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Diocletian

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Diocletian
Diocletian, Gaius Valeri Aurelius - Roman emperor in 293-305 years. Genus. 245 g. + December 3. 313
***

Diocletian was a native of Dalmatia, and was the origin is not so notable, that many considered him the son of a simple clerk, and others claimed that he was a freedman Senator Anulliana (Eutropius: 9, 19). On behalf of his mother and his hometown Diokleion before the authorities called Diocles, and only got power over the Roman world, remade its Greek name for the Roman fashion (Victor: "The life and morals of the Roman emperors'; 39). According Vopiska, Diocletian was always full of high ideas, sometimes, however, his face assumed an expression of some cruel, but prudence and extreme hardness, he suppressed the movement of his restless heart. They say that in his youth he had predicted that he would become emperor after the kill the boar, so in the soul of Diocletian had always been a thirst for imperial power. On the hunt, when given the opportunity, he always kill boars / but the imperial power, bypassing it, each time going to the of his associates. Therefore, Diocletian once told friends: 'Kabanov always kill me, but enjoy other tidbit'. However, Kar, he went to the Persian campaign, as chief of palace troops. After the death of Kara emperor his son Numerian. However, some time later he was brutally murdered prefect praetorian Aprom. When news of this crime spread to the army, the soldiers took the podium, and Diocletian proclaimed him emperor. But it is clear that unanimity among the legionnaires were not: the mysterious death of Numerian many were brought to confusion. Then Diocletian sworn, . that no relation to the murder of the emperor has no, . drew his sword and, . pointing Apra, . struck him with the words: 'That the perpetrator of the murder Numerian! " His friends Diocletian said: 'At last I killed the designated rock hog! " (Vopisk: 'Kar, . Karin and Numerian '; 13, . 15),

. Everyone else was given forgiveness, and almost all of his enemies were in their posts, including Aristobulus, the new prefect of the praetorian, no one had been taken away and no possessions, no fame, no dignity (Victor: "O Caesar '; 39)
. In the west, meanwhile was proclaimed Emperor of the elder son of Kara, Karin. 285 g. Diocletian defeated him in a big battle at Marga. We Karina had more troops, but it left him. Thus Diocletian received all the power (Eutropius: 9, 20).

The beginning of his reign was vague heavy. The whole empire was covered wars and rebellions. In Gaul, after the departure of some Karina Elian and Amanda, by typing a gang of robbers among the villagers, which the locals call Bagauda, devastated many fields and tried to capture many of the city. Diocletian immediately dispatched with unlimited military power of his friend Maximian Hercule, though poorly educated man, but a good and wise warrior. Having gone to Gaul, he often scattered enemies, part of the captured and soon all silenced. Betoy war distinguished courage menapiets Karauzy. They placed him at the head of the fleet, recruited to reflect the Germans, the robbers of the sea. Overweening from such a situation, it is 286 g. conquered Britain and proclaimed himself emperor. At the same time vostochtsye province was attacked by the Persians, in Africa rebelled kirentsy led by Julian, and in Egypt, has arrogated to himself the signs of power nekts? on behalf of Achilles (Victor: "O Caesar ', 39).

In this extremity Diocletian in 286 g. vozrel Hercule Maximian to the rank of Augustus, granted him an equal with a right, but some time later, in 293, did Caesars two other generals, Constance and Galleries. In order, they are more closer to each other, Constantius took as his wife Theodora, padcheriitsu Hercule, Galerius is married Diocletian's daughter Valeria, so both were forced to divorce with his former wives (Eutropius: 9, 22). All four of them) came from Illyricum, and were poorly educated people, but knew poverty of rural life and military service and were worthy of public figures. Acceptance of these people are best proved that the innate qualities and experience of military activities, which they received under the direction of Aurelian and sample, perhaps, enough for the valiant Management. At the Diocletian they watched with respect as his father or even both at the great god. But, . because the burden of the war was pressing more and more, . they seem to share power, all the land of Gaul, . lie beyond the Alps, . were assigned to Constance, . Africa and Italy - Hercule, . coast of Illyria until Pontus Strait - Gallery; all the rest kept in their hands Diocletian (Victor: "O Caesar ', 39).,

. Dividing the legions, co-rulers began a stubborn war with enemies on all sides were arrayed on the Empire
. Constantius in Gaul inflicted a crushing defeat lingonam and Alemц¦n, and 296 g. his generals retook Britain. In 297-298 years. Hercule ended the war in Africa, Diocletian himself besieged Achilles in Alexandria, took her 8 months later, and Achilles killed. In victory, he went sternly: all of Egypt devastated proscription and murder, but after this much has changed and wisely arranged in its management. Not so well, but in general, successfully ended the war with the Persians Galerius.

