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Honorius

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Honorius
Honorius, Flavius - Roman emperor in 393-423 years. Son of Theodosius 1. Genus. Sep 9. 383 g. + August 15. 423 g.
***

Honorius, just like his brother, the Byzantine Emperor Arcade, was a worthless, sickly and weak-willed. From the beginning of self-rule in 395 g. and before his death he always was under the influence of others. Meanwhile, the era of his reign bia in Roman history of one of the most turbulent and full of tragic twists. After the death of Honorius Theodosius was in its management of Italy, Africa, Gaul, Spain, Britain and the Danube province Noricum, Pannonia and Dalmatia (Gibbon: 29). However, the supreme power belonged to him only by name, as all cases disposed Stilihon, Vandal by origin (Eunapius: 63). Dying Theodosius left him guardian over their young sons (Olympiodorus: 2). In 398 g. Stilihon married Honoria to his daughter Mary, who, according to ancient historians, having been married for ten years, and died a virgin (Gibbon: 29).

. Subsequently Stilihona accused in the attack on the imperial power, but even his enemies paid tribute to his energy and martial art
. Thanks to him, the empire for some time successfully repulsed the attacks of the barbarians. The main enemies of the Romans were the Goths, who lived in Illyria on the Rights of the federates. In November, 401 g. their King Alaric took Aquileia, and in winter 402 g. invaded Italy and went to the defenseless Mediolanu (Skrzhinskaya: 427). Honorius fled in terror from his residence and pursued by the Gothic cavalry, took refuge in Acme. Alaric proceeded to the fortress and led a vigorous siege. Situation of the Emperor seemed hopeless, but there was Stilihon and 6 April near Pollentia inflicted defeat Goths. Alaric retreated to Verona, where the summer of 403 g. was defeated for the second time. Then he concluded with Stilihonom world and left Italy back in Illyricum (Gibbon: 30). In 404 g. Honorius celebrated a triumph in Rome, but it is not ear Mediolan returned, and dwelt in fortified Ravenna, which henceforth became the capital of the Western Roman Empire.

Meanwhile, 406 g. Italy was invaded by a new army of barbarians, led by Radagaisus. Its main force is made up by vandals, the light-you and Burgundians. They besieged Florence, but there were surrounded and defeated Stilihonom. To repel this invasion he had to steal from anywhere in Italy the legions. Distant province were left without protection and were soon lost to the empire. The last day of 406 g. Hundreds of thousands of Svevo, Vandals, Alans and Burgundians crossed the frozen Rhine and invaded Gaul. Many cities were taken and plundered by them. In the next two years, the barbarians became masters of the whole of this vast and rich country from the Pyrenees and the Alps to the ocean (Gibbon: 30). After this revolt the British troops. Placing and overthrowing the host of several emperors, they are in 407 g. Constantine proclaimed Augustus. Constantine sent messengers to Honorius, and, referring to the fact that soldiers forced him against his will to take power, apologized and offered participation in the imperial power. Honorius as a result of difficulties encountered agreed to sopravitelstvo. After this, Constantine crossed in Bononia. Halting there, he drew on his side and all the Gallic Aquitaine soldiers and subdued all of Gaul up to the Alps (Olympiodorus: 12). In the short time he was subdued, and Spain (Gibbon: 30). True, this country was under his authority not more than two years. In 409 g. army of the Vandals, Alans and Suebi broke through the Pyrenees and the Spanish province of the rich subjected to the cruelest defeat (Gibbon: 31).

