Bertolt Brecht (Brecht)( One of the most popular German dramatist, poet, art theorist, director)
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Biography Bertolt Brecht (Brecht)
Brecht, Bertolt (Brecht), (1898-1956), one of the most popular German dramatist, poet, art theorist, director. Born February 10, 1898 in Augsburg in the family of the factory's director. He studied at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Munich. Even during my school years, began to study ancient history and literature. From a large number of plays, . who successfully walked on the stage of many theaters of Germany and the world: "Waal", . "The drumbeat in the Night" (1922), , . that this "(1927), . "The Threepenny Opera" (1928), . "Talking" yes "and saying" no "(1930), . "Horace and Kuriatsii" (1934) and many,
. Developed theory of "epic theater". In 1933, after Hitler came to power, Brecht emigrated, and in 1933-47 he lived in Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, USA. In exile created a series of realistic scenes of "Fear and despair in the Third Reich" (1938), . drama "Rifles Theresa Carrara (1937), . Drama-parable "A good man out Sezuana" (1940), . "Career Arturo Ui" (1941), . "The Caucasian Chalk Circle" (1944), . historical drama "Mother Courage and Her Children" (1939), . "Life of Galileo" (1939) and others,
. Returning to his homeland in 1948, organized in Berlin theater "Berliner Ensemble". Brecht died in Berlin on August 14, 1956.
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. Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) was born in Augsburg, the son of the factory's director, studied in high school, studied medicine in Munich and was drafted into the army as a medic
. Songs and poems attracted the attention of a young nurse the spirit of hatred for war, the Prussian military clique, the German imperialism. In the revolutionary days of November, 1918. Brecht was elected a member of the Augsburg soldier's council, which indicated that the credibility of the still very young poet.
Already in the earliest poems of Brecht, we see a combination of eye-catching, designed to instantly memorize slogans and complex imagery, calling the association with classical German literature. These associations - not imitation, and unexpected situations and rethinking old techniques. Brecht moves like them in modern life, compels them to look at a new, 'alienation'. So already in the very early Brecht lyric groping his famous dramatic reception 'alienation'. In the poem 'The Legend of the dead soldier as' satirical methods resemble techniques Romanticism: a soldier going into battle against the enemy - has long been only a phantom, the people who accompanied him - the philistines, which German literature has long been drawing in the shape of animals. Yet the poem Brecht topically - in it, and intonation, and paintings, and hatred of the First World War. German militarism, war and condemns the Brecht poem, 1924. 'The Ballad of the mother and the soldier', the poet is aware that the Weimar Republic is not eradicated militant Pan-Germanism.
During the Weimar Republic, Brecht's poetic world expands. Reality appears in the acute class shocks. But Brecht is not content just to rebuild the oppression. His poems - always revolutionary appeal: these are the 'Song of the united front', 'faded glory of the New York City giant', 'Song of the class enemy'. These poems demonstrate how in the late 20-ies Brecht comes to communist ideology, as its natural youthful rebelliousness grows into a proletarian revolutionary
. The lyrics of Brecht is very wide-ranging, . poet can capture the real picture of German life in all its historical and psychological specificity, . but he can create and poem-meditation, . where the poetic effect is not describing, . and accuracy and depth of philosophical thought, . combined with exquisite, . not far-fetched allegory,
. For Brecht's poetry - is primarily the accuracy of philosophical thought and civil. Brecht believed poetry even philosophical treatises or filled with the pathos of civil paragraphs proletarian newspapers (both, . example, . style of the poem 'Epistle to someone Dimitrov, . who fought in Leipzig with the fascist tribunal '- an attempt to reconcile the language of poetry and newspapers),
. But these experiments were finally persuaded to Brecht that the daily art should speak not the everyday language. In this sense, Brecht-lyricist-playwright Brecht helped.
