KLAVADY I( Roman Emperor)
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Biography KLAVADY I
I, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus Caesar - Roman Emperor Julian of the genus. Claudia, who ruled in 41-54 years. Genus. August 1. 10 g. to R.H. V Oct. 13. 54 g. Claudius accounted nephew of Tiberius and his uncle Gaius Caligula. His father, Drusus Germanicus, was a famous military commander who fought both the Illyrians, and with the Germans, and his mother, Antonia Minor, was the daughter of triumvir Mark Antony and the niece of Augustus.
. Throughout childhood and adolescence Claudius suffered a long and protracted disease, which was so weak mind and body that is of age was considered incapable to any public or private affairs
. Even after he was released from the guardianship, it has long remained in a foreign government and under the supervision of subalterns. However, in the noble science from an early age he showed uncommon diligence, and not once even published his experiments in any area, but even this he could not get no respect, nor to inspire hope for the future of their. His grandmother, Libya, always treated him with profound contempt, talked to him very rarely and even the comments he made, or in short and sharp notes, or through the slave. Own mother, Antonia, called him a freak among people whose nature is not the beginning and finished, and wishing to reprimand someone for the stupidity, saying: 'my foolish Claudius'. Aug. directly expressed doubts about his mental and usefulness of long debate: whether to allow Claudia to undergo posts or just give up on his arm. Finally, he removed him from all positions, except avgurstva. Tiberius upheld that decision in force and, having granted nephew signs of consular dignity, did not admit him to the execution of any office. Claudius, having escaped all cases, hiding it in the gardens, then in a country house and had the glory of the player and drunkard. Only in 37 g., in the reign of Gaius Caligula, his nephew when he come to power by sucking up all sorts of trying to acquire a good reputation, he was admitted to higher-level positions for two months and shared with him the Consulate. Has been appointed to him and the second consulate in three years. But this did not save him from the insults, and Caligula, first gave the example in every way fun of Claudius at their feasts. In the end he did ruined his uncle, forcing the purchase of eight million office of priest in his cult, and when Claudius was unable to pay its debts, let his property at auction.
. From his miserable situation Claudius suddenly truly an amazing reach of imperial power
. It so happened that the conspirators were preparing to attack Caligula, pushed away the crowd, as if the emperor wanted to be alone. Claudius was driven out with the rest, and disappeared into a room called Germesovoy; out at the first hearing of the murder, he ran in terror to the neighboring solar gallery and hid behind a curtain at the door. A soldier, . running past, . I saw his legs, . wanted to check, . who's hiding, . recognize him, . pulled, . when he was in fear fell at his feet, . welcomed him as emperor, and led to his comrades, . have behaved violently in vain, . knowing, . what to do next,
. They put on a stretcher and Claudia themselves as porters ran away, took him to his camp. Claudius was trembling with terror, and counter the crowd felt sorry for him, as if he was dragged to death. He spent a night in the camp shaft, surrounded by guards, having calmed down for his life, but worried for the future. The fact that the consuls, the Senate and the urban cohorts took the Forum and the Capitol in a firm intention to proclaim universal freedom. He also invited a tribune of the people in the curia for participation in the council, and he replied that his hold by force and coercion. However, the Senate, weary discord of contradictory opinions, with a delayed implementation of their plans. The crowd also demanded a single ruler, and was already calling his name. Then, at an armed gathering Claudius took the oath of the soldiers, and promised each of 15 000 sesterces - he was the first of the Caesars, who bought the loyalty of the troops the money. Having established in power, he ordered the execution of Jowhar, and Magnifier, the main participants in the conspiracy against Caligula - for example, and for what they are dreaming of restoring the republic, most were going to kill Claudius.
. In his elevation Claudius behaved modestly, as a simple citizen
. The name of the emperor, he refused, the excessive honors rejected. On the issues he had consulted with the Senate, in the presence of officials involved in the courts simply Adviser. Generally, the courts, he loved them and the rules with the greatest zeal, though whether of folly, whether for natural softness often handed down sentences of reckless and even absurd. The buildings he built not in large numbers, but significant and necessary. Chief among them - running water, initiated Ai Caligula, and the drain of Futsinskogo Lake. By running water Claudius brought water from the abundant and fresh sources, and on the new stone arches - from the river Apiena, and distributed, by the set of her finery water. When it was built as a harbor at left: built jetties and breakwaters, as well as high lighthouse was built on the model of Faroese.
The campaign he made only one, and the scant. The Senate granted him triumphal ornaments, but he felt their honor, unworthy of the imperial greatness, and began to look honorable reason for this triumph. Chose it to Britain, which, after Julius Caesar, nobody invaded. In 43 g. Claudius sailed there from Ostia, but because of the stormy north-westerly winds twice nearly drowned. Having completed the crossing, he was a few days subdued the island without a single battle or bloodshed, in a few months after his departure he returned to Rome with great pomp celebrated a triumph.
