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Irakli I

( Byzantine Emperor)

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Biography Irakli I
Irakli I - Byzantine emperor in 610 - 641 years. Founder Irakleyskoy dynasty. Genus. 575 g. + 11 Feb.. 641
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Irakli, a native Armenian, Cappadocian, was the son of the commander of Heraclius, Exarch of Africa. Nicephorus writes that in 610 g. deep resentment of the emperor Fok spread throughout the empire. Then the rulers of Libya, the brothers Heraclius Sr. and George, agreed to equip all his army and send them to the capital under the command of his sons. They agreed that the imperial power will belong to those of their sons, who will stay in Constantinople, the first and will be able to master the throne. Heraclius the younger they are sent by sea, having collected a large fleet with teams from afrov and mavrusiev, Nikita is the son of Gregory, sent by land with a large army of horse. Irakli, soputstvurmy happy lot, beat Nikita and arrived safely to Constantinople. At this time, Crisp, eparh city and son of the emperor, was hostile to Foca. Therefore, it all contributed to Irakli. The coup was accomplished quickly and easily: Foca was captured by treachery in his palace, given to the ship Heraclius and immediately beheaded.

A crowd of people and the Patriarch Sergius took her deliverer with the best feelings. Although Heraclius announced that the capital came not for the sake of the imperial throne, but in order to avenge the lawless conduct of Foca, he said, according to the will of the Senate and with the approval of the people, was proclaimed emperor on October 5 (Nikephoros: 610). However, he got heavy and unenviable legacy. Theophanes says that Irakli, ascended to the throne, found the perfect decline in the Roman government: Avars ravaged Europe, Asia, the Persians occupied the entire. Many people were captured, and the Roman army destroyed in battle. Looking at it, Heraclius was puzzled and did not know what to do. The greatest threat to the Romans represented the Persian invasion. In 610 g. Persians took Apamea, Edessui came to Antioch.

In 611, the fall of Antioch, and the next enemies captured Melitinoy (Theophanes: 602-604). In 613 g. Heraclius himself was defeated at the walls of Antioch, departed in Cilicia, where troops defeated the enemy, but the Persians had been reinforced, and the Emperor's troops fled in terror from them (Dashkov: 'Irakli first'). In 614 g. Palestine voluntarily resigned Shah. After a brief siege, the Persians took Jerusalem and built this three-day massacre. More than 17 000 people died. The Persians captured the Patriarch, Zacharias, and took the tree of the Holy Cross (Sebeos: 32). In 616 g. Persian general Shahin conquered and enslaved the whole of Egypt, many carried away into captivity, others killed in a merciless fashion. Due to the depletion of Egypt ceased to supply the bread capital, and in Constantinople, he had a massive famine. In addition, an outbreak. Oppressed by all these disasters, Heraclius ordered the ships to load at the treasury, intending to sail to Libya, but the people found out about it, objected to the flight of the Emperor. The patriarch called on him in the temple and bound by an oath, convincing as possible, so that he did not leave the capital. Yielding to them, Irakli stayed in town, though with great reluctance. In 617 g. Avar Hagan insidiously to invite the Emperor in Silimbriyu, ostensibly for talks about peace, and he wanted to capture him, Irakli learned about it, dressed in poor clothes, and in great fear he fled to Constantinople. Avars followed him on his heels and looted the imperial camp (Nikephoros: 613, 619). Simultaneously, the Spanish kings who took from the Romans prepared to one possession after another. In the early 20-ies. in their hands were todko, Balerskie Islands (Dashkov: 'Irakli first').

Facing problems and difficulties in public affairs, Irakli failed to establish good and home: in May, 612 g. after birth died Empress Eudoxia. Four months later, Irakli united in marriage with his niece Martina, although he knew that the case which he is doing wrong and is forbidden by Roman law. The older son, who was born of this marriage, his neck was so placed that he could not turn around, and the youngest was born deaf, and remained deaf and dumb.