In the 20-ies Brecht is drawn to the theater. In Munich, he became director and later the playwright Municipal Theater. In 1924, Mr.. Brecht moved to Berlin, where he worked in the theater. It serves as both a playwright and as a theorist - reformer Theater. Already in these years in their crucial features formed the aesthetics of Brecht, its innovative look at the problem of Drama and Theater. His theoretical views on the art of Brecht described in the 20 years in individual articles and speeches, and later combined into a collection of 'Against the theatrical routine' and 'Towards a modern theater'. Later, in the 30 years, Brecht has systematized its theatrical theory, refining and developing it, in the treatises 'On nearistotelevskoy drama', 'New principles of dramatic art', 'Little Organon for the Theater', 'Purchase of copper' and some other
. Brecht calls his aesthetics and dramaturgy 'epic', . 'nearistotelevskim' theater, he stressed that by naming his disagreement with the major, . according to Aristotle, . principle of the ancient tragedy, . perceived later in greater or lesser degree throughout the world theatrical tradition,
. Playwright opposed to the Aristotelian theory of catharsis. Catharsis - the extraordinary, the highest emotional tension. This aspect of catharsis Brecht recognized and preserved for its theater, the emotional power, the pathos, the manifestation of the passions, we see in his plays. But the cleansing feeling of catharsis, according to Brecht, led to a reconciliation with the tragedy, the horror of life became a theatrical and therefore attractive, even the audience would not mind to experience something like. Brecht constantly trying to dispel the legend of the beauty of suffering and patience. In the 'Life of Galileo', he wrote that the hungry do not have the right to tolerate hunger, that 'hunger' - it's just not there, not patience, pleasing to the sky '. Brecht wanted the tragedy excited thinking about ways to prevent the tragedy. Therefore, he considered the lack of Shakespeare that, at present his tragedy is inconceivable, for example, 'discussion about the behavior of King Lear' and the impression that the mountain Lear inevitable: 'This has always been, it is natural'.
The idea of catharsis generated by the ancient drama, has been closely linked with the concept of the fatal inevitability of human fate. Playwrights whose talent to disclose all the motivations of human behavior in moments of catharsis like lightning lit up all the causes of human action, and the power of these reasons are absolutely. That is why Brecht called Aristotelian theater fatalistic.
Brecht saw the contradiction between the principle of reincarnation in the theater, the principle of dissolution of the author's heroes and the need for direct, agitation and visual identification of the philosophical and political position of the writer. Even in the most successful and tendentious in the best sense of traditional dramas author's position, according to Brecht, was linked to the figures arguer. This was the case in the dramas of Schiller, whom Brecht highly valued for its citizenship and ethical passion. Playwright rightly regarded, . that the characters of the heroes should not be 'the mouthpieces of ideas', . it reduces the artistic validity of the play: '... on the scene realistic theater place only living people, . people in the flesh and blood, . with all their contradictions, . passions and actions,
. Scene - not a herbarium and a museum, which exhibits full of stuffed animals ... '
Brecht finds a solution to this controversial issue: a theatrical performance, stage action do not match him with the plot of the play. The story, the history of actors suspended direct authorial commentary, lyrical digressions, and sometimes even a demonstration of physical experiments, reading newspapers and kind, always topical Entertainer. Brecht in the theater breaks the illusion of continuous development of events destroys the magic of the scrupulous reproduction of reality. Theater - true creativity, far exceeding the simple plausibility. Creativity for Brecht's play and the actors, which is quite insufficient merely 'natural behavior in the given circumstances'. In developing his aesthetic, . Brecht uses the traditions, . buried in everyday, . psychological theater late XIX - early XX century., . He introduced choruses and Zongo contemporary political cabaret, . lyrical digressions, . characteristic of the poems, . and philosophical treatises,
. Brecht allows for change when commenting early resumption of its pieces: it has sometimes two options Zongo and choirs to the same plot (eg, different formulations of Zongo in the 'Threepenny Opera' in 1928 and 1946.).
