NIKIFOR I Hanicke( Byzantine Emperor)
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Biography NIKIFOR I Hanicke
Nicephorus I Genik - Byzantine emperor, who ruled in 802-811 years. Genus. app. 760 g. + 26 July 811 g.
Patrikey Nicephorus, born pisidiets was with the Empress Irene Logofet genikona. In 802 g. He assisted the Chief of the military corps Nikita and other court officials deposed Empress. The coup, which he led, was boldly conceived and just as easily implemented. The conspirators came to the gates of brass and some generals have deceived the next invention: they are confident their, . that sent the empress herself to proclaim the emperor Nicephorus, . because Aetius, . her eunuch, . Irina forcing the emperor to make his brother Leon,
. Military leaders believe these lies and declared emperor Nicephorus. After that the plotters rushed to the palace, but throughout the city sent slaves to announce the accession of new monarch. Around the palace Eleutherus, where there was Irina, were placed guard. In the morning it was taken into custody at the Grand Palace. Meanwhile, Nicephorus was crowned. A few days later deposed empress was exiled to the island Prinkipo the abode, which she arranged. As the prestige of Irina by this time had fallen very low, and the troops of the theme reacted calmly to the overthrow. Rose only FEMA Armeniak, Stratig which, Vartan, declared himself emperor, and went to the capital. But before military action is not reached. Realizing their weakness, Vartan has entered into negotiations with Nikifor, asked for mercy and a haircut in monks. The following year, the emperor ordered him blind. Thus, it has established itself in power. All state soon felt the heavy hand of the new autocrat. From the previous Government's case went to Nikiforou in great confusion: the treasury was empty, finance upset the army was supplied with badly broken under Constantine V Arabs and Bulgarians again threatened the lands of the empire. It required much time and effort to ensure that all correct and put in proper order. Nicephorus ordered to destroy all the tax breaks and besieged people of many and onerous exactions. According to Theophanes, he was ordered to pay tribute to the horses, with cattle, with fruit, impose fines, take the fee from ships and intend countless other oppressive. His greed knew no bounds (Theophanes: 795, 802, 803). Nicephorus forced to pay taxes and monasteries, and the landed aristocracy (Dashkov: 'Nicephorus Geniuses'). Not content with this, he instructed the slaves to slander their masters, and at first if he did not believe denunciations, and then took all the calumnies and take possession of the perpetrators estate. Because of all these unpopular measures Nicephorus was afraid of coups. Indeed, a general feeling of hatred, he said, according to the same Theophanes, often pretending to cry in your bedchamber: his tears were always ready, as usually happens in people thin, but pretended the good (Theophanes: 796).
. In the field of military equipment Nicephorus walked in the footsteps of their predecessors - Isaurian dynasty emperors, of the theme that is developed and strengthened the army from the people's militia units
. Internal area of Greece, inhabited by Slavs in the previous era and in fact independent from Constantinople, were gradually incorporated into the overall structure of the state: there were formed of the theme Dirrahy, Peloponnesus and Thessaloniki. To dilute the Slavic element, Nicephorus began the mass migration of people of the Balkan peninsula of Asia Minor (Dashkov: 'Nicephorus Genik'). Each legion was to form in the land of their Christian Slavic settlement. However, the fruits of that far-sighted policies have affected only later, when the Byzantine army had grown strong and was able to wage a successful war. Nicephorus himself had no success in military campaigns (Theophanes: 802). In 806 g. Arabs have destroyed many of the fortifications built by the emperor in Asia. In 807 g. Arabic fleet devastated Cyprus and Rhodes, appeared off the coast of Sicily (Dashkov: 'Nicephorus Genik'). In 809 g. Bulgaria has Serdika. Nicephorus moved against them, but could not do anything worthy of a mutiny in the army. Nicephorus addressed the soldiers and terrible oaths sworn in love for him, but when the legions returned to the capital, many of the ringleaders executed, the other cast. In 811 g. Nicephorus the second time went against the Bulgarians. At first he been lucky. Romans pushed deeper into the Bulgarian borders, took and burned their capital Plisko. But then the army was locked in Vyrbishskoy narrows. At night, the Bulgarians made a raid on the camp, was killed in the tent of Ni-kifora and all his nobles were killed, many generals and many soldiers. Skull Nikifora Khan Krum ordered to decorate with gold and turned into a bowl (Theophanes: 801.803).