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Aurelian

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Aurelian
Aurelian, Lucius Domitius - Roman emperor in 270-275 years. Genus. in 214 g. + 275 g.
***

Aurelian came from the province of Moesia. His father, according to Victor Aurelius, was a settlement in the estate of Senator Aurelius (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 35). The mother was a priestess of the temple of his invincible Sun. From early childhood Aurelian showed exceptional natural talent. With outstanding power, he said, not missing a single day, even festive, practiced in the javelin, throwing arrows, and in everything else that relates to military. He had an attractive appearance, characterized by manly beauty, was rather tall and had a very high physical strength. In his youth he served in Illyricum, and constantly fought with the Sarmatians and Goths. They say that in various battles they had slaughtered more than nine enemies and that he earned the nickname among his colleagues 'swordsman'.

When Valerian, he commanded the sixth Gallic legions and inflicted a severe defeat Mogontsiakom Franks. To his subordinates he was always excessively strict and cruel executions inspired warriors such fear, that when it is free from any breaches of discipline. Emperor Valerian, paying tribute to Aurelian, wrote about its severity: 'This excessive strictness, passing all bounds, oppressive, and no longer relevant to our time'. Nevertheless, he greatly valued Aurelian, commissioned him to charge the case and promised to Consulate. Later Aurelian was one of the closest generals of the Emperor Claudius, who entrusted him Thracian troops and the war against erulov.

After the death of Claudius and his brother Kvintilla Aurelian spring 270 g. has sole supreme power and was proclaimed Emperor of all the legions. The new governor took the state in a very precarious situation: the country was at the mercy of tyrants - in Gaul and the East for many years ruled by self-proclaimed emperor, . hordes of barbarians plundered Thrace and Macedonia, . penetrated into Italy and threatened Rome itself, . Why in the capital, there is a strong indignation and rebellion,
. It was necessary to act firmly and swiftly. In the summer of Aurelian defeated the Vandals, and then immediately turned against Alemц¦n and crushed them under Mediolanom. But next year the Romans suffered the plight of under Platseniey (Vopisk: 'Aurelian'; 4,6-8, II, 16-18). Germans suddenly attacked at night on the legions, who were weary of a long shift and did not have time to line up in battle order. After the terrible slaughter at the cost of enormous losses Aurelian managed to repel an attack (Gibbon: II). Immediately thereafter, in Dalmatia revolted Septimus, and the Goths invaded Thrace and Illyria. Only after the victory, which Aurelian won on the river Titian over the united forces of the Germans, the danger from this side for some time has passed.

. After graduating from the war with the barbarians, Aurelian flew to Rome, full of anger and a thirst for vengeance seized, which demanded serious riots
. All of the instigators of disorder he executed without mercy. Were killed, even some of the noblest senators on the basis of facile accusations that the softer the emperor could not ignore. Having these brutal measures that, in the capital, it began to be afraid, just as in the army, Aurelian began building in Rome. For many decades, which Italy had lived in the world, the old walls had deteriorated. The emperor ordered to build new, more powerful and relevant increased size of the city (Vopisk: 'Aurelian'; 21-22). He was the first among the Romans put on his head a diadem, decorated with gold and precious stones, that before seemed quite alien to the Roman custom (Victor: 'On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 35).

Autumn 271 g. Aurelian began a large eastern campaign. In Thrace and Illyricum, he inflicted a new defeat of the Goths, and then broke the Gothic leader of cannabis. But despite this success, he abolished the province of Dacia beyond the Danube, formed by Trajan, for after the devastation of Moesia and Illyria desperate to get her back. He led the Romans from the Dacian towns and fields, sow them in the center of Moesia, and called this place Dacia (Eutropius: 9, 15). At the beginning of 272 g. Aurelius after Byzantium took place in Bithynia, and took it without a fight. From there he moved against Zenobia Queen of Palmyra, which after the death of her husband Odenata (who declared himself emperor still under Gallienus), ruled the eastern provinces of the empire. Under Emes has suffered a major battle with Zenobia and her ally Slaughter. At one time the battle was not clear. The cavalry of the Romans to flight, but infantry survived and eventually were defeated palmirtsy. In Emese Aurelian with great triumph, visited the temple of El-Gabala and then announced that it was thanks to the support of the deity he won his victories. So here he laid the temples, making extraordinary sacrifices, and in Rome, later built a temple of the Sun. In the spring of 272 g. he went to Palmyra to conquer this city. En route he suffered a lot from the Syrian guerrillas, who have repeatedly attacked his army, and during the siege, subjected to great danger, even was wounded by an arrow. Palmirtsy defended with great tenacity: the heads of the Romans inflicted were clouds of arrows and spears. Aurelian himself wrote to Rome that there is no such place on the wall, which would not have stood for two or three Ballista. Throwing shells thrown even fire. But nothing could have saved the besieged: Palmyra was taken, and the queen herself was in captivity.

Autumn 272 g. Aurelian winner returned to Europe and broke carp. According to his care in 273 g. Syrians have raised a great rebellion, the newly seceded from Rome and handed over power to a certain Achilles cousin Zenobia. Aurelian second time took Palmyra and this time subjected her to complete destruction. At the same time some companies seized Egypt. Aurelian immediately marched against him, and inflicted a defeat. Alexandrians, he punished for betraying the fact that destroyed Bruhion. Having dealt with the affairs of the East, Aurelian marched on Tetricus, who ruled breakaway Gaul (Vopisk: 'Aurelian', 22, 25-26, 28, 30-32). Here he is easily defeated by the treachery of the leader. The fact that Tetricus repeatedly attacked by the soldiers, the letter requested the protection of Aurelian, and when he arrived, arrayed against him for the type of operation and surrendered to him, as if in the course of the battle. The ranks of his soldiers - that is naturally in the absence of the leader - were crushed and scattered, he followed a brilliant two-year reign was held in the triumphal procession, but then received a Viceroyalty in Lucania. Meanwhile, in Rome itself were crushed an uprising craftsmen monetchiki (Victor: "O Caesar '; 35). Thus four years came to an end years of turmoil: the empire was restored in the old limits, and the barbarians defeated and driven out of its boundary.

In 275 g. Aurelian led a large army moved into the new eastern campaign - this time against the Persians. But on the way, in the town Kenofurii between Heracleia and Vizantaem, he was killed because of the machinations of his clerk Mnesteya. This Mnesteya emperor suspected of any crimes. Knowing this, the clerk of the pitchfork list of persons allegedly suspected the Emperor, which together with the names of those who are really angry Aurelian, also included the names of those whom he did not think anything bad. Mesto added to them, and his name that shown by his concern was more credible. He read a list of individuals whose names were listed in it, adding that Aurelian decided to kill them all and that they, if these men should take care of their own lives. Fear seized by those who deserve punishment, and sorrow - those who had no guilt, as Aurelian, did not seem to feel gratitude for all the kindness extended to him. Suddenly they attacked the emperor and killed him (Vopisk: 'Aurelian', 33, 35-36).


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