Art of reincarnation Brecht considered binding, but completely inadequate for the actor. Much more important, he believed the ability to show, on stage to demonstrate their identity - and in civil and in the creative plan. In the game reincarnation must necessarily rotate, . combined with a demonstration of artistic data (recitation, . plastics, . singing), . are interesting precisely its uniqueness, . and, . main, . with the demonstration of personal citizenship actor, . his human credo,
Brecht believed that the person retains the ability of free choice and responsible decision in the most difficult circumstances. In this belief playwright apparent faith in man, a deep conviction that bourgeois society, with the full force of its corrupting influence can not reshape mankind in the spirit of its principles. Brecht wrote that the task of 'epic theater' - to make viewers' give up ... from the illusion that everyone on the site depicting characters would act the same way '. Playwright deeply understands the dialectics of social development and so devastating rout vulgar sociology, associated with positivism. Brecht always chooses the complex, 'imperfect' way of exposing the capitalist society. 'Political primitive', according to the playwright, is not allowed on the stage. Brecht wanted the life and deeds of heroes in the plays from the life of acquisitive society always gave the impression of unnaturalness. He confronts a theatrical presentation of a very complex task: the audience he compares with hydrobuilders, . who 'can see the river at the same time and in its real line, . and in the imaginary, . which it could leak, . if the slope of the plateau and the water level would have been different ',
. Brecht believed, . that a truthful representation of reality is not limited to reproduction of social circumstances of life, . that there are universal categories, . that social determinism can not explain fully (the heroine's love 'The Caucasian Chalk Circle' Grushe the defenseless abandoned child, . Shen De irresistible impulse to good),
. Their image may be in the form of myth, symbol, in the genre of plays, parables, or plays-parabolas. But in terms of socio-psychological realism of Brecht's drama can be put into a class with the greatest achievements of world theater. Playwright scrupulously abided by the basic law of realism in пг1пг. - The historical specificity of social and psychological motivations. Comprehension of the qualitative diversity of the world has always been a top priority for him. Summarizing his way playwright, Brecht wrote: "We must strive for more precise description of reality, and this, from an aesthetic point of view, more subtle and more effective understanding of the description '.
Innovation Brecht was manifested in the fact that he was able to float in the blended harmonious whole traditional indirect methods of disclosure of the aesthetic content (characters, conflict, the plot) with the abstract They reflect the beginning. What makes an astonishing artistic integrity, seemingly contradictory connection of the plot and comments? Famous Brechtian principle of 'alienation' - it permeates not only the comment, but the whole plot. 'Alienation' from Brecht and tools of logic, and poetry itself, full of surprises and brilliance.
Brecht makes 'alienation' fundamental principle of philosophical knowledge of the world, essential to realistic art. Brecht believed that determinism is not sufficient for the truth of art, that the historical specificity and completeness of the socio-psychological environment - 'falstafovskogo background' - not enough for 'epic theater'. Addressing realism Brecht connects with the concept of fetishism in 'Capital' Marx. Following Marx, he believed that in bourgeois society, a picture of the world often appears in the 'enchanted', 'concealed' form, for each historical period has its own objective, enforced against people 'appearance of things'. This 'objective appearance of' hiding the truth, as a rule, more impenetrable than demagoguery, lies or ignorance. The ultimate goal and the supreme success of the artist, according to Brecht, - this 'alienation', ie. not only to expose vices and subjective delusions of individuals, but also a breakthrough for the objective semblance to the original, only outlines, only visible in the present day laws.
'Objective visibility', as understood her Brecht, can become a force that 'subjugates the entire structure of everyday language and consciousness'. This Brecht seems to coincide with the existentialists. Heidegger and Jaspers, for example, thought the whole everyday life of bourgeois values, including everyday language, 'hearsay', 'gossip'. But Brecht, to understand how and existentialists, that positivism and pantheism just 'rumor', 'objective visibility', exposes and existentialism as a new 'fame' as a new 'objective visibility'. Vzhivanie a role in circumstances not pierce 'objective visibility' and is therefore less realism than the 'alienation'. Brecht did not agree with the fact that vzhivanie and reincarnation - the path to truth. KS. Stanislavsky, who claimed it was, in his opinion, 'impatient'. For vzhivanie does not distinguish between truth and 'objective visibility'.
