John I Tzimiskes( Byzantine Emperor)
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Biography John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes - Byzantine emperor in 969 - 976 years. Genus. app. 925 g. + 11 January. 976 g.
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John came from a noble Armenian kind Kurkuasov. According to Leo the deacon, he was a man of hot temper, and, despite the fact that he was very short, proved himself an incredibly courageous and passionate in the fight (Leo the Deacon: 4, 3). He was very active: jumping, playing ball, javelin throwing and archery, he surpassed all his peers. He so aptly directed dart at a target, that he flew through a hole the size of the ring. The drawback was his habit of drinking to excess at feasts. They write also that he was greedy for bodily pleasures (Leo the Deacon: 6, 3). In Second John Romano moved as a capable commander. Later, he played a prominent role in the articulation of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas. honored Tzimiskes Masters and made the Domestic East (Leo the Deacon: 3, 6). In 965 g. gave him the dignity Duque, but later on suspicion of treason, stripped of his favor and all posts and exiled to Chalcedon (Leo the Deacon: 4, 3).
Empress Theophanu persuaded her husband to return from the publication of John. Arriving in the capital, Tzimiskes appeared before the emperor, and received permission to visit the palace every day, retired. Being hot, bold and surprisingly prone to bold enterprises, he found a way to penetrate into the apartments through the Augusta prepared her secret entrances to lead talks with her about the overthrow of Emperor Nicephorus the throne. For this he sent to her strong and experienced in military affairs of husbands, whom she hid in his dark closet. When all was ready, at night on December 10 969 g. John with a few companions sailed in a boat to Vukoleonu. The rope, lowered their accomplices, they climbed into the palace, and then drew their swords, rushed into the bedroom of the emperor (Theophanu left it open) and killed him. When all was over, John went into the palace hall, called Hrisotriklinom, put on his feet and purple shoes, sat on the throne and began to ponder what to do next. Bodyguards Nikifora heard of the attack, rushed to the aid of his master and tried hard to break through the iron gates. John had ordered them to make the head killed. Then they unanimously declared John emperor (Leo the Deacon: 5, 6 - 7, 9).
. Seven days after the coup, . consolidating its power, . John wanted to get married in the kingdom, . but the patriarch Polyeuctus announced, . that will not allow him to enter the temple until, . until it is removed from the palace Theophanu and not to cancel the emperor Nicephorus laws, . directed against the church (these laws are strongly infringe power of the patriarch and forbade him to appoint bishops without the consent of the Emperor),
. John agreed: he was exiled Empress to the island Prinkipo and returned the letter to the Synod Nikifor. Only then Polyeuctus allowed John to Sofia, and crowned him.
Like its predecessor, the new emperor spent in campaigns and battles, most of the reign. First of all, he appealed to the Bulgarian business. Russian Prince Svyatoslav, which Nicephorus called in Bulgaria, told John to leave back to the Black Sea. But Svetoslav replied that he would not leave until then, until the Emperor did not pay him a ransom for all of them captured in Bulgaria (Leo the Deacon: 6, 3). Because this condition could not be accepted, the emperor sent against Svyatoslav Master Ward Skleros. Russian invaded Thrace, emptied of its entire fire and looting, and encamped near Arcadiopolis. However, in a big battle with Vardo they were defeated and retreated (Skylitzes). Simultaneously with the invasion of Russian emperors had to reflect a different threat - in Asia, revolted nephew killed Varda Nicephorus Phocas. In the spring of 970 g. John moved against the rebels Ward Skleros. Fock fled, but was soon captured and tonsured as a monk. Then John married the daughter of Constantine VII Theodora, which is not particularly stood out the beauty and harmony, but it was marked with all the virtues (Leo the Deacon: 7, 1, 3, 6, 8-9).
In the spring of 971 g. John made a campaign against Svyatoslav. Having learned that the mountain passes through the Balkans are not protected by anybody, accelerated Romans marched through them and invaded Boyagariyu. Russian caught off guard, lined up in battle order in front of the Bulgarian capital of Preslav. Began the hard battle, and neither side could gain the upper hand. Only after the emperor gave the left wing of the Russian detachment of heavy cavalry (they were called 'immortal'), the enemies did not stand the onslaught and fled under the protection of the city. The next day the Romans broke into the Preslav and captured a huge production: in the hands of them got the entire royal treasury, and among the captives was the Bulgarian king Boris. Survivors Ruses were pushed to the royal palace and slaughtered here. Meanwhile, Svyatoslav himself with the main force was at Dorostol. Do not delay a single day, the emperor went to him and a week later went up to this city.
Russian, tightly clenched shields and spears, had expected the enemy to Dorostol. John built his troops, placing the riders dressed in armor on the sides, and the archers and slingers behind, and led a phalanx battle. Ensued a fierce battle. In the first skirmishes, both sides fought with equal success, so that until the evening it was impossible to determine the winner. But when the sun was setting, the emperor threw Russov against all enemies cavalry fled and were driven to the wall (Leo the Deacon: 8, 2, 4-10). The next day, John had ordered to dig a pit, and cast a mount in every way to strengthen the camp. As for subsequent days of constant Russian incursions, now and then there were the hot battle. Finally, oppressed by hunger and loss, Svetoslav July 21 withdrew its troops for a decisive battle. Rusov The onslaught was so strong that the Romans began to hastily retreat. The emperor, seeing the departure of his troops, assembled close to his soldiers, struggling clutched the spear and he rushed at the enemy. At this time the storm broke. Beter blew toward Rusov, bringing them rain and dust. This was on hand rum. Russian did not survive the onslaught of the phalanx of mounted and fled. Having lost many warriors in battle, Svetoslav the next day sent a request peace. John gladly agreed and allowed the survivors to leave. without obstruction from Dorostol. Thus, it is, beyond all expectation, in just four months Russov defeated a huge army and conquered most of Bulgaria (Leo the Deacon: 9, 1, '3 ,8,10-12).
In the summer of 972 g. John moved to Syria against the Arabs. Crossed the Euphrates, the Romans took Edmet, Miefarkimu and began to advance on Baghdad, but the difficulties of the way and the lack of water forced them to appear on the campaign -. Emperor turned his back to the capital. 975 g. John made a new campaign, this time in Palestine and Syria. Pomei stormed Apamea. Tzimiskes Damascus surrendered without a fight. He crossed the Lebanon, took the strong fortress Worth, then entered Phenicia, where captured Beirut. On the way back John expressed his displeasure proedru Basil, who, fearing the disgrace, conspired to remove the emperor. John filed a poisoned drink. The next day, members of his thumbs, his body possessed weak. Tzimiskes hurried back to the capital. He arrived here already weakened, with difficulty, irregular breathing, and died January II (Leo the Deacon: 10, 1, 4, II).