Alexander Severus( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Alexander Severus
Alexander Severus, Marcus Aurelius - Roman emperor of the genus Severs, who ruled in 222-235 years. Genus. 206 g. + 235 g.
Hesse Bassian Aleksian, later received the name of Alexander Severus, belonged to his father to the Syrian family Hesse Martsianov, and mother's side was in a relationship with the Roman imperial house Severs. His grandmother, Julia Mesa, was a sister of Julia Domna, wife of Emperor Septimius Severus and Caracalla, he is a cousin of Emperor Geliogabalu (their mother, Julia and Julia Toyoda mother, were sisters). However, it was widely believed that his sister's sons bore from communication with the Emperor Caracalla, and their official fathers only covered the wedding of their sin.
In 221 g. Julia Mesa persuaded Elagabalus to adopt Aleksiana, declaring Caesar and his co-regent. At the same time he was given was the name of Marcus Aurelius and Alexander. At the same time, along with his foster father, Alexander received the Consulate. Heliogabalus wanted to teach him his favorite pursuits - to dance, reel and take part in the performance of priestly duties. But her mother hid from Alexander lessons, . shameful and unseemly for the Emperor, she secretly invited all science teachers, . took his study of intelligent objects, . accustomed to the palestra and physical exercises, and gave him the Hellenistic and Roman Education,
. Heliogabalus was very angry at this, and regretted that made Alexander his son and co-regent. All of his teachers, he drove away from the imperial palace, and some even executed. But the more he was plunged into debauchery, the more favorable to Alexander the Senate and the Praetorians. They were stored and protected him, seeing that Heliogabalus in every way against him in wait. When the emperor wished to deprive his adopted son honors Caesar's soldiers openly rebelled. Frightened Heliogabalus he brought Alexander in praetorian camp to reassure them, but was unable to suppress the rebellion: and he and his mother were killed, and Alexander proclaimed Emperor (Herodian: 5, 7,8).
. Supreme power had come to him at first only by sight and name, as a real country ruled by his mother and grandmother
. To prevent any disturbance, they tried to enlist the support of the Senate, elected from among his own advisers sixteen most decent men.
By its nature Alexander had a quiet and gentle disposition. For all the years of his reign he has not made any unjust sentence, executions without trial, as it has ceased (Herodian: 6; 1). He established a very large number of reasonable laws on the rights of the people and the Imperial Treasury. By the thieves, he was merciless, describing them as the only enemies of the state (Lampridy: 'Alexander Severus', 16, 28). If you were at this time of any abuse, the blame for them lies entirely in the Julia Mamee as Alexander always and everywhere was obedient to the will of the mother (Herodian: 6; 1). He dressed in a white nezolochenuyu clothing, raincoats and ordinary travelers toga, wore a coarse gown and tunic, without purpura, imitating Septimius Severus. Pants had been white instead of scarlet. Welcome he was only in name, as if he were one of the senators, flattery is not tolerated and did not like. I was so mellow, that no one chased them away from himself, with all jolly and friendly, visited their sick friends, even those who held low social status. He wanted all expressed to him freely what they think, listening to what was said, and he, like the ancient tribunes and consuls, often spoke at meetings. In Greek eloquence, he, however, was stronger than in Latin. It is said that he wrote good poetry, had musical talent and was mighty in astrology. It is beautifully painted, great singing, but never done it in someone else's presence. As a child he played decently on the lyre, the flute, the organ and trumpet, but by becoming emperor, no longer do so. He was an excellent fighter, and also differed in military. The day her he usually starts with religious services in their premises for the laurels, . where he stood and images of deified rulers (but only the best and most favorite), . and some particularly righteous, . such as Apollonius, . Christ, . Abraham, . Alexander of Macedon, or Orpheus, . as well, and images of ancestors,
. He then either ride, or fishing, or walking, or hunting. After he was engaged in public affairs, which are usually not 'taken up by a lot of time, because all they have previously been considered by his friends, and he approve or disapprove of their decision. But in case of need even before the dawn began to do business, and sat up late hours, while he has never missed, . never sat grim or angry, . but always keep the same expression on his face and was cheerful under all circumstances,
. He had a remarkable insight, so that no one could fool him, but if someone wanted to deftly work around him, that he immediately figured out and punished.