Brecht's play of the initial period of creativity - experiments, the search and the first feature victory . Already 'Baal' - Brecht's first play - strikes a bold and unusual statement of human and artistic problems. On poetics and stylistic features of 'Baal' is close to expressionism. Brecht, the playwright thinks Mr.. Kaiser 'critically important', 'change the situation in the European theater'. But Brecht once ochuzhdaet expressionist understanding of the poet and poetry as an ecstatic medium. Without rejecting expressionistic poetics of primary sources, he rejects the pessimistic interpretation of these primary sources. In the play he reveals the absurdity of attention to the poetry of ecstasy, to catharsis, shows a distortion in the way of ecstatic people, inhibited emotions.
Basics, the substance of life - happiness. She, according to Brecht, the snake rings mighty, but not fatal, the substantial an alien evil, the power of coercion. World Brecht - and it should recreate the theater - as if constantly poised on a razor's edge. He is in the power of 'objective visibility', it fuels his grief, creates a language of despair, 'gossip', it finds support in the comprehension of the evolution. In the theater of Brecht emotions are mobile, ambivalent, tears, laughter settled, but the lightest sprinkling of paintings suppressed, ineradicable sadness.
Playwright makes her the focus of Baal, the focus of philosophical and psychological tendencies of time. After perception of the world as an expressionist horror and existentialist concept of human existence as the absolute loneliness appeared almost simultaneously, . almost simultaneously created play Expressionists Hasenclever, . Kaiser, . Werfel and the first philosophical works of the existentialists Heidegger and Jaspers,
. However, Brecht shows that the song of Baal - is an opiate, which envelops the head of the audience, the spiritual horizon of Europe. Brecht depicts the life of Baal, so that the audience becomes clear that delirious phantasmagoria of his existence can not be called life.
'What the soldier that this' - a vivid example of innovative art in all its components play. It Brecht does not use the sacred tradition Receptions. It creates a parable against the central scene of the play - Zongo, refuting aphorism 'What the soldier that the' Brecht 'ochuzhdaet' fame of 'interchangeability of people', says about the uniqueness of each person and the relativity of pressure on him. This is a deep presentiment of historical guilt of the German philistine, inclined to treat its support of fascism as inevitable as a natural reaction to the failure of the Weimar Republic. Brecht finds new energy to move the drama instead of the illusion of developing the characters and of course the current life. The playwright and the actors seemed to have experimented with the characters, the plot here - the chain of experiments, a replica - not so much dialogue the characters, as a demonstration of their likely behavior, and then 'alienation' of this behavior.
Further search of Brecht's plays marked the creation of 'Threepenny Opera' (1928), 'Saint John the slaughterhouse' (1932) and 'mother', based on the novel Gorky (1932).
For the basis of its plot 'Opera' Brecht took the comedy in the English playwright XVIII. Gay 'Opera beggars'. But the world of adventurers, bandits, prostitutes and beggars, shown Brecht, is not only an English-specific. The structure of the play multifaceted, conflict severity plot recalls the crisis atmosphere of Germany during the Weimar Republic. This play is sustained by Brecht in the composite methods 'epic theater'. Immediately aesthetic content enclosed in the characters and plot, combined it with Zongo, carrying a theoretical comment and prompts the viewer to the hard work of thought. In 1933. Brecht emigrated from Nazi Germany, lived in Austria, then in Switzerland, France, Denmark, Finland and 1941. - In the U.S.. After the Second World War, he was haunted in the United States Commission on Un-American Activities.
