CHAYAN Alexander( agricultural economist)
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Biography CHAYAN Alexander
Chayanov, Alexander V. (1888, Moscow - 1937) - agricultural economist. Born in wealthy family and cultural entrepreneur. Received a good initial home training, discovering early interest in science. In 1906, after graduating from secondary school, aspirations became a student of the Moscow Agricultural Institute. Enthusiastically engaged in student scientific agronomic circle, in 1908 published his first scientific paper on agricultural co-operatives in Italy. Under the influence of Russia's first revolution Chayanov became a convinced socialist, but did not belong to any party. Having studied the experience of the cooperative movement in Western Europe, . he became one of the most authoritative scholars in the field of agricultural cooperation and the organization of agriculture, . developed ideology, . methods for determining the profitability of the farm, . its individual branches,
. A man of encyclopedic knowledge and broad interests, aspirations gained fame as a writer, author of poems ( "Lyalina book", 1912), stories (see: AV Chayanov. Venetian mirror: Tale. M., . 1989), . collector of icons and engravings, . he engraved on a tree and wrote a number of interesting works on the history of art ( "Old West engraving", . 1926), . expert in the history of Moscow ( "History Miusskaya Square", . 1918; "Petrovsko-Razumovskoe in its past and present", . 1925), . lecturing at the National University are of,
. AL. Shanyavsky in Moscow. un-te, a passionate bibliophile, collected a unique library. But above all it was a large agricultural scientists, who saw the concrete form of cooperation in the implementation of universal ideas of mutual aid needed for any social system. He took the February and October after the oscillations roar., Becoming in 1918 a Doctor of Science, Professor Peter S.-x. Academy. In 1919 headed the Institute of Social-x. economy, was among members of the board of the Commissariat. Organizational skills and scientific authority Chayanov provide leadership, to-Roe, he sought to use opposition to the communist administrators ignorant of scientific advice. Chayanov suggested reasonable to combine the spontaneous development of economic life with state. and social activities, believing that the basis of the agricultural building should be a cooperative peasant households of. Not doubting the benefits of large households over small islands in the industry, Chayanov believed that the high concentration of SA-X. production is not profitable, and drew a conclusion about the desirability of small and middle peasant households Islands. Views Chayanov and his school had been declared anti-Marxist, accused scientist was charged desire to preserve individual peasant households Islands, underestimation of the role of the proletariat, to protect the interests of the kulaks. 1929 I.V. Stalin said: "It's unclear just why the unscientific theory of" Soviet "economists such as Chayanov should be free circulation of our newspapers". In July 1930 Chayanov was arrested. Convicted on trumped-up case "Workers and Peasants' Party". October 3. 1937 re-tried in the Special Meeting of the NKVD, and the same day shot. His wife, who had spent in the camps, with short breaks of 18 years, died in 1983, never having achieved the rehabilitation of her husband, declared the Supreme Court of the USSR July 16, 1987.
Used materials kn.: Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographical Directory. Moscow, 1997.
Chayanov, Alexander V. (January 17, 1888, Moscow - October 3, 1937). Genus. a merchant-middle class family of peasant immigrants. After graduating from a technical school, he entered in 1906 in Moscow, St. X. Institute (MSHI: later - Peter, now Timirjazevskaja SA-X. Academy), where he taught D.N. Pryanishnikov, п-.пг. Fortunatov, NN. Khudyakov. Been influenced by the roar. ideas 1905 - 1907, became a convinced socialist, but unaffiliated. In the holidays 1908 and 1909 student Chayanov acquainted with org-tion of Agronomy and S.-s. Cooperation in Italy and Belgium. Observations and conclusions published in 1909 and 1910 in f. Journal C. X-wah "and otd. brochure; they Chayanov first formulated the idea that within. structure of the cross. x-va "reveals to us a bundle, a number of individual S.-x. techn. processes to rye-volitional activity, households, Human economically connected to the x-vo ... Each of these processes are so independent, that can be removed without disturbing the overall organizational. Plan X-va "(Journal of C. X-va-1909,? 36,. 8-9). This conclusion was for the student Chayanov starting to assess the nature and meaning of the Cross, co-operation: "... the possibility - without a major break-organizational. plan with minor. x-va-rye neck organize its individual techn., farms, processes, in a large-ryh production of has an undoubted advantage - by providing them and merge with similar processes from neighbors in the cooperative "(ibid.). Find ways to incorporate in modern. economy not only for the "strong", but for the whole mass of labor (as a rule, do not take wage labor), cross-x in explaining otritsat. relationship to Chayanov RGM. Reform P.A. Stolypin.
