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Vitelli

( Roman Emperor)

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Biography Vitelli
Vitellius, Aulus - Roman Emperor in April. - Dec. 69 g. Genus. Sep 7. 12 g. 121 December. 69 пЁ.
***

Vitellius took place, as can be judged by the contradictory evidence about him, from the ancient equestrian kind. His grandfather was the manager of the estates of August, and his father, Lucius Vitellius, reached the top positions: he was consul three times, and once the censor, but more famous for its incredible suppleness. The Senate paid tribute to his burial at public expense, and the statue.

. The childhood and early youth Vitellius held in Capri, among the favorites of the emperor Tiberius, and retained throughout his life a shameful nickname Spintriya; even think that is the beauty of his face was the cause and the beginning of the elevation of his father
. In subsequent years, still tainted by all the vices he has reached an important position at court. Close it was and to Ai Caligula - for the love of the jumps, . and Claudius - for the love of the game, . and most of all to Nero - partly for the same, . partly for a special service: disposing of Nero's games, . He saw, . that Nero is keen to address the competition kifaredov, . but does not dare to give a common request and is ready to leave the theater, then he stopped him, . seemed to persistently demand of the people, . and this enabled him to persuade,
. Thus earning the mercy of the three rulers, he was awarded and honorary posts, and high priestly Sanov: when Claudia, 47 g. received the consulate, but under Nero in 61 g. was appointed proconsul in Africa and trustee of public buildings. But these places and do it, and the rumor about him was different: he ruled the province with a rare integrity, but on the capital positions of the stories, stole from the church offerings or replace them, putting in place of gold and silver, tin and brass. He was married first to Petronius, daughter konsulyara, who divorced him, taking with them and their son. Then he married Galleries Fundane had from her son and daughter.

After 68 g. Galba appointed Vitellius control of Lower Germany. He noticed that the last thing have to be afraid of those who are considering only about food, and that may be, the wealth of the province saturate his immense throat. We know that even on the road from Vitellius did not have the money: he lived in such need that for my wife and children left behind in Rome, took a garret, and all his house hires; for travel expenses he had to lay the pearl earrings from mother. Creditors harassed him to the very borders of Italy, and he was only with great difficulty got away from them. But in Germany he was waiting for a very different reception. The local Legions he immediately fell on his soul, because he was the son three times consul, a man in the prime of life and strength, courteous and generous. On the way Vi-tall kissing when they meet, even with ordinary soldiers, . in inns and inns was made surprisingly polite and with fellow travelers, . and pursuer, . and in the morning even asked each, . lunch if he, . and belch, . showing, . that he himself had already had breakfast (Suetonius: 'Vitellius'; 1-7).,

. Appearing in December winter camps Low German legions, Vitellius was careful to understand the situation, which is created here: back to many previous posts, made a less degrading punishment, commuted punishment
. Motivated in most cases the desire to achieve popularity, but sometimes a sense of justice, it is fairly distributed military positions, which his predecessors have manufactured for money or for dirty reasons. Before people harsh and severe, he fawned and was known among his friends a nice man and good-natured, because reckless and not considering handing out his own, and those of others (Tacitus: 'History', 1, 52). In early January, 69 g. verhnegermanskie legions had long been agitating against Galba, refused to bring him the oath and the gathering decided to proclaim the emperor Vitellius. That same night, a standard-bearer reached Vitellius in Agrippinovu colony and told him what had happened. We also just had a lot of guests. The news quickly spread throughout the army. In the morning the head of one of the legions of Fabius Valens galloped at the head of a large detachment to Vitelli, and welcomed him as emperor. Until Vitellius strongly denied this honor, . fear of the immensity of imperial power, . but here, . as told, . he went to the soldiers immediately after the midday meal, . heavy with food and wine, . and agreed to take the name of Germanicus, . also rejected the title of Caesar on this occasion (Plutarch: 'Galba'; 22),
.

Soon came the news that Galba was killed in Rome, and was replaced by Otho. Provinces and troops had to choose between the two emperors proclaimed. By Vitelli joined regions located in Retsii Britain. Gallium recognized his will out of fear, and Spain was forced to this namestniom Kluviem Rufom. After this, Vitellius, now has untold strength and wealth, war ordered two of his legates: Fabiyu Valens and Cecina, and he spent all his time in idleness, luxury and feasts (Tacitus: History ', 1, 60-62, 76). In April, Otho was defeated at the Battle of Bedriake and commit suicide. Then Vitellius marched in Rome. All supporters of Otho, he forgave, and even some commanders retained their positions. He himself no one pursued, but the army did not interfere enriched at will .. spread abroad in Italy, his soldiers robbed someone would like were in a conquered country. This could add Vitelli popularity. And in the future - the closer he learned, the more imbued with contempt for him.

The main flaw of the new emperor was terrible, insatiable passion for food. The roads that led from the two seas, trembling under the rumble of carts which delivered everything that could still bring his appetite. Urban feasts, its splendor ruined city magistrates and depleting food stocks. Army, moving to Rome, was losing force in debauchery and pleasures, and increasingly forgotten military discipline. Following Vitelli, 160 000 were unruly and insolent men, many more workers and baggage train an army of slaves, stands out for its depravity, even among slaves, and the suite, consisting of a large number of officials and friends of the Emperor. From all sides came running jesters, Litsedei, the charioteer, whom he met with joy, many perplexing. The whole mass of troops ravaged not only the colonies and municipalities, but even the estate of farmers, the crops have to ear the new harvest, they are trampled, as if were on the ground the enemy (Tacitus: 'History', 2, 56, 57, 60, 62,69 , 71.87).