Poems of the 30-ies  were designed to dispel the Nazi demagogy, so finding a show and sometimes invisible man in the street contradictions in Nazi promises. Here Brecht is helped by his principle of 'alienation'.] Conventional wisdom in the Nazi state, habitual, mellifluous German - under the pen of Brecht's beginning to look questionable, ridiculous, and then the monstrous. In 1933-1934 he. the poet creates 'Hitler chant'. High form of the ode, musical tone works only to reinforce the satirical effect, a prisoner in the aphorisms chants. In many poems Brecht stresses, . that the consistent struggle against fascism - it is not only the destruction of the Nazi state, . but the revolution of the proletariat (the poem 'All or none', . 'Song Against War, . 'Resolution of the Communards', . 'Great October Revolution'),
In 1934, Mr.. Brecht published his most significant prose work - 'The Threepenny Novel'. At first glance it might seem that the author wrote a prose version of 'Threepenny Opera'. However 'Threepenny Novel' - a completely independent piece. Brecht is much better here specifies the time of. All events in the novel relate to the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902. Friends on the play the characters - a bandit McHugh, head of the 'empire of beggars' Picha, police Brown, Polly, daughter Picha, and others - transformed. We see in them speculators imperialist grip and cynicism. Brecht appears in this novel as a real 'doctor of social sciences'. It shows the mechanism behind the scenes financial ties adventurers (like Cox) and the Government. The writer depicts the external, open side events - sending ships with new recruits in South Africa, patriotic demonstration, a respectable court, and watchful police England. Then he paints a true and decisive events in the country. Traders for the profit of sending soldiers into 'floating coffins', . that go to the bottom; patriotism fanned the employed poor, the court bandit McHugh knife calmly playing the outraged 'honest merchant'; robber and the police chief related a touching friendship and assist each other a lot of services at public expense,
In the novel, Brecht presented class stratification of society, class antagonism and the dynamics of struggle. Nazi crimes 30-ies, according to Brecht, - not news, the British bourgeois turn of the century in many ways anticipated the demagogic techniques Nazis. And when the shopkeeper, the true fence, just like a fascist, accuses the Communists, who oppose the enslavement of the Boers, of treason, for lack of patriotism, it is not an anachronism in Brecht, not anti-historicism. On the contrary, this profound insight of some recurring patterns. But at the same time for Brecht's exact reproduction of the historical life and atmosphere - not the main. For it is more important than the meaning of historical episodes. The Boer War and Fascism to the artist - is raging elements of private ownership. Many of the episodes 'Trohgroshovogo novel' reminiscent of Dickens World. Brecht subtly captures the national color of life in Britain and the specific intonations of English literature: a complex kaleidoscope of images, . intense dynamics, . detective color in the image of conflict and struggle, . English nature of the social tragedies,
In exile in the struggle against fascism flourished dramatic works of Brecht. It was extremely rich in content and diverse in form. Among the most famous pieces of emigration - "Mother Courage and Her Children '(1939). The sharper and more tragic conflict, the more critical should be, according to Brecht's idea of the person. In the 30-ies 'Mother Courage' was played, of course, as a protest against the demagogic propaganda war fascists and address that part of the German population, which has succumbed to this demagoguery. War is depicted in the play as the elements are organically hostile to human existence.
The essence of 'epic theater' becomes especially clear in relation to 'Mother Courage'. Theoretical commentary is combined in a play with ruthless in its sequence a realistic manner. Brecht believed that it is realism - the most reliable route of exposure. Therefore, in 'Mother Courage' as a consistent and sustained even in minor details 'true' face of life. But keep in mind the duality of this piece - the aesthetic content of character, ie. reproduction of life, where good and evil are mixed, regardless of our desires, and the voice of Brecht not meet such a picture, trying to adopt good. Position Brecht directly manifested in Zongo. Besides, . it follows from the director's instructions to the play Brecht, . playwright provides theater opportunities to demonstrate the author's thoughts through a variety of 'alienation' (photos, . Projection, . direct application to the actors to the audience),
Characters of the heroes in 'Mother Courage' outlined in all their complex contradictions. The most interesting image of Anna Firling, nicknamed Mother Courage. The many facets of this character causes a variety of feelings of the audience. Heroine drew a sober understanding of life. But it is - a product of mercantile, cruel and cynical spirit of the Thirty Years War. Courage is indifferent to the causes of this war. Depending on the vicissitudes planting it on his van then Lutheran, then Catholic banner. Courage goes to war in the hope of big profits.
