Flavio Titus Vespasian( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Flavio Titus Vespasian
Titus Flavius Vespasian - Roman Emperor of the genus Flavian, who ruled in 79-81 years. Son of Vespasian. Genus. December 30. 39 g. + Sept. 13. 81 пЁ.
Childhood Titus passed at the court of Claudius, where he grew up with the son of the Emperor Britannica. He studied the same science, and the same teachers, and was such a friend Britannic, which, in the story, even drink, from which he died Britannica, take a sip before him and from that long suffered serious illness. Physical and mental qualities, he shone more as a boy, and then, with the years, more and more. He is a great beauty, . which was the same dignity, . many amenities; п+я-п+п¦п+п+п¦я¦ force, . which did not interfere with either a small increase, . or slightly prominent belly; exceptional memory and, . Finally, . ability of almost all military and peaceful arts,
. Horse and weapons he possessed excellent, made speeches and wrote verses in Latin and Greek from the hunt and easily, even without training, was familiar with the music so much that he sang and played the cittern skillfully and beautifully. Many report that even he knew how to write cursive so quickly that for a joke and fun to compete with their scribes, as to any handwriting so cleverly imitated, often exclaimed: 'What would be left of me forger of wills! "
. Service, he began to troop tribune in Germany and in Britain, he praised a great valor
. After military service he began to speak in court, more for the good reputation than to practice. At the same time, he Arretsine Tertullus married, and after her death - by Marci Furnille a noble family, with whom divorced after the birth of daughter. For quaestorship he received command of the legion and 66 g. went with his father in Judaea. He conquered here two strongest fortresses - Tarija and Gamal. In one fight under him was killed by a horse - then he moved to another, whose rider died fighting beside him.
. When, soon came to power Galba, Titus was sent to him with congratulations and everywhere attracted attention: I think that Galba caused him to adopt
. But when news of a new coup d'etat committed Otho, he returned to the road. Leaving in 69 g. in Egypt, Titus Vespasian left the army in Judea, instructing him the hardest thing - the storming of Jerusalem (Suetonius: 'Turn'; 7 - 5 /
Jerusalem was a first-class fortress. Built on four steep hills, he was surrounded by a triple wall. Located inside the palace of Herod's Antonia Fortress and the Temple, who had their own powerful fortifications that rivals the city. With great difficulty the Romans brought shafts to the outer wall and broke her battering. But the farther they moved into the city so desperately resisted the siege. None of the forms of struggle did not remain untested. The battle did not cease night or day. Romans would be difficult to withstand such stress, but Titus is constantly inspiring and encouraging them. He developed the plans, supervised the work, reflect the attacks of the Jews, he fought in the front row and earned great respect and affection of his soldiers. In obedience to his will, all the troops fought as one man. After destroying the wall of the second five days after the first, the Romans stormed the city, but were soon surrounded on all sides by Jews. Legionnaires trembled and began to retreat. Titus himself in this battle, retreated in the last row, smashing a bow attacking and covering waste. Three days later he repeated the attack, ordered the destruction of pre-big piece of the wall, and this time succeeded. There remains nevzyatoy upper part of the city, he ordered a wall to enclose, to prevent any food deliveries. When this was done, the Jews began to suffer terrible deprivation. Hunger was rampant, vykashivaya whole family. A huge number of corpses lay unburied in the streets, why the town was a heavy stench (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 5, 4-13). Titus also decided to focus its efforts on the capture of the Temple, because, after capturing this fortress dominated over Jerusalem, he received the key to the city. Once part of the wall collapsed due to tunneling Anthony, the Romans stormed the brave and destroyed the fort. Thus they approached directly to the strengthening of the Temple. After that war has become even fiercer: Jews lured false retreat a large group of Roman galleries at the Temple, and then lit them and destroyed so many attackers. But these are only suggested to the Romans way to success. Since the powerful stones of which were formed by the walls of the Temple, did not yield even a battering ram, Titus ordered the gates to burn. The fire suddenly spread to the gallery, and soon the whole church was on fire. Romans burst after the fire, betrayed all the defenders of extermination. Soldiers captured so many treasures that in Syria the price of gold fell in half. After the destruction of the Temple, Upper Town could no longer offer serious resistance. A short time later he too was captured (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 6). Prostrate Jerusalem, who before the war one of the richest and most beautiful cities in Asia, Titus ordered razed to the ground, leaving only three tower high above the terrain, to be used as for the strengthening of the Roman camp.