. After public affairs, . military or civilian, . He worked diligently with the highest reading: in Greek, he read books by Plato, . in particular 'the state', . from Latin authors most valued Cicero, . sometimes he was reading and speech, . and poets, . being loved Serena and Horace,
. Virgil, he called the Plato of poets, and his image with the image of Cicero was in his second premise for the laurels, where there were also images of Achilles and other great men. After the reading he was engaged in fighting or playing with a ball, or running, or light exercise, and then anointed, bathed in the pond. In the morning he usually ate a lot of bread and milk and eggs with a glass of wine mixed with honey. At breakfast is often served tetrafarmakon - a dish consisting of Pheasantry meat, pork udder, ham and test. In the afternoon he was engaged in writing opinions and reading letters. Scribes finished a piece he answers, and Alexander's own attributed what he thought was necessary. After the letters he received all the friends together and talked with all the same, never, with whom he has not seen alone, except for a prefect. A feast is distinguished by his moderation, they invited the learned men, the time passed not in drunkenness, and in an enlightened conversation. In conversations and jokes, Alexander was very nice and polite. He did not like the big gala feasts, which, according to him, felt as if he were in the theater or the circus. As he cuts down the number of servants, and sold almost all the extra dishes and utensils, it happened that the Emperor took it all with friends. His feast is usually not accompanied by spectacles, to whom Alexander was generally indifferent. His only passion was breeding birds. He arranged for poultry houses peacocks, pheasants, chickens, ducks and partridges, pigeons, one he had, say, up to twenty thousand.
All the military expeditions of Alexander had forethought to details. The soldiers have never experienced no lack of provisions, nor in weapons, not in gear. Therefore, wherever they were, maintained order, there were no robberies or murders. Emperor dined and breakfasted in the open tents where the soldiers ate food in front of everybody and to everybody's delight. He personally visited all the soldiers' tents, to know how the soldiers lived. The sick and wounded were under his scrutiny. But violators of discipline was strict and even severe. Especially severely he punishes Marauder (Lampridy: 'Alexander Severus', 4, 18, 20, 25, 27, 29-31, 33-34, 40, 41, 44, 50-52). Alexander had to fight first with the Persians, who just then again become masters of Asia, conquered the Parthians. This war was unsuccessful for the Romans. Sam Alexander, stopping at Antioch, sent against the Persian king Ardashir two armies, but one was worn down by heavy fighting in the mountainous Mussels and retreated with huge losses, while the other was surrounded in Parthia and completely destroyed. The next two years, Alexander spent in Antioch, strengthening the eastern border. However, the Persians, who themselves had suffered, whether large losses in the last war, and did not dare to invade the Roman limits. But in 234 g. the news of the attack because of the Rhine and Danube Germans, which ravaged Illyricum and Gaul. Gathering the troops, Alexander went to Gaul. But here, instead of immediately starting a war, he started negotiations with the barbarians, offering them money in exchange for peace. At this time, a large detachment of soldiers recruits declared their commander Emperor Maximian. When Alexander heard this, he said, according to Herodian, ran from the tent and made a speech to his troops, accusing the youth and Maximian in ingratitude. Former soldiers under him swore to protect it from the usurper. But when the next day the army of Maximin approached the imperial park, the mood changed legions. The soldiers shouted at friends of Alexander, and his mother for the inordinate greed. Between the two armies began a negotiation, and eventually all went over to the Maximin. Seeing a general revolt, Alexander went to the tent, put his arm around his mother, and together they waited for their fate. Soon Maximin sent a tribune and some centurions, who burst into the tent, killed by Alexander himself, his mother and all his friends (Herodian: 6, 5-9).