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Heraclius was brought to the confusion many ills: the invasions of the Persians, Avars, famine and epidemics. But saving solution was soon found - in 621 g. emperor announced his intention to personally lead the fight against the Persians (Nikephoros: 613, 619, 622). The whole synod approved the plan (Sebeos: 36). Due to lack of funds Heraclius took the money from the wealthy owners of houses, also took incense and other church vessels of the great church and moved into large and small money (Theophanes: 613). His children, he instructed the patriarch, and the reins handed Patrika Bon (Nikephoros: 622). In April, 622 g. Irakli moved from Constantinople to Pyla, located south of Nicomedia, to continue their journey by ship. To recruited in the provinces to the army, he joined the recruits began to exercise them and train for military action. The men, he vowed that he would be with them in the works and the battles and share them with all the dangers, both with their own children. Bes 622, he was busy forming and training the army. Laska and severity of Heraclius finally got that out of many disparate soldiers, in which he found at first only shyness, clutter and disorganization, gathered like a common and strong body (Theophanes: 613). In the autumn the Romans came to Cappadocia, the winter spent in Pontus, and in April, 623 g. instead, . to go to the Persian capital of Ctesiphon, . as expected it Khosrow, . Heraclius with his army turned north, . possession of the Persians in the Caucasus - in Armenia, . entered the Persian province Antropatenu, . took Karin (Erzurum), . Dvin, . Nakhichevan and Gandzak (Gyandzhdu),
. Hence, he retreated to Albania, and captured its capital Parthan (Sebeos: 36). In the spring of 624 g. Persians occupied the gorge leading from Albania to Persia. But Irakli chose a longer route through the valley. Shah sent to meet the emperor two armies Schahrabaraza and Shahin (Theophanes: 615). Shahrabaraz barred the way to the Romans, and Shaheen camped with them in the rear. Irakli, not allowing them to connect, attacked first on Shahin, defeated him at the town Tigranakert and began retreating from Albania to Armenia (Sebeos: 36). Shahrabaraz attached remnants of Shahin and rushed in pursuit of him (Theophanes: 615). The Romans retreated again to Nakhichevan, and then in Apahuniyu to the shores of Lake Van. Shahrabaraz with six-thousand detachment arranged Emperor ambush in the town of Arch, . intending to attack the Romans during the night, . but Irakli, . heard about this, . rapidly descended to the Persians he, . surrounded the city from three sides, . ordered to set fire to it and destroyed along with the entire garrison,
. Survived only one Shahrabaraz, who fled to the main forces on a bad horse (Sebeos: 36). Romans spent the winter in Armenia, north of Lake Van, in the spring of 625 g. Irakli through Taurus invaded Syria to the headwaters of the Tigris and the city Armindo. Shahrabaraz walked behind him, all sorts of obstacles Chinyayev. Then Heraclius dramatically changed direction and began to retreat to Pontus. The Persians, imagining that the Romans were fleeing from shyness, chased them in disorder (Theophanes: 616). Zamani so enemies on a comfortable position, the emperor suddenly turned and rushed at them when they least expected it, and inflicted a new defeat. Winter the Romans had in their possessions in Ponte (Sebeos: 36).

At the beginning of 626 g. Shahrabaraz leaving until Heraclius, went up to Constantinople and took the Asian shore of the Bosporus. Avars and Slavs, violating the truce, attacked the capital with the Thracian side) burned all the suburbs and led to the walls of the towers with siege engines. But all attempts to capture the city Hagan ended in failure. Bona Patrikey inflicted a severe defeat in the Strait of Slavic fleet, and then lifted the siege of the barbarians. Meanwhile, Heraclius, sending some troops led by his brother Theodore to the aid of the capital, with the rest of the legions began a campaign in Lasik. On the road to Trebizond Martin gave birth to the emperor's third son. In Tbilisi.

Irakli met with the Khazar Kagan, betrothed him his daughter and made a friendly alliance with the Khazars. For several months the two armies together besieged Tbilisi, but could not get it (Nikephoros: 626, 627). Then, selecting 40 000 brave soldiers