. Of the Jews, he went to believed then traveled all Syrian cities, and everywhere where people come, arranged a magnificent spectacle
. Thousands of Jews were prisoners in those days at his command, torn apart by wild beasts in the arenas. Only in one of Caesarea during the holiday they were slain more than two thousand. Then he went to Alexandria and from there sailed to Italy (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 7, 1,3,5).
Since then Titus being relieved was an accomplice and even. guardian power. Together with his father, he celebrated a triumph, . together was a censor, . shared with him and Tribunskii power and sevenfold consulate, and he took care of almost all departments and on behalf of the father himself dictated the letter, . issued edicts, . read out instead questeur speech in the Senate,
. He even took command of the Praetorians, although before that it was entrusted only to riders. However, in this position he led himself excessively harsh and sharp. He was sent to the camps and theaters of his people, who, like the name of all, demanded punishment of persons suspected him, and immediately disposes of them. Among them was konsulyar Aulus Cecina: he first invited him to dinner, and then ordered to kill as soon as he left the dining. True, there was a danger of too close: Titus had already caught his own composition Cecina-added speech to the soldiers. All these measures, he has secured itself in the future, but first aroused such hatred, that hardly anyone came to power with such a bad reputation, and with such universal hostility.
. Not only the cruelty suspect it, . and promiscuity - because of his drinking bouts until late at night with the most dissolute friends, and lust - because many of its boys and eunuchs, and because of his love for the notorious Jewish queen Berenice, . which, . say, . He even promised to marry, . while in Judea, . and that in 75 g,
. moved to Rome, and greed - as it was known that in court cases, grasping his father, he sold his intercession, and took bribes. Therefore, all saw him as a second Nero, and talked about it in public.
However, this fame has served him only for the benefit: it turned out the highest praise, after a 79 g. he became emperor, and not a single blemish in it was found. A feast of it were funny, but not extravagant. Friends he chose so that subsequent rulers in their public affairs could not do without them, and always addressed them. Berenice, he at once sent out from Rome against her and against her will. Most exquisite of his favorites, he does not just stop complaining, but even did not want to look at them when they performed at popular spectacles. Nothing and no one he took, and generosity did not concede any of his predecessors. All awards made by his predecessors, he confirmed a special edict. By nature he was distinguished by rare kindness, . and an essential rule of his was no petitioner did not let, . not reassure, when home accused him, . he promises more, . What can execute, . He replied: 'No one shall be sad to leave after talking with the Emperor',
. And when one day at dinner, he remembered that during the whole day no one has made good, then uttered his famous words, memorable and venerable: 'My friends, I lost a day! " For ordinary people it has always been particularly attentive. And since at the time of his short reign vypalki eruption of Mount Vesuvius, plague and pestilence extraordinary power, and destructive fire in the capital, he had many occasions to show their generosity. After the fire, he reimbursed Pogorel'tsev all their losses. And all those affected by these disasters, he has helped and money and comfort, so that these disasters were much less impact than might be expected. To his enemies he has shown now as much leniency as above showed the severity (Suetonius: 'Titus'; 6-9). When once made a conspiracy against him, two representatives of higher class, . moreover confessed intended crime, . he, . primarily, . turned to them with exhortation, . then led them to the scene and ordered to sit on either side of him; asked one of the gladiators sword, . as,
. would be to test its sharpness, . He gave it in his hands and to both, . then said to them: 'Do you now, . that power is given on the fate, . and attempts are futile, . commit the crime, hoping to capture it, or out of fear of losing '(Victor:' On the life and morals of the Roman emperors', 10).,
. Death of Titus suddenly found among all these concerns
. After celebrating the end of the construction of the Coliseum, he went to his Sabine estate. At the first parking lot, he felt a fever. Then he carried in a stretcher. He died on the same villa as his father, the forty-second year of life, after. IR, and the year after his father inherited. When this became known, the entire nation mourned him as a native (Suetonius: 'Titus', 10-11).