. Even more splendid, he celebrated his entry into Rome
. A feast began to settle on three or even four times a day, and Vitellius on each of them ate his fill to satiety. He had enough for breakfast and lunch and na.uzhin, because every time he took an emetic. One day he was asking for a treat at different, time-to various friends, and each is a treat not manage less than 400 000. The most famous was a feast in honor of the arrival of his brother: saying it was filed in 2000 selected fish and birds, 7000. But he was overshadowed by Vitellius and this feast, to establish such a value meal that only silver was spent millions sesterces. There were mixed fish liver SCAR, pheasant and peacock brains, flamingo languages, milk, moray eels, for which he sent ships and shipmen from Parthia to the Spanish Strait. He did not know in the womb - grounds neither measure nor the time nor the decency, even at the sacrifice, even in the way he could not resist: here is the altar, he grabbed and ate almost on fire cuts of meat and tortillas.

. Regulation, he solely at the whim and will of the most worthless actors and the driver, especially the Otpushchennikov Asiatique
. However, in his affections, he was unstable and inclined to side with one or the other. In the cases there was no order, but all too often ruled by tyranny and bribery. All those who apply for compensation after the death of Galba, he had to find and execute. With the same tenacity he pursued operators, lenders and money changers, who have ever exacted from his duty: Hardly anyone from his former creditors Vitellius left alive. One of them, especially maliciously pursuing him, he immediately ordered the slaughter in their eyes, accidentally collided with him on the street.

. In the eighth month of the reign Vitellius rebelled against the troops in Moesia and Pannonia, and then overseas, in Judea and Syria, part of the correspondence, part of the person they swore loyalty to Vespasian, which were initiated by the legions in Judaea
. To remain true to the rest of the people, Vitellius did not want to have any, nor the public funds. Announcing the troop set in Rome, he promised to the volunteers after the victory of outputting not only resign, but even the awards, which only veterans receive for the full term vysluzhenny. Enemies attacked by land and by sea; Vitellius sent against them from the sea of his brother with a fleet, a detachment of recruits and gladiators, and on land - the generals and troops who were successful at Betriake (Suetonius: 'Vitellius'; 12-15). He himself continued to indulge in luxury and entertainment, not even thinking about how to provide themselves with arms, temper the army, to the soldiers with a speech, people seem. Huddled in the shade of their gardens, Vitellius does not care about the past, neither the present nor the future. Sluggish, motionless, he was sitting in a grove Aritsiyskoy when word came of the transition ravenskogo fleet on the side of Vespasian. Some time later, he reported that Cecina, one of his closest associates, sought to convey to the enemy with his legions, but the soldiers grabbed him and chained. However, after that they still suffered a heavy defeat at Cremona. Vitellius Vespasian sent against his second legate - Fabius Valens, the soldiers went to war reluctantly, and soon many went over to flaviantsev, and he Valent captured. After this case Vitellius began to go from bad to worse. He changed the Spanish legions disappeared Gaul, followed by British and. Only this field, urged the soldiers, he finally came to the army, which was in Umbria. But the ignorant in military affairs, unable to predict something and to calculate, he knew neither how to build an army, nor gather the necessary information about the enemy. He asked about all the advice of others, every time the news was terrified, trembling, and then get drunk. Finally camp life bores him and he went to Rome. Nothing but shame, this trip has not brought him.

The war, meanwhile approaching Rome. 18 п¦п¦п¦п¦п¦я-я¦ 69 g. Vitellius learned that left a legion of Narnia together with his cohorts changed attached to their duty and surrendered to the enemy. Then in fear, he decided to abdicate power, donned in black robes, surrounded himself with weeping relatives, clients and slaves, and went to the forum. He announced that in the interest of peace and the state refuses to authorities and asked to take pity on him and his innocent children, then he began to stretch your child's environmental crowd, then turned to one, then another, then all together. Sobs choked him. From there he went to the temple of Concord with the intention there to lay down the signs of the supreme power. But the crowd and the soldiers, appalled by this spectacle, blocked his way, begging him not to rush to a decision, and Vitellius, after some hesitation, returned to the palace. He even plucked up courage again, although everyone was already clear that his situation is hopeless.

Three days later flaviantsy came to Rome, and on the streets Fierce Battle. Remaining loyal to the emperor soldiers locked themselves in the Praetorian camp and is not without honor every last person killed in action. Vitellius himself caught in the palace, when he was abandoned by all, tried to hide in a shameful place. With twisted behind her back, in tattered clothes he was taken to the city. Putting curses and insults. Emboldened by all sides edges of swords and spears, Vitellius was forced to raise its head high, hit and spit hit him in the face, and he saw that tumbled from his pedestal of the statue. Jeered at him the platform he said: 'Because I was your Emperor' - those were the only ones worthy of that had to hear from him. In uttering them, he immediately fell, covered with countless wounds, and the mob desecrated the dead just as vile as she cringed in front of the living (Tacitus: 'History', 3, 36, 43, 44, 56, 67, 68, 82, 84 , 85).


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