Hagan asked them to Heraklion, while he returned to the steppe. Autumn 627 g. Romans of the capital Lasik rapidly moved into the interior of Persia. On the way, the Khazars, unable to bear the difficulties of the way, left their allies, but it did not stop Irakli. He and burned towns and villages, and the Persians killed prisoners. The Persian army, led by Rahzadom, moved followed. In the ruins of ancient Nineveh Irakli turned and began to wait for the enemy (Theophanes: 618). Approaching, Rahzad build his army and began to cause the enemy to single combat. Heraclius himself came out against the barbarian. He shot an arrow and brushed his upper lip of the Emperor. Then he sent another and injured his ankle. He was preparing to let a third, but here is one of the spearmen Irakli off his shoulder. When Rahzad fell, Irakli struck his spear, and immediately cut off the head. Roman army, inspired by the courage of the emperor, attacked the Persians, gave them a severe defeat and pursuit, killed many of them (Nikephoros: 627). Heraclius was in the thick of battle, his horse was killed, and he received many blows with swords in the face, but withdrew from the living to protect him, and strikes have not been implemented (Theophanes: 618).

In early January, 628 g. Romans rushed to the Persian capital of Ctesiphon, seized all irazgrabili Shah's palaces in the outskirts of the city (Sebeos: 37). Was taken Dastagerd - Residence Khusrau, in which, among other prey, were found 300 Roman flags captured by the Persians at different times. Shah secretly fled from his palace for nine days before the arrival of Heraclius. Irakli moved on, but after learning that the bridges across the canal Nahravan destroyed and can not come close to Ctesiphon, turned his army and began to retreat to Gandzak. On the way, the emperor learned of the coup, committed Persian commanders - Shah Khosrow and forty of his sons were killed. Authorities seized Kavadh (Theophanes: 618). Unable to continue the war over, troubled by internal unrest in his country, he made peace in all the will of Heraclius: Persians, Romans, returned to Egypt and all the conquered lands, as well as a great relic - the True Cross (Nikephoros: 628). In May, Heraclius returned to the capital and was received with great joy by the people. Unparalleled in its intense war ended in complete victory.

At the beginning of 630 g. Irakli from True Cross arrived in Palestine. Moreover, this installing shrines in Jerusalem remained in the memory of posterity, as it were the high point of his success. After defeating and throwing all the barbarians, Irakli could seem to enjoy the now long world. But in reality he was only a small respite. It has not much time, and a new, far more dangerous enemy, was on the eastern borders of the empire. The strike took place from where it did not expect, from the deserts of Arabia.

In the summer of 634 g. Arabs took Gaza and the entire country around. Theodore, brother of Heraclius, fought with them, was defeated and fled to Edessa. In the summer of 636 g. Caliph Omar broke the 40 thousandth the Roman army on the shore Yarmuka, left tributary of the Jordan, captured all Phenicia and marched against Jerusalem. Forces to resist the onslaught of the invaders was not (Theophanes: 619, 620, 624-626). The Arabs crossed the Jordan and camped in Jericho. All local residents, overcome with fear, they obeyed. That same night the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saving Cross of the Lord and all the church plate, and on ships sent to sea all this in Constantinople, and then also became subject to Omar. Arabs divided his army into three companies. One had been sent against Egypt, the other - to the north in Syria, the third - against the Persian kingdom (Sebeos: 40).

When the first news of the enemy invasion, Heraclius with his wife and son Heraclius went to the Oriental region. But very soon, when the obvious became all sizes tragedy, he left the army. Immersed in melancholy, the emperor lived in the palace Ieriya and did not show up in Constantinople (Nikephoros: 635). Inaction it in this difficult moment, especially after his success in the previous war, is astounding and his contemporaries, and descendants. Displeasure of the nobility led to a major conspiracy, which involved had a son and nephew of Heraclius. All guilty emperor ordered to cut off noses and right arms (Sebeos: 39). In the summer of 638 g. he finally overcame himself and crossed the bridge in the capital, induced through the Strait of many ships. Meanwhile, the Arabs took possession of Antioch. In 639 g. fall of Edessa, and was subjected to all Mesopotamia. Stratig John, sent against the Arabs in Egypt, was killed along with the entire army. The hijackers seized Egypt until Alexandria.

The last two years of his life Heraclius had locked himself in his palace. Shortly before his death he crowned Caesar Heraclius, the third son of Martina. It took some time and he was attacked by a serious disease - edema. Realizing that the disease is incurable, Heraclius made a will: according to his will, Irakli, Jr., and Constantine, the emperor's son from his first marriage, are given equal power, but Martin was revered as their mother (Nikiforov: 635.638).


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