. These were the acts of Claudius, who, after the atrocities of Tiberius and Caligula's madness, have earned him a well-deserved love and affection of the people
. However, for the most part, all this was directed not by him but by the will of his wives and freedmen, and he almost always and in all behaved the way they saw fit, or beneficial. It is to such an extent was their command, . that behaved not as a ruler, . but as a servant: for the benefit, . desire, . whim of any of them, he generously handed out and posts, . and voenachalstva, . and forgiveness, . Punishment, . usually even the not knowing and not knowing about,
. Even Appiah silane, . his father -, . even two Yuli, . his nieces, . daughter and the daughter of Drusus Germanicus, . he put to death, . not prove the accusation and not listening to excuses, . to slander one of his wife Messalina, . and after them - Gneya Pompey, . husband of his eldest daughter,
. Thirty-five senators and more than three hundred Roman cavalry were executed by him with rare indifference. He was so distracted, that many of those sentenced to death and had already murdered the next day he called on the council or a game of dice.
Stupidity Claudia attested by many anecdotes, but still far from obvious. Even in August became confused with the question: in sane Claudius or not, as the apparent stupidity constantly mingled in it with an equally undeniable common sense. In the future, remained the same uncertainty. Many of the princes of speech in the Senate proves that he possessed and soundness of their judgments and broad education. Greek language he mastered as easily as Latin. Not a stranger he was, and literary studies: leaving behind and works on the history of (Roman history in forty-three books in Latin, . continue the work of Libya, . as well as the history of the Etruscans in twenty books and the history of the Carthaginians in the eight books in Greek language), . and memoirs, . and an academic essay 'In Defense of Cicero',
. However, it is in words and deeds, he often showed such ill-considered, that it seemed he did not know or understand who he is, with whom, where and when he speaks.
Claudius was married several times, and all his marriages were unsuccessful. The first wife was his Plautia Urgulanilla. He divorced her because of the blatant immorality and suspicion of murder. The second wife was Aelia Petina, which he also rejected because of petty quarrels. After them in 39 g. He married Valeria Messalina (Suetonius: 'Claudius', 1-10, 12-15, 17, 20, 25, 27, 29, 39-42). This third his wife, his incredible depravity surpassed all his contemporaries. According to Aurelius Victor, . she committed adultery everywhere as if by right, . Why were killed along with their families, many, . reject its out of fear or out of conviction, . because it, . using their feminine art, . blamed for the violence of those, . over whom she wanted him to commit,
. From this even more worked up, she was compelled to indulge with her wantonness noble matrons and maidens, men as they were forced to attend this. If a man refrain from participating in its orgies, against him and his family were erected false accusations and they were pursued (Victor: "O Caesar ', 4). All this she did quite openly, in front of the whole city, and Claudius was the only one who nothing knew. Finally Messalina was filled with such boldness that is not hiding from anyone, played a wedding with her lover Siliem. Then freedmen of Claudius, . Callistus and Narcissus, . tried by him on behalf of all the affairs, . began to fear for his fate: 'how would Sily, . ex-great grandson of Augustus and received such authority, . not committed a coup and he did not become Princeps,
. They ventured to bring Claudius to the intrigues of his wife and represented the matter so that life, he was in serious danger. Claudius by this sudden news fell into such confusion that he could not decide on anything, and Narcissus, his power has brought the case before the end. At his insistence, was first executed Sily, and then slain Messalina. Claudius was informed of her death, omitting the fact whether it was voluntary or forced. And he is not asking about it and demanded a cup of wine and then continued to feast on as if nothing had happened. And in the days that followed he showed no sign of joy, hatred, anger, sadness or any other movement of the soul (Tacitus: 'Annals'; II; 26-38).
. On the day of his wife's death before Claudius soldiers swore that henceforth he may abide celibate since his marriage was unhappy, but if he does not stand up, let them be slain his own hands
. And yet he could not resist the thought of a new marriage with Petya, whom he had once fired, then with Lolli Pavlina, who was married to Caligula. In the end, he was seduced sly Agrippina, . daughter of his brother Germanicus, . exercising their right to kisses and caresses of relatives, he found people, . that at the next meeting, proposed to the Senate oblige Claudia to marry Agrippina, . ostensibly for the greater good of the State, . and to permit such marriages for all, . although until then they were regarded as incestuous,
. And almost every day, he celebrated the wedding (Suetonius: 'Claudius', 26).
. The new marriage of Claudius was the cause drastic change in the state: everyone has to manage a woman, . is deciding the affairs of the Roman power because of the rampant self-will, . as Messalina, she held a bridle tightly stretched, . as if she was in a male hand (Tacitus: "Annals", 12, 7),
. All efforts Agrippina focused on how to arrange the fate of his son from his first marriage, Lucie Domitius. Daughter Claudia Octavia was already betrothed to Lucius silane. But Agrippina, accusing him of incest with his sister, has made his disgrace, and then driven to suicide. Octavia it is intended to marry his son, and soon after her marriage to Agrippina, in 49, Claudius granted permission. The following year he adopted the name of Lucie Tiberius Claudius Nero, and then appointed him as his heir (Suetonius: 'Claudius', 27, 29). When all was done, Agrippina, fearing that would Claudius for some reason has not changed his decision, decided to kill her husband. She sought out adept at poisoning, Locusta mistress, and she made it necessary for poison. He gave as his Claudius Galot eunuch, whose responsibility it was to make, and tasted foods intended for Claudia. The poison was mixed with delicate mushroom dish. Claudius was poisoned, but after copious diarrhea him feel better. Then the doctor Xenophon, as if in order to cause vomiting, introduced in the throat Claudia greased quick poison pen. Agrippina few days hiding her husband's death and, meanwhile, prepared for adoption by all government Nero (Tacitus: "Annals", 12, 66-69).