John III DUCA VATATS( Nicene emperor)
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Biography John III DUCA VATATS
John III Ducas Vatats - Nicene emperor 1221/1222- 1254 he. Genus. app. 1192 g. + Nov. 3. 1254
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John, married to Irene, the daughter of Theodore I, after the death of the Emperor inherited the throne of Nicaea. According to the testimony of all historians, it was noted by many virtues: he was gentle, distinguished by benevolence and thrift (Acropolis: 52). Um connected it with dignity and strength of character, he was perfectly arranged and conducted affairs of government, did not do anything straight off and not leave anything unfinished. All He had his own measure, his rule and his time. In a short time Duca has increased its own wealth romeyskoy empire and in the appropriate extent of its military force (Grigor: 2, 1). Two years after his accession he had to endure a war against the troops of the Crusaders, which was led by the brothers of the late Emperor sevastokratory Alex and Isaac Laskaris. The battle took place within Pimanina, and John won a decisive victory. While. Much of the Romans were almost defeated, he himself with a handful of soldiers won the whole thing - brandishing a spear and rushed at the enemy, and showed such bravery in battle, which has not happened before. This victory helped to increase the power of extremely Romeo and, on the contrary, humiliation and degradation Crusaders. More notable among them were captured. Laskaris also were captured and blinded. Building on success, John pulled romeyskie building occupied by the Crusaders in Asia and took them away one by one so easily, because with any of them could not provide aid (Acropolis: 18). According to Gregory, it is far distributed romeyskuyu empire, showed himself clever, regulatory helmsman ship of state. . Shells quite a number of galleys, he sent them to the Aegean islands and won them all: Lesbos, Chios, most, Ikari, Kos. Then moved to Rhodes, he took his. When the Imperial Navy was a force at sea, and the forces of the Crusaders gradually depleted and weakened,. John started a war in Europe. He crossed the Hellespont, the Thracian Chersonese attacked and knocked the Knights out of the garrisons of the neighboring cities - took sows Kardiony, Kalliupol - one attack, while others - with their own consent (Grigor: 2, 3). Finally, the Roman Emperor gave him the strength Pigi and abandoned all his possessions in Asia, besides environs of Constantinople and Nicomedia.
In Bulgarian king emperor in 1235, Mr.. an alliance, and betrothed his daughter to his son, Theodore. Then, combining their forces, the Bulgars and the Romans began to threaten Constantinople itself. Emperor Baldwin, exhausted by the battle with the Bulgarians and Romeo, went to the French king, and gathered a large army to oppose John. With these forces in 1240, Mr.. He took Tsurul. Romeysky fleet was defeated by the Italians. But it was the recent successes Latins. Since the early 40-ies. They finally went on the defensive, once again lost Tsurul and Viziyu.
At the same time John began to gradually unite under his authority romeyskie land. In 1242, Mr.. he moved against the Emperor John Angel, mastered Rentinom and went up to the walls of Thessalonica. Since he had no siege engines, Duca began making inroads detachments and devastate a neighborhood. Angel was forced to abandon the imperial title, taken from the hands of a despot Duque title and vowed to be his vassal. Four years later, the conspirators had overthrown a despot Demetrios and was admitted to the city of Imperial troops. Thus Salonika became a part of the empire. In 1252, Mr.. was defeated and declared himself a vassal of the despot of Epirus Michael. The Bulgarians were selected Serra, Melinika and some other cities (Akropodit: 23, 31, 37, 40, 43 - 45, 47-48).
Simultaneous military might of the empire grew and its economic power. All of the reign of John of his subjects enjoyed peace with the Turks, who were distracted by the Mongol invasion. The emperor tried to provide all the needs of the court from its own farms, vineyards and arable lands and therefore had no need to impose an itching on the hands of ordinary people. In a short time became a flourishing welfare Romans: all bins overflowing fruit barn - livestock and poultry. Due to the fact that in the neighboring lands raging hunger, all that was sold with great profit to the Turks. Order to promote handicrafts John forbade his subjects to buy clothes from foreign tissues and ordered to be satisfied only by the fact that his hands made themselves Romans.
Contemporaries found in Duque only one flaw - a weakness for the female sex. After the death of his wife Irina John married Anna, sister of the Sicilian King Manfred, a very young girl. With it came to Nicaea as her kindergarten teacher a woman named Markesina, distinguished by a special beauty, and strength of sight, which, according to Gregory, it was possible to compare the network. His courtesies, coquetry and grace of manners, she gradually drew the attention of the emperor and inspired him with such love that he had already become clearly prefers her Empress Anna. Subsequently, his passion for Markesine reached such a point of indecency, that he allowed her to wear the insignia of imperial dignity (Grigor: 2), 6-7).
Shortly before his death, John was struck by apoplexy, lost his speech and movement. After such attacks were to happen to him constantly. For other manifestations of the disease added to the terrible thinness. In early November 1254, Mr.. John died in nymphs (Acropolis: 50).