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Vespasian

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Vespasian
Vespasian, Titus Flavius - Roman emperor in 69-79 years. The founder of the Flavian dynasty. Genus. November 17. 9 g. + 24 пTя¦п+я¦ 79 g.
***

Vespasian came from a humble sort of Flavian. His grandfather was a centurion, or even a simple soldier in the army of Pompey. Upon his retirement, he made his fortune raising money for sales. Did the same, and his father, who was a tax collector in Asia. The thing that helped him not only wealth, but glory - many of the city erected a statue in his honor with the inscription: 'fair tax collector'. Genus his mother was much more famous, and Vespasian received his nickname from his grandfather on the maternal side Vespasiya Pollione, three troop platform and the camp commander.

. The future emperor was born in the land of Sabinov near Reate, and spent his childhood in his grandmother's estate near the goats in Erutrii
. Service, he began his still under Tiberius troop tribune in Thrace and passed it quickly and successfully: Questore after it had been given to the management of Crete and Cyrene, and then he was elected aediles, and 39 g. received preturu. As aediles, he said, poorly cared about cleaning up the streets, so angry Gaius Caligula once ordered his soldiers to pile dirt bosom senatorial toga. Perhaps, . lesson that had benefited, . because when he was praetor Vespasian did not miss a single opportunity to please Caligula: in honor of his Germanic 'victory', he proposed to arrange a game out of turn, . and after the execution of Lepidus and Getulika asked to throw their bodies unburied,
. Caligula honored him with an invitation to dinner, and Vespasian said before the Senate acceptance speech. Meanwhile, he married Flavius Domitsille, from which had all their children. When his wife died, Vespasian again took to himself his former concubine, Tsenidu freed women, and she lived with him as the wife, even when it has already become emperor.

Military glory of Vespasian acquired in the reign of Claudius. He first served as a legate of the legion in Germany, and then, in 43 g., was transferred to Britain, where he participated in thirty-odd battles with the enemy, subdued two powerful tribes, more than twenty cities and the Isle of Wight. For this he received the triumphal ornaments, pontificate and avgurstvo, and 51 g. - Consulate. Then, for fear of Agrippina, the wife of Claudius, which haunted him for his friendship with Narcissus, he retired from business ten years spent in retirement, not doing any public affairs. In 61, already under Nero, he was in control Africa, which, according to one reportedly operated honestly and with great dignity, but on the other - on the contrary, very badly. In any case, he returned from the province, no richer, lost the confidence of lenders and had all his estates lay elder brother, and to maintain his position to address trafficking in mules. For this the people called him 'oslyatnikom'. Nero at first was kind of Vespasian and took him on a trip to Greece. But, after Vespasian fell asleep at the time. Speeches of the Emperor, he suffered a severe disfavor: Nero forbade him not only to accompany her, but welcome. Vespasian withdrew to rest in a small town where he lived in obscurity and fear for his life, until suddenly, unexpectedly did not get the province and the army: 66 g. Nero ordered him to crush the rebellion in Judea. The war here has adopted an extremely broad scope, . and for the victory required a large army and a strong military leader, . which could be trusted to such a case without fear, and Vespasian was elected as a person experienced a lot of diligence and modesty is not a dangerous kind and name,
. And so, having, in addition to local forces two legions, he went to Judea (Suetonius: 'Vespasian'; 1-5).

***

In Antioch, Vespasian took over command of the army and pulled everywhere auxiliaries. He began his campaign in 67 g., knowing that he would be exhausting and dangerous enterprise. The Jews did not venture to fight with the legions in the open field, but took refuge behind the walls of cities and protected with extreme tenacity. First of Ptolemais Romans invaded Galilee, and after a severe siege took Jotapata, large and well-fortified city on the coast. All of its population was committed to extermination. Jaffa captured converges, and Tiberias surrendered without a fight. Living Tarija tried to resist, but their city was taken from the first attack. Vespasian at first promised to the prisoners life and liberty, but then changed his mind. All newly arrived Jews, he sent a Tivereadu, about a thousand were executed and another forty thousand sold into slavery (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 3, 2, 7, 9, 10). Located near Gamal defended with desperate tenacity. Capturing the city in the end, the Romans killed him even in infants. Then the whole Galileo recognized the Roman rule (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 4, 1, 6).