MCLEOD Brecht conflict between practical wisdom and ethical impulses infects the entire play with passion and energy of the dispute sermon. The image of Catherine the playwright drew antipode Mother Courage. Neither threats nor promises, nor death, Catherine was forced to abandon the decision was prompted by its desire to give us something to help people. Talkative mute Courage confronts Katherine, silent heroism girls like crosses all the lengthy discourse of her mother.
Realism appears in Brecht's play not only in depicting the main characters and the historicism of the conflict, but also in the vital credibility episodic persons in Shakespeare's multicolor-like 'falstafovsky background'. Each character, drawn into the dramatic conflict of the play, lives its life, we can guess about his fate, the past and future life, and if we hear every voice in a ragged chorus of war.
In addition to the disclosure of the conflict through the collision of characters Brecht complementary picture of life in the play Zongo, which is given a direct understanding of the conflict. The most significant Zong - 'Song of great humility'. This is a complicated form of 'alienation', when the author appears as if on behalf of its heroine, sharpens its erroneous position and thereby argue with her, suggesting to the reader to doubt the wisdom of 'great humility'. On the cynical irony of Mother Courage Brecht's self-irony. And the irony of Brecht is the viewer, quite succumbed to the philosophy of taking life as it is, to a completely different view of the world, to understand the vulnerability and fatal compromise. Song of humility - it is kind of some foreign counterparty, which allows to understand the true opposite to him the wisdom of Brecht. The whole play, critically depicting practical, full of compromises 'wisdom' of the heroine, is an ongoing dispute with the 'Song of great humility'. Mother Courage not see clearly in the play, having gone through the shock, she learns 'about its nature no more than a guinea pig on the law of biology'. Tragic (personal and historical) experience, enriching the viewer learned nothing from Mother Courage and in no way enriched it. Catharsis, she had undergone, was completely sterile. So Brecht contends that the perception of the tragedy of reality only at the level of emotional reactions by itself is not knowledge of the world, differs little from the complete ignorance.
Play 'Life of Galileo' has two versions: the first - 1938-1939., Final, 1945-1946,. 'Epic beginning' is an internal hidden foundation 'Life of Galileo'. Realism plays deeper than the traditional. Pervades the whole drama of Brecht's insistence on the theoretical interpretation every phenomenon of life and take nothing, relying on faith and generally accepted standards. The desire to provide every thing which requires explanation, the desire to get rid become familiar views are very evident in the play.
In the 'Life of Galileo' - an extraordinary sensitivity to painful Brecht antagonisms XX century. When the human mind has reached unprecedented heights in the theoretical thought, but could not prevent the use of scientific discoveries into evil. The idea of the play goes back to the days when the press came the first reports about the experiments of German scientists in the field of nuclear physics. But not by chance Brecht asked not to modernity, and the turning epoch in the history of mankind, when the crumbling foundations of the old worldview. In those days - at the turn of the XVI-XVII centuries. - Scientific discovery first began as the story Brecht, the property of streets, squares and bazaars. But after the abdication of Galileo's science, the deep conviction Brecht, became known only to some scientists. Physics and astronomy could free humanity from the burden of old dogmas, shackling the mind and the initiative. But Galileo himself deprived of his discovery of philosophical argumentation, and thus, according to Brecht, deprived of humanity not only scientific system of astronomy, but also far-reaching theoretical conclusions from this system, affecting the fundamental issues of ideology
. Brecht, . contrary to tradition, . strongly condemned Galileo, . because that is what this scientist, . Unlike Copernicus and Bruno, . wielding incontrovertible and obvious for everyone to prove the correctness of the heliocentric, . afraid of torture and refused the only correct doctrine,
. Bruno died for the hypothesis, and Galileo renounced truth.
