Andronicus II Palaeologus( Byzantine Emperor)
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Biography Andronicus II Palaeologus
Andronicus II Palaeologus - Byzantine emperor in 1272 - 1328 he. The son of Michael VIII. Genus. app. 1260 g. 1 Feb 13. 1332
Andronikos began his self-rule in 1282, Mr.. to appease the church and putting in order of church affairs, complicated by his father. All the opponents of the union who have been persecuted for Michael, he returned from exile. Patriarch John Vecchi, most radevshy about the connection of churches, he left the throne, and shut himself up in a monastery Parahranta. Another concern of the emperor became foreign wars and domestic troubles that have shaken the country in all of his time in office. The first signs of crisis and the weakening of the state that are visible with Michael only a few thoughtful observers when his son became obvious to all. The main trouble of the empire was fast and complete breakdown romeyskoy Army. Andronicus himself was guilty of this more than others. Even in the early years of its independent Board of Advisors of the emperor was persuaded to reduce the cost of the fleet, since the threat had passed by Charles and from Italy. This advice was adopted and proved to be disastrous: soon Romans were not able to protect not only from the Venetians and Genoese, but on the pirates, who are extremely sharpened and made a storm all the islands and coastal cities. On the other hand, after a rebellion raised in Asia Filanfropinom and supported by his army, Andronikos became very suspicious of the army romeyskoy. According to Gregory, some Roman leaders were under unfair suspicion, others met in the reign of one cold. Much more likely he used the services of mercenaries. But, opting for the foreigners, he only showed his lack of foresight. Own national army will soon cease to exist, and the mercenaries have become a disaster for the state - giving the impression that instead of keeping enemies at the borders, the emperor invited them inside the country. First, for the war against the Turks Andronicus hired 10 000 Alan. In order to equip and arm, he imposed heavy tribute the country. But as soon as it came to the battle, Alans fled, and then their raids and robberies made in this desert of Asia (Grigor: 6, 1, 3, 8, 10). The Turks meanwhile went out to sea and took root on its shores. In 1303, Mr.. Emperor hired the Catalans in 2000, led by Roger de Flor. As soon as this famous soldier of fortune arrived in Constantinople Andronicus gave him his niece Mary, and elevated him to the dignity of the great Duksa, and then Caesar. Cash costs for clothing, gifts and annual maintenance Catalans were so huge that the state treasury in a short time emptied. Appearing in Asia, all this rabble began to oppress the Romans is not worse than the Turks. However, in the Battle of Philadelphia Roger inflicted a severe defeat to the Turks and drove them to the old borders of the empire, but soon came the news that mercenaries are rampant in the liberated cities. Andronicus knew about this, but. Could not help it: his own shelves excited laughter of their small numbers. Having robbed the whole of Asia, Roger crossed into Thrace. In 1305, Mr.. He was murdered on the orders of Michael, son of Andronicus. But his death marked the beginning of a much larger disaster. Catalans cut all the Romans in Kalliupole and reinforcing the wall, turned it into their lair. Hence, they began to make raids on Thrace, emptying her day and night. Michael Army was utterly defeated by them under Aprami. Finally, when all the surrounding lands were devastated, Catalans crossed into Greece, captured Athens and Thebes and settled there. After they left the country began to devastate the Turks, who, crossing the Bosphorus, plundered and seized what is left whole. Michael, joining with them in a battle near the Hellespont, and again defeated. Generally, though, Michael and was a useless military leader, he always remained a model son, and under its protection Andronicus, a man of kind and gentle, I may have given to scientists studying at Constantinople (Grigor: 7, 1, 3-4, 7, 13) .
. Much worse to send him to the case, when in 1320, Mr.
. Michael died. He left a son, too Andronicus, scampish young man, whose grandfather first immensely spoiled, and then, when its flaws became completely unbearable, tried to put in prison. In 1321, Mr.. Younger Andronicus fled to Thrace and raised there mutiny. Since he promised freedom from all taxes Thracian cities, in a short time under his banner converged huge army. (Losing hope to defeat the Turks, . emperor to pay off their annual tribute, . to pay for it he had to constantly increase the levies on the population, . in the end they became absolutely intolerable.) When Andronicus the Younger was with the army under the walls of the capital, . Emperor, . understanding, . that the urban populace will be left alone and rebel, . if it sees the city gate rebels, . went to considerable concessions,
. Agreed that Andronicus the Younger is the autocratic control Thrace and Macedonia. For the old man left the capital with districts of the island and the right to receive foreign ambassadors. Since because of the defection of the northern territories to the treasury income declined Andronik for raising funds had to sell the ornaments of the ancient emperors. In 1325, Mr.. Andronicus the Younger for the second time approaches to the capital of the Thracian army, forced his grandfather to announce his co-regent and crown of the kingdom (Grigor: 8, 6. 10, II, 14).
In 1328, Mr.. the third civil war. Near Mavropotama Thracians broke metropolitan troops, after which the ordinary people, and sinklitiki, and even close Andronicus II sided with the winner. The guards opened the gates of the capital in front of him. Late at night on an old emperor suddenly heard the noise and cries, jumped out of bed and began to call for help but nobody came to him. Realizing that he had been betrayed, as he grabbed the last hope for an icon. Andronicus was preparing for the worst, but the grandson entered the chambers, hugged and kissed her grandfather. The old man had left the insignia of imperial dignity, was allowed to remain in the apartment, but from participation in affairs he was removed completely. From sorrow Andronicus lost former vigor of the body and first became ill see one eye, and after a while and went blind for a second. Servants and slaves haunted his jokes and shameless insults, so he became a toy for all. In 1328, Mr.. Andronikos III seriously ill and everyone expected his death. The old man was forced to renounce the royal authority and take the vows. He died four years later in poverty and destitution (Grigor: 9, 1, 5-8, 10, 14).