This campaign has brought Vespasian loud fame and popularity in the army. Indeed, in the first battle, he showed exceptional courage, so that at the siege Jotapata himself was wounded by a stone in his knee, and his shield pierced a few arrows (Suetonius: 'Vespasian', 4). On the march usually Vespasian himself went before the troops, . able to choose a place to camp, . night and day dreamed of defeating the enemies, . and if necessary, . Razil their mighty hand, . ate, . that have, . clothing and habits of almost no different from an ordinary soldier, . - Word, . if not for greed, . it could be perceived as a Roman general of ancient times (Tacitus: 'History', 2, 5).,

. Meanwhile, 68 g
. were received news of the unrest in Gaul, and that Vindex with the native chieftains had fallen away from Nero. This news prompted Vespasia-on to hasten the end of the war, because he has already receive their sight, the future of civil strife and the dangerous situation of the entire state, and thought that would be able to liberate Italy from the horrors, if used to make peace in the East. In the spring he moved along the Jordan and camped at Jericho. Hence, he sent detachments in different directions and conquered all the surrounding towns and villages. He was ready to proceed to the siege of Jerusalem, when he learned about the suicide of Nero. Then Vespasian changed his tactics and delayed speech, waiting for what will turn events. Tomimy position 'of the entire state, waiting for shocks Roman power, he was less attentive to have a war against the Jews and was all concern for his own country, considered an attack on other people's untimely. Meanwhile, civil war raged in Italy. Declared emperor Galba was openly put to death on the Roman Forum, and instead proclaimed Emperor Otho, who in turn fought with Vitelli, and broken them, he deprived himself of life. In April, 69 g. Vitellius became emperor.

Vespasian consistently recognized all three and each coup led his legions to swear allegiance to the new Princeps. Although he was able to obey, just as commanding, yet the news of the atrocities vitelliantsev in Rome brought him to the indignation. Vitellius he heartily despised and considered unworthy of the throne. Being imbued with the most painful thoughts, he felt the burden of his position as conqueror of foreign lands, while his own fatherland killed. But not encouraged his anger to revenge, the idea of his distance from Rome, as well as the power of Germanic legions, which relied Vitellius, kept him. Meanwhile, military commanders and soldiers in their friendly gatherings openly deliberated about the change of government, and the louder the demand was heard to proclaim the emperor Vespasian (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 4, 8-10).

. First swore Vespasian 1 пTя¦п¦я¦ 69 g
. Alexandria legions. As soon as the news of this reached the Jews, as the soldiers who fled to the tent of Vespasian, and joyfully welcomed him as emperor. Immediately at the gathering he given the title of Caesar, Augustus and all other ranks, relying Princeps. Vespasian himself in this new and unusual circumstances remain the same as before - without the slightest importance, without any arrogance. He appealed to the army with a few words, a soldier simple and severe. In response, all sides were heard loud cries of jubilation and devotion. joyful upsurge as the legions stationed in Syria. In command of Licinius Mutsian immediately led them to the inauguration of Vespasian. Even before the July Eid oath brought the whole Syria. By rebellion joined Sohem with his kingdom and his authority were under considerable fighting forces, as well as Antioch - the largest of the local subordinate to Rome kinglets. All coastal provinces, up to the borders of Asia and Achaia, and all internal, up to Pontus and Armenia, pledging allegiance to the new emperor.

. Preparing for war Vespasian began by saying that the levy, and called for the army veterans, the most prosperous cities mandated to host a workshop for the production of weapons in Antioch began to mint gold and silver coins
. These measures were hastily on the ground by special trustees. Vespasian show up everywhere, all the encouragement, praising people who are honest and active, confused and weak taught by example, only occasionally resorting to punishment. He gave prefects and procurators, and appointed new members of the Senate, the majority of the outstanding people, soon to take up high positions in the State. As for the monetary gift to soldiers, . then at the first gathering was announced, . that it will be very moderate, . and Vespasian promised troops for participation in the civil war no more, . other than pay them for their service in time of peace: he was a bitter opponent senseless generosity to soldiers, . so the army had always been better, . than other,
. By the Parthians in Armenia were sent legates, and steps were taken to ensure that after the departure of the legions of the civil war not undefended border. Titus, Vespasian's son, remained in Judea, he decided to go to Egypt - it was agreed that to win over enough Vitelli only part of the troops and a commander, as Mutsian and glory surrounding the name of Vespasian (Tacitus: 'History'; 2, 79-82).

. So Mutsian moved to Italy, and Vespasian sailed to Egypt
. He considered of paramount importance to provide for themselves the province, because, firstly, the way he has put under its control delivery of grain to Rome, and secondly, to leave a place for retreat in case of defeat. Titus was charged with ending the Judean War (Fl: 'The Jewish War', 4, 10).

Vespasian held in Alexandria, the end of winter and all spring 70 g. Meanwhile Mutsian took Rome. Vitellius was killed, the senate, all provinces and legions swear allegiance to Vespasian.