Diocletian was cunning, but a man of vision and remarkable for its sharp wit, and its severity, he tried to suppress someone else's anger. He was very zealous monarch and the first in Rome, entered the king's customs, instead of the old Roman freedom (Eutropius: 9, 21-26). He first began to wear clothing woven of gold, and even wanted to eat her shoes, silk, purple and precious stones. However, this was not the most important of his innovations. He first of all, apart from Caligula and Domitian allowed openly call themselves a master, to worship him and refer to himself as a God (Victor: "O Caesar '; 39). Even the emperor of the senators demanded that they worshiped him, but not welcome to continue the rite (Theophanes: 293).

Taxes when it reached such proportions that the tillers were forced to flee their homes and fields treated in the forest. Everywhere scoured tax collectors who are learning the remains of estates. Food prices have risen to unbearable dimensions. Besides Diocletian differed boundless passion for construction, lozhivsheysya considerable weight to the province. In one place, built the Basilica, the Circus, Mint, another - the armory or palaces for his wife and daughter (Lactantius: 5, 7). The capital of Rome and other cities, especially Carthage, Mediolan and Nicomedia, were decorated with cool new buildings (Victor: "O Caesar ', 39).

. End of Diocletian's reign was marked by unprecedented persecution of Christians, obtaining by this time a large force
. However, according to Lactantius, the main enemy of Christians was Galerius and Diocletian long resisted the dictates of his. He finds no reason to shed so much human blood and to disturb the peace of the empire. He said he was fairly and that, if the servants of his house and the soldiers will keep the ancient religion. But in the end he gave in, and 303 g. with his knowledge and consent of the Christian church was destroyed in Nicomedia. This event signaled the opening of persecution throughout the empire. The next day a decree was promulgated, . which declared devoid of honor all those, . who professed the Christian religion, everyone was manuf build on the charges and bring them to torment, . whatever rank or condition they were not (Lactantius: 9, . II-13),
. Christian divine books were ordered to burn, and the priests and all Christians are forced to make sacrifices to idols (Theophanes: 295). Persecution did not spare anyone. Officials constantly met in church and watched as the people of sacrifices. Even his wife Prisca and daughter Valeria Diocletian forced publicly to sacrifice. Anyone who refused to sacrifice, risked their property and lives. Dungeons are filled with unfortunates, whose only fault was that they professed Christianity (Lactantius: 15).

Reigned twenty years, Diocletian began to feel the weight of authority. Then he persuaded Hercule go into private life and affairs of state to transmit to the younger. Hercule followed suit reluctantly. However, both in one day, May 1, 305, changed the signs of the imperial dignity of privacy: Diocletian - in Nicomedia, Hercule - in Mediolane. Then Diocletian settled in Salon, Hercule - in Lucania (Eutropius: 27). The last years of his life Diocletian spent in happiness and peace on his estate on the beach. When the empire was again in civil war and Hercule from the gallery began calling Diocletian to return to power, . he, . According to Aurelius Victor, . just stepping back from some sort of plague, . replied: 'O, . If you could look at my hands-grown vegetables in Salon, . you would say, . that never should have done! " But the heirs of all did not want to leave the old man alone,
. In 313 g. Constantine and Licinius Diocletian sent an invitation to the wedding feast. He refused, excusing himself that because of old age has no power to participate in the festival. The emperors, however, did not accept his apology and sent another letter with threats. Suspecting that he is preparing shameful violent death, Diocletian, as they say, took poison (Victor: 'The life and morals of the Roman emperors', 39).


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