Marcus Aurelius( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus Ver Annius Roman emperor of the Antonine dynasty, who ruled in 161-180. Genus. April 26. 121 g. + 17 March 180 g.
Marcus Aurelius belonged to an ancient Italic family Anniev beliefs, which claimed descent from the king Numa Pompilius, but included among the patrician only when Vespasian. His grandfather was twice consul and prefect of Rome, and his father died in praetorship. Mark has been adopted and raised by his grandfather Anniem Verom. Since early childhood he was distinguished by the seriousness. Emerging from an age that requires care nurses, he was charged with outstanding mentors. As a boy he was fascinated by philosophy, . and when he went to the twelfth year, . He began to dress as a philosopher and observe the rules of abstinence: involved in a Greek cloak, . sleeping on the ground, . mother could hardly persuade him to go to bed, . covered with skins,
. His mentor him in the Stoic philosophy was Apollonius Halkedonsky. Zeal Make philosophical studies was so great that already adopted in the imperial palace, he still went to study at home to Apollo. Philosophy peripatetics he studied at Junius Rustica, which is very respected, and then: from Rustico, he always consulted and the public, and private affairs. He also studied law, rhetoric and grammar, and put these lessons so much work that even upset your health. Later, he paid more attention to the sport: he loved to fist fight, fighting, running, catching birds, but especially the tendency was to play ball and hunting.
Emperor Hadrian, who came to him a distant relative, Mark patronized since childhood. In the eighth year, he recorded it in college, Sally. As a priest, Sally, Mark learned all the sacred songs, celebration was the first Zapevalov, speaker and leader. The fifteenth year, Adrian betroth his daughter Lucie Tseyoniya Commodus. When he died Lucius Caesar, Adrian began to search for the heir to the imperial power, he really wanted to make a successor, but left the idea because of his youth. Fathered the Emperor Antoninus Pius, but with the condition that he fathered Pius Mark and Vera Lucia. Thus, it seems to make good time preparing to succeed himself Antonina. It is said that Mark had an adoption with great reluctance, and the home complained that he had to change the happy life of the philosopher to a painful existence heir Princeps. He first instead Anniya was called Aurelius. Adrian immediately outlined his adoptive grandson of quaestor, although Mark and not yet reached the age posited.
When Antoninus Pius in 138 g. became emperor, he broke the engagement of Marcus Aurelius with Tseyoniey and married it to his daughter Faustina. Then he granted him the name Caesar and appointed the consul in 140 g. Despite his resistance, the emperor surrounded Mark rightful luxury, ordered to stay in the palace of Tiberius, and took in 145 g. in the college of priests. When a daughter was born Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus gave him Tribunskii proconsular authority and power outside of Rome. Mark has achieved such power that no one ever Antonin promoted without the consent of the adoptive son. For twenty-three years, which Marcus Aurelius spent in the house of the emperor, he showed him such respect and obedience, that between them there was not one spat. Dying in 161 g., Antoninus Pius unhesitatingly declared Mark as his successor.
Having taken power, Marcus Aurelius immediately appointed his co-regent Lucia Vera with titles of Augustus and Caesar, and this time they jointly administered by the State. Then the first time the Roman Empire began to have two Augusta. The Board noted there were severe wars against foreign enemies, epidemics and natural disasters. From the east attacked the Parthians, in the west began to revolt the British, Germany and threatened Retsii katy. Mark against the Parthians in 162 g. Vera sent against Katoff and the British - their legates, he remained in Rome, as well as urban affairs demanded the presence of the emperor: flood produced a strong and led to the destruction of the capital famine. These disasters Marcus Aurelius managed to ease through his personal presence.
Of Affairs, he worked long hours and very thoughtfully, making the state the mechanism of many useful improvements. Meanwhile, the Parthians were defeated, but, returning from Mesopotamia, the Romans were put in Italy plague. Infection spread rapidly and raged with such force that the corpses were taken out of the city on carts. Then Marcus Aurelius has established very strict rules about the burials, forbidding burial within the city. Many of the poor, he buried at public expense. Meanwhile, began a new, even more dangerous war.
In 166 g. all the tribes of Gaul, Illyricum to unite against the Roman power, they were Marcomanni, quads, Vandals, Sarmatians, Svevo, and many others. In 168 g. Marcus Aurelius himself was supposed to lead the campaign against them (the Capitol: 'Mark Antonin'; 1-9, 13 - 14, 16, 22). With great difficulty and hardship, spending three years in the mountains Karuntskih (Eutropius: S; 13), he ended the war valiantly and successfully, and, moreover, at a time when the oppressive plague killed many thousands, and among people and among the soldiers. Thus he freed from slavery and Pannonia, on his return to Rome, right in 172 g. triumph. Having exhausted this war all his treasury, he did not even think to demand from the provinces which some emergency requisitions. Instead, he arranged the forum belonging to the Emperor Trajan auction of luxury: he sold the gold and crystal glasses, . Imperial vessels, . silk clothing gilded wife, . even stones, . which he found in large quantities in a secret treasure Adrian,
. This sale lasted two months and brought so much gold that he could successfully continue to fight Marcomanni Sarmatians and on their own land, to achieve many victories and meritorious soldiers. He had wanted to form a new province, the Danube, Marcomanni and Sarmatians, new 175 g. revolt in Egypt, where Cassius Obadiah proclaimed himself emperor. Marcus Aurelius hurried to the south. Although even before his arrival, the rebellion was extinguished itself and Cassius was killed, he reached Alexandria, all figured out very kindly treated by the soldiers of Cassius, and the Egyptians. Relatives of Cassius, he also forbade chase. Traveled along the path of the eastern provinces and drove to Athens, he returned to Rome, and in 178 g. went to Vindobona, where once again made a campaign against the Marcomanni and Sarmatians. In this war two years later he met his death, infected with plague. Shortly before his death, he called his friends and talked with them, laughing at the vanity of human affairs, and expressing contempt for death. In general, throughout his life he was distinguished by such peace of mind that his expression never changed nor sorrow, nor joy. Own death as he had just calmly and courageously, for not only by occupation, but in spirit was a true philosopher (Capitolina: 'Mark. Antonin ', 17, 25, 26-28).
Success accompany him around, only in marriage and children he was unhappy, but these hardships he experienced with stoic calmness. About the misconduct of his wife was known to all his friends. Said that., While living in Campania, she sat down on the picturesque bank to choose for themselves from among the sailors, who generally went naked, most suitable for debauchery (Victor: "O Caesar '; 16). The Emperor did not once was accused that he knew the names of his wife's lovers, but not only did not punish them, but on the contrary, advanced to high positions. Many said that she conceived, and Commodus was not the man, but from some kind of gladiator, because it was impossible to believe that a decent father can be born of such a vicious and obscene son. Another son died in childhood, after he removed the tumor under the ear. Marcus Aurelius grieved for him only five days, and then re-turned to public affairs (Capitolina: 'Mark Antonin', 19, 21, 29).