Brecht 'ochuzhdaet' view of capitalism as an era of unprecedented development of science. He believed that scientific progress was rushed to only one channel, while all other branches of dried. On the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Brecht's comments to the drama he wrote: '... it was a victory, but it was a disgrace, and - holds barred'. By creating a 'Galileo', Brecht dreamed about the harmony of science and progress. This subtext behind all the grandiose dissonance plays; for like disintegrated personality Galileo - Brecht's dream of 'designed' in the process of scientific thinking ideal personality. Brecht shows that the development of science in the bourgeois world - is a process of accumulation of alienated human knowledge. The play also shows, . that another process - 'the accumulation of a culture of research within personality "- interrupted, . that at the end of the Renaissance of this important 'process of accumulation of the research culture of' the forces of reaction were excluded masses: 'Science left the area in quiet classrooms,
The figure of Galileo in the play - a turning point in the history of science. In his face the pressure of totalitarian and bourgeois utilitarian tendencies of the present and destroy the scientist, and the living process of improvement of all humanity
. Excellent craftsmanship Brecht is evident not only in innovative thinking, complex problems of science, . not only in the brilliant reproduction of the intellectual life heroes, . but also in creating powerful and multifaceted, . in the disclosure of their emotional life,
. Monologues 'Life of Galileo' remind 'poetic wordiness' of Shakespeare's heroes. All the heroes of the drama carry something renaissance.
The play is a parable, 'A good man out Sezuana' (1941) is devoted to the approval of the eternal and innate qualities of the person - kindness. The main heroine of the play Shen De radiates like a good, and this radiation is not caused by any external impulses, it is inherently. Brecht, the playwright succeeds in the humanistic tradition of the Enlightenment. We see Brecht's relationship with the fantastic tradition and folk legends. Shen De reminds Cinderella, and the gods, is awarded to the girl's kindness - fairy-beggar from the same fairy. But the traditional material Brecht reflects on innovative.
Brecht believed that kindness is not always rewarded with a fabulous triumph. In the fairy tale and a parable playwright introduces social circumstances. China, depicted in the parable, seemingly devoid of credibility, it is just 'a kingdom, a state'. But this state - capitalist. And the circumstances of life Shen De - a fact of life the bottom of the bourgeois city. Brecht shows that on this day fairy laws rewarded Cinderella, cease to act. Bourgeois climate is injurious to the best of human qualities that have arisen long before capitalism, Brecht examines the bourgeois ethics as deep setbacks. Equally pernicious is for Shen De and love.
Shen De embodies the play perfect standard of conduct. Shoy Yes, on the contrary, is guided only by sober understood their own interests. Shen De agreed with many arguments and actions Shoy Yes, she saw that only in the guise Shoy Yes, she can actually exist. The need to protect her son in the world hardened and vile people, indifferent to each other, it proves the correctness Shoy Yes. Seeing how the boy looks for food in the garbage, she vows that will ensure the future of his son, even in the most brutal fight.
Two faces of the main character - is the bright stage 'alienation', is demonstrating the dualism of the human soul. But it and the condemnation of dualism, because the struggle between good and evil in man is, in Brecht, a product of 'bad times'. The playwright clearly proves that the evil in principle - a foreign body in man, the evil Shoy Yes - this is just a protective mask, and not the true face of the heroine. Shen De never becomes really bad, can not be erased in a spiritual purity and softness.
Contents parable brings the reader not only to think about negative atmosphere of the bourgeois world. This idea, pared Brecht, is no longer adequate for the new theater. Playwright makes us think about how to overcome evil. Gods and Shen De inclined to play to compromise, they seem unable to overcome the inertia of thinking its their environment. Interestingly, the gods, in fact, Shen De recommend the same recipe, which acted in 'The Threepenny Novel' McHugh, robbing stores and sold at a cheap price goods to the poor owners of the shops, thereby saving them from hunger. But the fable final parable does not coincide with the comment playwright. Epilogue a new perspective deepens and illuminates the play, proves the validity of the deep 'epic theater'. Readers and viewers are much more keen than the gods and Shen De, who did not understand why the great kindness prevents her. The playwright suggests in the final if the decision: to live selflessly - good, but not the main thing for people - to live wisely. And it means - to build a reasonable world, a world without exploitation, the socialist world. Both plays are linked by the pathos of ethical inquiry, the desire to find a person, which would be most fully revealed the spiritual greatness and goodness. If a 'good man out Sezuana' Brecht depicted the tragic impossibility of realization of ethical ideals in the everyday situation on private property, . then in 'The Caucasian Chalk Circle' he opened a heroic situation, . which requires that people follow uncompromising moral duty,
It would seem that everything in the play classical tradition: not a new storyline (Brecht himself had previously used it in the story 'Augsburg Chalk Circle'). Grushe Vahnadze and in its essence, and even their appearance is intentional association with the Sistine Madonna, and with the heroines of fairy tales and songs. But this play is innovative, and its identity is closely linked with the main principle of Brechtian realism - 'alienation'. Anger, jealousy, greed, conformity are stationary medium of life, its flesh. But Brecht is only apparent. Monolith of Evil is extremely fragile in the play. All life seemed riddled with streams of human light. The element of light in the fact of the existence of the human mind and the ethical principle.