Having obtained a diploma in 1911 scientist-agronomist 1-st degree, taught in Chayanov MSHI, Nar. un-te AL. Shanyavsky etc.. In 1912 was on a business trip (Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy) "training for faculty to engage in St.-x. economy ", concurrently. worked on "Essays on the theory of labor x-va" (M. h. 1-2, 1912-13). In 1915 was published "A short course of cooperation" (MI), in to-rum, he introduces readers to the history of the COOP. movement in Russia and abroad, reveals the essence of org-tion credit associations, will require on-in and production, co-operatives. In scientific. Chayanov with respect to the first publications belonged to the "organizational and production. school, begun in 1904 by AN. Chelintsevym, then became its leading spokesman and de facto head (in the 20-ies. this scientific. direction has received the name. "School Chayanov). Instructors. and researchers. Chayanov activity combined with participation in the COOP. and societies. org-tsiyah. During the 1-st world. war he worked in decomp. The Commission highlighted the meeting on food, in cont. org-tsiyah Vseros. Land Union and economical. Department Vseros. Cities Alliance, by participating, in particular, in an overall plan for food security of the population (1916). In 1915, an associate professor of Chayanov has become one of the organizers and leaders of the Center, T-va flax (Center, Union lnovodch. Cooperatives - Lnotsentra). In scientific. Plan a Chapter. activities Chayanov was further development of the theory of the cross, x-va.
Active participant in the events Febvre. Revolution of 1917, expectations primarily sought to promote a radical change in a. x-ve. At Vseros. COOP. Congress (25-27 March) was elected a member of the All-Russia. COOP. Congresses - the supreme governing body COOP. Traffic. By providing strong support for the Provisional. pr-woo, Chayanov considered necessary consolidation of society, the strength to cope with the devastation of the country exacerbated. Overcoming Ask. crisis were devoted to his lectures and articles in the press (Rus. Vedomosti, 1917, "34:" People Power ", 1917, April 29., May 21, June 21, etc.). Actively supported the creation of cont. to-ing: provincial, county and township elected Dem. by and accountable to the people (see: Chayanov AV, Prod. question. Lectures delivered at the courses to prepare workers for the cult-lumen. work with the student councils of deputies in April 1917, Moscow, 1917, with. 33).
Hd. Chayanov activity was the development of RGM. reform. One of the founders of the League of RGM. reforms aiming to review the outdated with 19054) 7 RGM. programs and transfer them from the narrow desks. lanes and desks. debate on the wider area of Joint. of all economical. Forces ". During Vseros. COOP. Congress held its first meeting of the founders of the league (57 representatives decomp. parties and movements), on the f-rum was elected Org. to-t. 16-17 April. passed inaugural. Congress of the League (136 cases. 20 provinces), as a member of SO. to-ta Chayanov made a presentation on the principles of TOC-ment problems, the draft Regulations on the league RGM. Reform: The Board entered into the league and its Center. dispose. to-t. At the 2 nd Congress of the League (June), also spoke about the problems RGM. reform on the 3 rd Congress (Nov.) - about the nature of the cross. x-wah and zem. mode. Chayanov belongs to appeal to the members of the one-League: "We believe, . that: 1) labor cooperative farm should be the basis for agricultural construction in Russia and it must be transferred to the land of our country: 2) transfer, this should be accomplished based on the state plan for Land Reform, . - A planned and organized feasible without disrupting the production of our stress drug,
. x-va, 3) zem. device is only part of the RGM solutions, the problems of-paradise includes all issues related to the general conditions of Saint-x. pro-va, org-tion of labor in the x-and office-tion connection between these x-in with a world x-tion "(" Preface "- in all editions of the League of RGM. reform).
Justification program Chayanov contains his pamphlet "What is the agrarian question?" (Moscow, 1917), which expressed the revolutionary demands of 1917, and especially the requirement, which became the motto of all Dem. forces: "Earth - the working people!". Chayanov wrote: "... all the lands that are now in the use of large landowners x-wah, must be brought to the working cross. x-va "; this transfer chastnovladelch. land cross-woo could be made in the form of socialization and nationalization, and municipalization, and with the help of "a single tax on land" seized in favor of the people all of zem. rents, and, finally, through the creation of a "system of state. regulation of land tenure "in the ban on the sale and purchase of land. Chayanov sought to find a solution to the problem 'with less difficulty and at minimum cost to the socialization of land and the transfer of their employment x-woo, was leaning in favor of combining the last two options - State. regulation and progressive taxation of the tax law with the addition of the "expropriation of any land (in cases of violations of the Earth. regime established by law) that would enable "automatically in one or two decades to come to nationalization or municipality" (with. 20, 32-33, 41-45, 55, 58-59). Based RGM. reforms were supposed to lie on two principles: 1) the maximum productivity of national labor, attached to the earth: 2) democratization of the distribution of national income ". Chayanov rejected both capitalism and "state. socialism ", and" anarhich. Communism. Ensure the implementation of both principles, he believed, could only. Co-operation, and therefore the future RGM. system should be cooperative (ibid.,. 16, 18-19, 24-25). Author radical RGM. program is quickly gaining his political credibility - is a member of the Chapter. zem, a-ta, created for preparation and implementation of the Earth. conversion, a member of the Provisional. Council Ros. Republic (Pre-Parliament), Comrade. min. agriculture during. pr-ve (about two weeks), as "non-party socialist" elected members to establish. Coll.