Ravenna yard or what could not help the Spaniards, as well as Italy itself was at that time infested with hordes of barbarians. New invasion ready preceded opal Stilihona. Using the long absences of a powerful of a powerful, his enemies (including the important role played by the Olympic) were able to undermine its credibility Emperor. Honoria inspired, though Stilihon intends to kill him in order to proclaim the emperor of his son Evheriya. In the summer of 408 g. Honorius went to Pavia, and said to the legions of memorized speech against Stilihona. At a given signal legionaries slew all the devotees Stilihonu commanders, including two praetorian prefects. News of these events have made the mutiny in the army Italic. Narrowly escaped death, Stilihon fled to Ravenna, under the protection-in-law, but the Olympic ordered to seize him and punish. After then, was executed by his son, and Caesar divorced his daughter Fermantsiey, whom he married recently. With the death Stilihona broke off negotiations with the Goths to pay them tribute (Gibbon: 30). Learning of the execution Stilihona not received the promised payment, Alaric fall 408 g. again invaded Italy (Olympiodorus: 3). At the end of the year the Goths rushed to Rome and besieged it, place the troops on the Tiber, so that the Romans could not bring any supplies to the city. After a considerable time from the beginning of the siege in the town of famine and epidemic of the disease began, and many slaves - especially the Barbarians - have run across to Alaric. Receiving many gifts, he finally lifted the siege on the condition that the emperor concluded a peace. Goths retreated to Ariminu and are tied through negotiations with Honorius prefect of Italy Ioviya. Alaric demanded money, food and dignity of the Roman general. Honorius agreed to give money, put provisions, but in the dignity warlord Alaric refused. Then King began to ask the land for settlement. Was refused, and in these requirements, Alaric in 409 g. the second time besieged Rome. Capturing the port, he forced the Romans to elect the emperor of the prefect of the city of Attalos. Then Attal proclaimed Alaric leader of both arms of the Goths moved on to Ravenna. Honorius, having learned about it, Attal wrote that he was happy to take it to the co-rulers. But Attal not want separation of powers and Honoria offered to abdicate, and settle on some island as a private person. Honorius refused, and Alaric began the siege of Ravenna. Meanwhile, Heraklion, ruled Africa, banned merchant ships sailed to Italy. Soon Italy was a shortage of food. In Rome opened a famine. Instead of bread they used chestnuts. Were noted even cases of cannibalism. Finally Alaric realized that fussed about the case, exceeding its capacity, and tied with Honorius talks deposition Attallah. Attal publicly resigned from the signs of imperial power, and Honorius promised not to remember him evil. But Attal, not trusting his word, stayed with Alaric. Alaric approached Ravenna, and again began negotiations with Honorius. At this time, someone Cap, born a barbarian, a surprise attack on ready and broke some of them. Enraged and frightened by this Alaric in 410 g. the third time besieged Rome, and this time took him to change. He commanded the Romans stole property and rob all the houses. They did not just those who took refuge in the cathedral of St. Peter (Sozomen: 9, 6-9). Ransacking the whole city and wiping out most of the Romans, the barbarians moved on. Say, . chtov this time in Ravenna is one of the eunuchs, . likely, . superintendent of his chicken houses, . said the Emperor Honorius, . that Rome perished, in response to the emperor cried aloud: 'Why, I have just fed him from their hands! " Fact, . that he had a huge cock, . on behalf of Rome, the eunuch specified, . that the city of Rome was killed by the hands of Alaric, calmer, . Emperor said: 'And I, . buddy, . thought, . it killed my cock! " Such large, . say, . was the folly of the emperor,
. Gripped by fear, he kept in readiness of the court, intending to flee to Libya or to Constantinople. But at the moment when it seemed that everything had already been lost, things suddenly became the most unexpected way to recover (Procopius: 'War of Justinian', 3, 2).

. Alaric died in the very year of his triumph, lived after the Roman destruction of only a few months
. New Gothic king Ataulf suspend hostilities and entered into negotiations with the imperial government to conclude a treaty based on mutual friendship and alliance. Honorius, who had no other opportunities for ready removal from Italy, willingly went to meet his wishes. Ataulf in 412 g. received the title of the Roman military commander and led his army in Gaul. Goths quickly took Narbonne, Toulouse, Bordeaux and settled around them as federates Empire (Gibbon: 31). However, finally found a replacement Stilihonu. Energetic commander Constantius defeated in 411 g. under Arelatom tyrant Constantine (Delighted Honorius hastened trust him power. In 417 g. he gave his sister Constance Galla Placidia, and 421 g. proclaimed Constantine Augustus and his co-regent (Olympiodorus: 16, 34)). Later Ataulf defeated two other usurpers - Jovinus and Sebastian - and sent their heads Honoria. In 414 g. Goths crossed the Pyrenees. The Alans were defeated and driven back by the Vandals in the mountains of Galicia. The new king is ready Wallia formally re-established in the Spanish provinces of the power of the Emperor. But really all the land beyond the Alps were permanently lost to the empire: Spain and southern Gaul, the Goths were settled; later the Burgundians and Franks were found federates and received the Gallic provinces of the vast lands for permanent settlement, Britain also retained its independence, . The local population and independently came to the fight against England and the Saxons (Gibbon: 31),
. Honorius hardly aware what is happening. His public display of feelings for his sister Galla Placidia, who remained a widow after the death of her husband, Constance (in 421), the frequent kisses on the mouth inspired many shameful suspicion. But then the hot love of brother and sister gave way to bitter hatred. Eventually Placidia left with the children in Constantinople. Shortly thereafter Honorius ill with dropsy and died (Olympiodorus: 40, 41).


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