In a rich philosophical and emotional tone of the lyrics 'Circle', in the alternation of the living, plastic dialogue and song interlude, in the softness and inner light paintings we clearly feel the tradition of Goethe's. Pear, like Gretchen, brings the charm of the eternal feminine. Beautiful people and beauty of the world seemed to gravitate to each other. The richer and more fully human talent, the more beautiful world for him, the more significant, the hot, immeasurable value invested in an appeal to him other people. There are many external obstacles stands in the way of a sense of group and Simon, but they are insignificant compared with the force, rewarding people for their human talent.
Only on his return from exile in 1948. Brecht was able to regain their homeland and practically realize his dream of innovative drama theater. He is actively involved in the task of restoring democratic German Culture. Literature of the GDR immediately got in the face of Brecht great writer. Activity takes place not without its difficulties. His struggle with the 'Aristotelian' theater, his concept of realism as 'alienation' was met with incomprehension and from the public, and by the dogmatic criticism. But Brecht wrote in these years that he considers the literary struggle 'good sign, a sign of movement and development'.
In the controversy arises a play that ends the way the playwright, - 'Days of the Commune' (1949). Team Theater 'Berliner Ensemble', directed by Brecht, decided to devote one of his first performances of the Paris Commune. However, the available pieces did not meet, according to Brecht, the requirements of 'epic theater'. Brecht himself makes a play for his theater. In 'Days of the Commune' the writer uses the tradition of classic historical drama at its best samples (free alternation of contrast and saturation of the episodes, bright home painting, encyclopedic 'falstafovskogo background'). 'Days of the Commune' - a drama of open political passions, it dominates the atmosphere of dispute, People's Assembly, its heroes - the speakers and the stands, its effect terminates the narrow confines of theatrical performance. Brecht in this regard was based on the experience of Romain Rolland, his 'theater of the revolution', especially 'Robespierre'. And yet 'Days of the Commune' - a unique, 'epic', Brechtian work. The play organically combine the historical background, . psychological validity of actors, . social dynamics and 'epic' story, . deep 'lecture' about the heroic days of the Paris Commune; this and vivid stories, . and scientific analysis of its,
Brecht's text - is primarily a live performance, he needed theatrical blood, flesh scenic. He needs not only actor-Litsedei, but the person with the spark of the Virgin of Orleans, Pear Vahnadze or Azdak. It can be argued that the individual need any playwright-classics. But in the performances of Brecht's such individual homes; it turns out that the world was created for them, created them. This theater should and can create a reality of this world. Reality! The explanation of it - that's primarily dedicated to Brecht. Reality, rather than realism. The artist-philosopher preached a simple, but far from the obvious. Talk about realism not possible without precede talks about the reality. Brecht, like all figures of the theater, knew that the scene does not tolerate lies, ruthlessly covers her like a spotlight. It does not masquerade under the burning coldness, emptiness - a substance, a nonentity - a significance. Brecht just continued this idea, he wanted the theater, the scene would not give many representations of realism to masquerade as reality. For realism in understanding the limits of any kind is not perceived as the reality of all.