Chayanov, despite the initial negative perception of October. Revolution of, agreed to work in joint. institutions and collaborated with them COOP. org-tsiyah. Since 1918 Professor. Peter S.-x. Academy. At the 1 st All-Russia. COOP. Congress (18-24 Feb.. 1918) Chayanov read lectures, participated in the discussions, who discovered the futility of confrontation of Soviet power, the absence of his political unity in the COOP. Program: Chayanov on the proposal at the congress was set to-t for the Protection of Cultural and Arts, the treasures of Russia, the presidium to-cerned entered Chayanov. K-t, Chayanov personally, have done much to save the cultural and arts, the treasures of the country. In COOP. Traffic Chayanov was a supporter of a compromise between the Soviet. power and co-operatives, their cooperation while preserving the autonomy of co-operatives in their households. Activities: member of the COOP. Delegation Nov 18. 1918 at the negotiations with the VI. Lenin on the fate of Moscow. People. Bank owned co. At the 2 nd All-Russia. Congress of Councils of National Economy (December. 1918) made a report on the SA-X. Cooperation. In 1919 headed the Supreme seminaries S.-s. economy and politics, transformed in the same year in the Institute of St. x. savings.
In 1919 came out odin.iz Chapter. scientific. Proceedings Chayanov kn. Basic Fixes. ideas and forms of org-tion cross. Co-operation (MS), where he wrote: "... without destroying those aspects of x-va, where small family production of it was technically easier to large, ... to identify and organize a major COOP. enterprises to industries in to-ryh this amalgamation gave significant positive effect "to finally organize all industries and of the cross, the x-va" to the extent and size of the social foundations of rye-the most it was approached ". This process Chayanov called "co-operative collectivization" (with. 15-16, 21, 301, etc.). He denied "communisation pro-wah" in a. x-ve, pointing to such difficult problems as the stimulation of work "," Labor Organization "and" transactor will ", ie. management.
In 1921-23 tsp. Board Commissariat of the RSFSR and its representative in Gosplan RSFSR. In March 1921 he worked in the Commissariat of the commission that drafted the "Basic Fixes. principles of tax in kind "- the most important steps of transition to the NEP. 23 Nov.. 1921 made in the State Planning Commission report, "Gen.. Plan Commissariat, which started work on planning with. x-va.
In the 20-ies. Chayanov were created works on the theory of family-labor cross, x-wah and cooperation, in Practical. theoretical application. knowledge and advice, conducted the cross examination, x-in on tap. p-tries of the country: the work published in Germany, Japan, India, China. Chayanov was not only an economist, science organizer and co-operation. In 1918-28, he wrote 6 novels, valued literary critics as "Russian. Hoffmanniade "(including socio-utopian. story "The Journey of my brother Alexei in cross country. Utopia ").
With the deployment of Stalin's "Revolution of the top" in the 1928-29 growing wave ideologich. and his political criticism of Chayanov Previously it was criticized for "neonarodnichestvo", now accused of "protecting the interests of the kulaks", "smuggling in Bourges. RGM. theories ". At the Conference of Marxist Agrarians (20-29 December. 1929) TN. chayanovschina was declared "agents of" imperialism, located in connection with the "Right deviation" in the CPSU (b) speaking her I.V. Stalin attacked the "unscientific. theory of "Soviet" economists such as Chayanov "(see:" Proceedings of the 1-st All-Russia. Conf. Marxist Agrarians, t. 1, Moscow, 1930). Forced to defend Chayanov wrote: "Actually I totally agree with the idea that once expressed by Jaures, that roar-tion can be either completely reject or accept as a whole, such as it is. This idea guided me all the years of our revolutionary. being. Therefore the question of my attitude towards October dared me ... on that January day, when the roar-tion rejected the idea of inaugural. Coll. and went under the sign of passage, the dictatorship. On Feb.. 1918. I connected his life with a roar. reconstruction of our country, and carefully trying to remember every day all these years, I believe that no one there can be no reason to take away my title owls. employee without any quotation marks ( "On the fate of neonarodnichestva, Clergy. Newspaper, 1930, January 29.). June 21, 1930 Chayanov was arrested on January 26. 1932 College of the OGPU convicted on trumped-up case "Workers and Peasants 'Party' to 5 years imprisonment in the camp, Oct. 3. 1937 Military. Top panel. Court of the USSR sentenced to death. Rehabilitated in 1987.