Constance II( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Constance II
Constantius II, Flavius Julius - Roman emperor in 337-361 years. Son of Constantine 1. Genus. August 7. 317 g. Nov. 3 + 361 g.
In 324 g. Constantius was proclaimed Caesar. Father's death in 337 g. He took the title of August and received in the management of Asia, as well as the entire East, starting with Propontis (Victor: "The life and morals of the Roman emperors', 41). He was also charged with a war with the Persians, which he led for many years, but without much success. The Persian forces seized the city of his, . besiege his fortress, . and all his battles against the king Shapur II ended unsuccessfully, . except, . perhaps, . one, . y Singhara in 348 g., . where Constantius missed a clear victory because of the indiscipline of their soldiers (Eutropius: 10, 10),
. In 350 g. Constantius was distracted by a foreign war unrest in the Empire. It was learned that his brother Constans killed by conspirators and the emperor in Italy proclaimed Magnentius. At the same dishonestly seized power in Upper Moesia Vetranio, who commanded the infantry in Illyricum. Vetranio Constantius won without bloodshed, only the force of his eloquence. Near the town Serdica, where the two armies came together, was arranged like a gathering of the councils, and Constantius addressed the enemy soldiers (Victor: "O Caesar '; 41-42). Under the influence of his words are immediately went over to the legitimate emperor. Constantius Vetranio deprived of power, but out of respect for his old age has not only kept him alive, but gave him to live quietly in full. An allowance (Victor: "The life and morals of the Roman emperors'; 41). War with Magnentius was, however, an unusually bloody. In 351 g. Constantius defeated him in a difficult battle at the Moors on the river Drava. In this battle were killed on both sides of a huge number of Romans - more than 50 000 (Eutropius: 10, 12). Then Magnentius retreated to Italy. We Lugduna in 353 g. he was in a hopeless situation and committed suicide.
Again the Roman Empire united under one sovereign. According to Aurelius Victor, Constantius was sober for wine, food and sleep, is hardy in the works, is skilled in archery, and very fond of eloquence, but could not reach it because of the success of stupidity and envy because others. He is favored by the court eunuchs and women, their content, it is not mired in anything unnatural or ill. And of the wives who have tsego was very much, he most liked to Eusebius (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors'; 42). In all he was able to maintain the greatness of his rank. Any search for the popularity sickened his pride (Marcellinus: 21, 16). Constantius was a Christian since childhood, and with great enthusiasm given to theological disputes, but its interference in church affairs produced more troubles than the world. His reign was the era of the Arian heresy and the persecution of the Orthodox clergy (Gibbon: 21). According to Ammianus Mar-tsellina, the Christian religion, which differs integrity and simplicity, he combined with womanish superstition. Plunging into the interpretation rather than mere perception of it, he brought a lot of disputes (Marcellinus: 21, 16).
In 355 g. Constantius appointed co-regent with his cousin Julian and entrusted him with a bitter war in Gaul against the Germans. He himself was in 358 g. opposed Sarmatians. In the spring, when the Danube was still in flood, the Romans crossed over to the enemy coast. Sarmatians, not expecting such quick, fled from their villages. Arrived to help them quads defeat. Were then divided limiganty (Marcellinus: 17; 12-13). In 359 r. the news of the invasion of the eastern provinces of the empire of the Persian army. Constantius went to Constantinople, to be closer to the theater of military operations (Marcellinus: 19; II). In 360 g. he learned that the Germanic legions proclaimed Julian Augustus Caesar. Constantius was at a loss, because he could not decide whom to him before starting a war. After much hesitation he continued his Persian campaign and through Armenia joined Mesopotamia. The Romans besieged Bezabdu, but despite all the efforts have not been able to take it. Autumn, they retreated to Antioch (Marcellinus: 20, 9, II). Constantius was still in alarm and confusion. Only the autumn, the 361, after the Persians had left the Roman limits, he decided to start a war against Yuliana. From Antioch, the Emperor moved to Tara and then felt a slight fever. He continued on his way, but in Mobuskrenah illness overcame him completely. The heat was so great that it was impossible to touch his body. Medication is not acting; feeling at his last gasp, Constantius mourned its end and designated successor to his power Juliana (Marcellin: 21, 6, 13, 15).