Isaac II Angelos( Byzantine Emperor)
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Biography Isaac II Angelos
Isaac II Angelos - a Byzantine emperor, who ruled in 1185-1195 and 1203-1204 he. Genus. app. 1156 g. + January. 1204
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Isaac belonged to the noble and wealthy family of Angels. In 1183, Mr.. with his father and brothers, he participated in a conspiracy against Andronicus Comnenus (Choniates: 3, 17), was hiding from him in Nicea, but after the peace with the emperor (Choniates: 4, 1, 3). In the Byzantine throne, Isaac was raised an amazing coincidence. In September 1185, Mr.. Head of Emperor Andronicus Stephen Agiohristoforit decided to grab an angel, put him in prison and put to death. However, Isaac, drew his sword, attacked him and killed him. Then he galloped at full speed to the Hagia Sophia and took refuge in the temple. Passing through the area, with a loud voice announced to all that this sword he slew Agioh-ristoforita. City mob was once thousands flock to the church. Most come just to look at how to be cracking down on the unfortunate. But a relative of his, John Duka, and his son Isaac were able to send the mood of the crowd into another channel. They convinced people to stay with them and help in extreme danger. And since there was no absolutely no one who could stop the townspeople, raise bent to these requests. Crowds of people continued to flock to Sofia. Were broken prison and released all prisoners. Aroused all the more, the crowd proclaimed emperor Isaac. One of the officers took the crown of Constantine the Great and put on his head Isaac. Meanwhile, Isaac did not agree to this wedding - but not because he did not love power, but because he believed it is difficult and hardly attainable. He feared the wrath of Andronicus and did not want to annoy him. Having learned about the proclamation of the angel, Andronikos tried to escape but was captured and executed (Choniates: 4, 2, 10-12).
Without Labor, for its part received royal power, Isaac initially showed himself emperor in the highest degree of justice of. All tomivshiesya in exile, all of whom Andronicus deprived of property or mutilated, have been adequately addressed. Isaac not only returned the remains of their property, but made up for losses incurred at public expense. He announced that no one will no longer be subjected to death or injury, even if proved guilty. However, soon the emperor changed the course of action contrary to this word, and hardly can be compared to the brutality with Andronik (Choniates: 5, 1, 1-4). He was extremely irritable and executed many, not only on some insignificant and casual about it, but sometimes just one suspicion (Choniates: 5, 3, 2). But it is also true that the enemy is constantly in wait for him, but his reign passed in endless wars and rebellions. In 1186, Mr.. Emperor began to collect funds for his wedding and many extortions extremely armed themselves against the Bulgarians, who soon turned against him. The uprising marked the beginning of disaster for the empire. First ro-meyam with success. Isaac spoke out against the rebels, knocked them out of the mountain gorges and entered into the country. The leaders of the uprising, Peter and Asen, fled across the Danube. The Emperor had the opportunity to seize the whole country and set garrisons in the cities, but he did not do anything, but only plundered the earth and went to Constantinople. Asen meanwhile joined with Polovtsy and returned to Bulgaria. Now he is not satisfied that preserved the independence of their country, but decided to do as much harm Romeo and fell on their land. Isaac sent to meet the enemy Alexei Vrana. But when they reached Andrianopolya, he proclaimed himself emperor. City of Vrana troops suffered defeat in open battle and had to hide behind the walls. This success rebels ended. Overcome the city walls, they could not, because all the Byzantines staunchly reflect their attacks. Soon Caesar Kondrat, manufactured troops and mercenaries gathered for the second time out against Vrana, defeated his army, and himself knocked out of the saddle and killed. The persecution of the vanquished was accompanied by a terrible bloodshed. However, Isaac soon granted a full pardon to all rebels and allowed them to return to the capital (Choniates: 5, 1, 1,5-9).
. The next invasion of Bulgaria has been even less successful than the first: having spent three months at the siege Lovitz, Isaac was not able to take it and moved to Asia against some of Theodore, who proclaimed himself emperor in Philadelphia
. City he never took, but forced the pretender to renounce the imperial title. Here, the third crusade, during which Frederick Barbarossa had behaved with Romeo as enemies, and Richard the Lionheart took over Cyprus (Choniates: 5, 2, 1-3, 8). Troubles and troubles multiply with each passing year. In Asia, one after another began to appear by impostors posing as the Emperor Alexei II (killed Andronik). Each time they gather under the banners of their large armies and took possession of much of the countryside. There were many other riots, which flared up here and there, and were suppressed with great difficulty. The reason for their weakness was partly Isaac: he was firmly convinced that God gave him power, one must protect his. On the other hand, many evoked the example of the angel who has attained power without any effort.