Returning in the summer of 70 g. in Italy, especially Vespasian restored order to the army, as the soldiers reached the perfect indulgence: one - puffed victory, others - angry shame. Many soldiers of Vitellius Vespasian sacked and punished, but the winners also did not take over laid, and even the legitimate awards they are not paid immediately. He did not miss a single opportunity to clean. One young man came to thank him for the high purpose, fragrance scents - he contemptuously turned his back and grimly said: 'I'd rather have you stink garlic! " - And an order appointing selected.

. Capital after the last civil war was disfigured by fire and the ruins
. Capitol Hill, where, the ancient temples of Rome, burned to ashes. Vespasian allowed everyone who wishes to occupy and build up the empty land, if it did not make the owners. Proceed with the restoration of the Capitol, he was the first with his hands began to clear the debris and make them their own back. Higher class thinned out from the endless killings and have declined from a long-standing neglect. To clean them and refill it in 73-74 years., Being a censor, inspected the Senate and vsadnichestvu, removed rotten and included in the lists of the most worthy of the Italians and provincials.

. After Titus took Jerusalem, and completed the Jewish War, in 71 g
. was celebrated by a triumph. During the reign of Vespasian, Achaia, Lycia, Rhodes, Byzantium, most newly lost their freedom, and the mountainous Cilicia, and communi-gene, formerly under the authority of kings, were turned in the province.

. Since the early days of the Board until his death, Vespasian was available and condescending
. Their former low condition, he never concealed, and often even flaunted. By outward brilliance, he never sought, and even on the day of triumph, tortured slow and tedious march, could not resist, not to say:

. 'Serve me, . old man: like a fool wanted to triumph, . if my ancestors deserved it, or I myself could not dream of it! " Tribunskii power and name of the father of the fatherland, he took only many years later, . Although consul during his reign was eight times, . a censor - a,
. He was the first of the princes, who took guard at the door of his palace, and search welcoming him in the morning he stopped even during the civil war. While in power, he always got up early, before daybreak, and read letters and reports from all officers, then has admitted and accepted the greetings of friends and myself at the time he got dressed and put on shoes. Having dealt with current affairs, he made a walk and relaxing with some of the concubines: after the death of Tsenidy him there were many. From the bedroom, he went to the bath, and then to the table: this time, they say, he was just softer and kinder, and home tried to use it if you had any requests. During dinner, as always and everywhere, he was good-natured and often jokes: he was a great joker, but too prone to vulgarity, and buffoonery, even reaching the obscenity. Nevertheless, some of his jokes were very clever. They say a woman swore that she was dying of love for him, and had his attention: he spent the night with her and gave her 400 000 sesterces as a steward on the issue, under which article Save this that money, he said: 'In an extraordinary love for Vespasian '.

. Liberties friends barbs solicitor kick philosophers little disturbed
. Resentment and hostility, he could never remember and not vengeance for them. Never suspicion or fear of not pushing him to the massacre. Never turned out that the execution of the innocent - except that in his absence, without his consent or even against his will. No death was not pleased, and even over the well-deserved death happened to him complain and cry. The only thing he rightly criticized, it is avarice. Moreover, it sought back taxes, the forgiveness of Galba, imposed heavy new taxes, increased and sometimes even double tribute from the provinces - he has openly dealt with such matters, which would have been ashamed and private persons. He bought things, only to later sell them at a profit, he unhesitatingly to sell positions to competitors and to justify the defendants, innocent and guilty indiscriminately. Even the toilets he was taxed, and when Titus reproached his father for it, he took a coin from the first profit, raised it to his nose and asked if she stinks. 'No', - said Titus. 'And this is money from ms> chi', - said Vespasian. But, . people think, . greedy that he was not from nature, . but because of the extreme scarcity of state and imperial treasury: that he had confessed, . when at the beginning of the Board stated, . that he needed forty million sesterces, . that the State was on its feet (Suetonius: 'Vespasian'; 8.9, . 12-16, . 21-24),
. In fact, under Vespasian in Rome was begun and completed the restoration of capital JLP, Temple of Peace, the monuments of Claudius, the Forum and many others, had begun construction of the Colosseum. Across town in Italy has been updated, well-fortified road, but on the Via Flaminia to create a less steep mountain pass razed. All this was done in a short time and without burdening the farmers, that proves his wisdom rather than greed (Victor: "O Caesar ', 9).

He died just as simply and quietly as he lived. In the ninth consulate he was in Campania, felt light bouts of fever. He went to reatins-ktse estates where there is usually spent the summers. Here malaise intensified. Nevertheless, he continued, as always, to engage in public affairs and lying in bed, even took the ambassadors. When he began to refuse the stomach, Vespasian felt the approach of death, and joked: 'Alas, it seems, I am becoming a god'. He tried to stand, saying that the emperor should die standing, and died at the hands of his supporters (Suetonius: 'Vespasian', 25).


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