produced a series of works by RGM. topics at this time on his own. According to Sukhanov, it becomes a "complete Marxist" (Pomegranate, with. 710). In 1910, as an active SR exiled to Arkhangelsk. Collaborated in legal journals narodnich. wing. In 1913, he returned to St. Petersburg, edited w. "Contemporary", transformed with the participation of M. Gorky in 1915 in Well. "Chronicle. By series antivoen. articles and pamphlets. Belonged to a group of non-factionalism S.-e. maintained contact with the Bolsheviks and the "Interdistrictites". At the same time, he wrote Sukhanov, ".. I was actually connected, because of personal contacts and business relations with many, we can say with all Sots. parties and office-tions Petersburg (Sukhanov, N., Notes on the Revolution of t. 1 Berlin - P-AM, 1922,. 44). Was a Freemason. Awareness societies polit -. Sukhanov provide life support plural. his political leaders.
In Feb. Revolution of 1917 as a representative of Sukhanov "a social. lit. group had the evening of 27 Feb.. elected member of the executive committee of the Petrograd. Of the RDA, although, according to the OA. Yermansky, Sukhanov was a man "... no one representing, known only as a journalist and opponent of the war, nor with any party. org-tion is not connected, so even with an uncertain his political complexion "(" From the experienced, ML., 1927,. 158). The Council supported the proposal to transfer the government at. pr-woo, creates time. K-State Volume. Duma: "Power, the technology to replace the tsarist government, must be only the bourgeois" (Sukhanov N 'Notes ..., kn. 1,. 21): participated in the negotiations with the delegation of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Provisional. K-State Volume. Duma, has developed the conditions of this transfer, the latest member of the "contact" of the Commission, regulate the relationship between the Council and the Provisional. Prospect PTO. He was one of the authors of the Petrograd. Council of 14 March "To the Peoples of the world". In late. May Sukhanov, on the recommendation YU.O. Martov came in the Mensheviks. All the forces of Sukhanov gave gas. "New Life". Articles Sukhanov came to Lenin's reason for writing papers, to-ryh gave an appraisal of the situation in the country. Lenin explained the attention to the articles of Sukhanov by the fact that he, as one of "the best representatives of melkoburzh. democracy ", had views that are typical for the" thousands and thousands (VI Lenin, PSS, T. 34,. 122, 126). The Executive Committee of the Petrograd Sukhanov was elected not as a representative of the Menshevik. party, but because of personal authority.

In Sept.. Center, Bureau of the Menshevik-Internationalists Sukhanov included in its delegation to Dem. meeting, but concurrently. rejected his candidacy in the inaugural. Coll. Sukhanov himself later wrote: "... entering into the group of Menshevik Internationalists, I actually stayed wild and in any case felt as such" (N. Sukhanov, Zapiski ..., kn. 4,. 214). Sukhanov agree with the thesis of the Mensheviks the absence of "objective conditions" for the Socialist. Revolution in Russia, called Lenin April. Theses "reckless anarchist rebel" system (ibid., Bk. 3,. 52), but welcomed the changing seasons. pr-va "Sov. power and the first decrees of the CNS (ibid., Bk. 7,. 250, 255), although he did not believe in the possibility of building socialism in a backward, peasant, dispersed, impoverished country "(Ibid.. kn. 3,. 33). The question of power, according to Sukhanov, would be to establish "the dictatorship of owls. democracy "- block all Sots. parties in the Council (ibid., KH. 6, C. 42, 122, 254).

Ironically, the historical. meeting RSDLP (b) on October 10. which has taken the decision to armament. uprising took place in the apartment of Sukhanov, by-Rui invited his wife - Bolshevik GK. Flakserman, who worked in the Secretariat RSDLP (b).

Ratio of Sukhanov to roar. events were, in his priv. expression, . contradictory: "Standing on the left wing of socialism, . I am in the very first Revolution of the period saw the main danger for her in the Bolsheviks, . because they put forward the slogan of immediate seizure of power by the working class, . I also saw it as a sure failure Revolution of ..,
. Lenin came to its program, and I was again pushed back away from the Bolsheviks, still (in the Council and "New Life") as a wild fight with a coalition of landowners, the bourgeoisie and the right-Soviet majority. I ... considered a "Bolshevik second-class" ... The power of the Bolshevik Party was in my eyes, the Jacobin dictatorship and it seemed to me a disastrous ... Sep 23., . when the victory of October has already clearly loomed in the near future, . I wrote ..., . what awaits us in the case of seizure of power by the Bolsheviks: hunger, . collapse, . chaos, . counterrevolution "(Center, . Archive, . Ming-wah RF Security, . criminal case against Sukhanov, NN).,

. After the October Revolution as a member of the All 3rd and 4 th Legislature (January, June, 1918), Sukhanov at its meetings assailed with criticism of ANC, accusing him of anarchism, the collapse of the economy: during the negotiation of the Brest peace was made by a supporter of revolutionary
. War with Germany. In the unfolding of the Civil. War, June 14, 1918 the Central Executive Committee had omitted from his composition and the Soviets at all levels of the Right SRs and Mensheviks, in t.ch. and Sukhanov. Almost concurrently. was closed "New Life". In 1918-19 he worked in economical. organs of the state apparatus, in 1920 tsp. PBC 1 st Labor army in the Urals.

Sukhanov wrote about the events of 1917 his "Notes on the Revolution of" - memoirs of 7 volumes, published in the Berlin branch of the private publishing house wa Z.I. Grzhebina in the series "Chronicles Revolution of" in 1922-23. Ratings of the Notes ...", present themselves under scrutiny, expressed VI. Lenin, L.D. Trotsky, I.V. Stalin P.N. Miliukov, MN. Pokrovsky, S.P. Mel'gunov etc.. politicians, historians, journalists. Work has become a recognized source for the history of revolution of 1917, was published in the plural. world.

By the late. The Civil. War came out of the Menshevik Sukhanov. party because of disagreements with its line in the Intern. labor movement. With the transition Owls. gos Islands to the NEP, he finally broke with Menshevism. Worked in decomp. cos. institutions in the Urals, Moscow and abroad, engaged in economical. research. In July 1930 arrested. In March 1931 the case of the Federal Bureau of Central Committee of the Mensheviks' sentenced to 10 years in prison. In 1935 the prison was replaced by a reference, in 1937, arrested again in 1940 shot. Maybe it was revenge for Stalin's assessment, given to him by Sukhanov in "Notes ...", as" gray spots, sometimes looming dimly and without a trace "(N. Sukhanov, Zapiski ..., kn. 2,. 266). He was rehabilitated posthumously ..


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