In 1190, Mr.. during the campaign for the Bulgarians, Romans were locked in a narrow mountain gorge and suffered a crushing defeat. Countless soldiers were slain. The emperor himself was saved only because they know all rallied around him and held through the enemy ranks. In 1191, while Isaac was waging war against the Serbs and broke them Zhupan in Moravia, his cousin Constantine, sent against the Bulgarians, proclaimed himself emperor. He was captured and blinded, but after his performances resistance Romans so weakened that the Bulgarians reached without fear in their forays to Andrianopolya.
In my life, Isaac loved pomp and feasts. Each feast him, according to Choniates, was a mountain of bread, the kingdom of animals, sea fish and the ocean of wine. He took a day refreshing bath, rubbed perfume lipstick, sprinkle perfume uveshivalsya lot of different clothes and curl. Dressed in such a way like in love with his beautiful peacock and never allowing himself twice to wear the same dress every day he was out of their houses as a bridegroom out of the bedroom. We love fun and delighting the songs, the emperor filled the palace jesters and dwarfs, opened the doors of all kinds of comedians, singers and buffoons. For all these should disorderly drunkenness, the insolent sensuality and everything else that so quickly destroys the body healthy and well-ordered state. Constantly traveling in different places, different kinds of beauty or the charm of climates, he was in the capital only on short visits. Above all, he was busy with the construction of huge buildings. Both palaces (Vlaherna and large), he built magnificent baths and dwellings erected in Propontis luxury homes and told to pour into the sea, artificial islands. He constantly increased the burden of taxes, using the money to the excesses of his dissolute life, and publicly sold at the mercy of the post, selling them as a dealer market vegetables. As for temples, churches and houses of worship, the generosity to him, he surpassed all the rulers. He was also famous for its concern for the wanderer, the sick and the poor: postroil'gostinitsu, hospital and shelter for the sick, not feeling sorry for this no cost. When a fire destroyed part of the town, he distributed Pogorel'tsev a lot of money, trying to ease their loss. He helped a lot of widows and dowry. General, he liked to show mercy and without restraint treasury income spent on benefits to the poor.
In the spring of 1195, Mr.. Isaac once again spoke out against the Bulgarians. But while his eyes were fixed on the hated rebels, he could not see the danger in the immediate vicinity of a. Being suspicious of strangers, he trusted his immensely. So, constantly hearing that his brother Alexei nourishes evil intent on his life and the royal power, he strongly denied such talk as nonsense. And now, having arrived in Kipselly, he went hunting. At this time, with the support of all his courtiers and all the army Alexei was proclaimed Emperor. Learning of this, Isaac tried to run. But Stagira he was seized and gouged out his eyes in Varnskoy monastery. After that, he was transferred to the prison near Diplokiona. There, for eight years he was forced to endure a rough life of a poor farmer and live out his days as a loon, eating a moderate amount of bread and wine (Choniates: 5, 3, 1-4, 6-8). But shortly before his death, fate once again elevated Isaac on the imperial throne. In 1203, Mr.. Alexis III after the flight from the besieged Constantinople by the crusaders, the people in his extreme shy situation again turned the attention of Isaac, tomivshegosya in custody inside the palace. He proclaimed emperor, and, taking his hand, raised to the throne. Immediately, he sent messengers to his son Alexei and a notice to the leaders of the crusaders of the flight of his brother. But the Crusaders did not previously released on my own Aleksei than Isaac agreed to deliver on his promises. After that, Alex sat in the throne as co-ruler with his father. Between them soon began strife, as Alex did his best to push the old man from the power. Choniates wrote that the last months of his life, Isaac constantly engaged oracles and prognostic.
. Some wicked monks, to avid royal treats quite mastered his reason: they promised him a worldwide empire and even the return of
. In such speeches, the emperor was melting with pleasure and was delighted that vulgar speech sycophants (Choniates: 7; 1,3).