WAGNER, Wilhelm Richard (Wagner)( Outstanding German composer, conductor, music writer and theatrical figure)
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Biography WAGNER, Wilhelm Richard (Wagner)
Wagner, Wilhelm Richard (Wagner), (1813-1883), was a German composer, conductor, music writer and theatrical figure. Born May 22, 1813 in Leipzig, the bureaucratic home. Music lessons began with 15 years. In 1831 entered the University of Leipzig. At the same time took private lessons with T. Veynliga. Since 1833 Wagner worked as choirmaster at the theater at Wц+rzburg, then conductor of musical theater in Magdeburg (1834-36), KцTnigsberg (1837), Riga (1837-39). In 1939-42 he lived in Paris, where he created the first mature works: the overture "Faust" and the opera The Flying Dutchman ". In 1843 - 49 worked as a conductor of the court theater in Dresden, ibid wrote 2 operas: "Tannhauser" and "Lohengrin". Member of the Dresden uprising, 1849, after the suppression of whom emigrated to Switzerland. In 1849-58 he lived mainly in Zurich. In 1852, Wagner completed the literary text operatic tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen, based on the Scandinavian epic 8-9 centuries. "Edda" and the German medieval epic 13 in. "Nibelungenlied". In 1852-56 wrote the music first parts of the tetralogy: "Das Rheingold" and "Valkyrie". In 1857-59 created the opera "Tristan und Isolde" (epic by Gottfried of Strasbourg). After a period of wandering (1859-64) Wagner at the invitation of Bavarian King Ludwig II moved to Munich. Here in 1868 staged his opera "The Nuremberg Mastersingers" (Nuremberg Chronicle by the end of 17.) In 1871-74 finished the last part of Der Ring des Nibelungen: Siegfried and GцTtterdцгmmerung. Formulation of the entire tetralogy was held in Bayreuth Theater (1876) designed by Wagner. The last years of life spent Wagner at Bayreuth, where in 1882 they staged his opera mystery "Parsifal" (in medieval Christian legend). Wagner died Feb. 13, 1883 in Venice.
Works of Wagner and his world a deep impression on Hitler. Much of the literary and philosophical legacy of the composer has found an echo in representations of Hitler's great destiny of the German nation, designed to rule the world.
. The Germans, said Wagner, who designed for the great mission to which other nations have no idea
. Germany's mission is to rid the world of materialistic civilization of the French. This is not strictly a "national mission", but rather universal: the whole world, not just one of Germany should be free from the influence of such materialistic. This objective should be achieved through national funds ... Rays of Germany and Germany's freedom of kindness will bring light and warmth and the French, and the Cossacks, and the Bushmen, and the Chinese.
. Racial representation Wagner were taken from two sources negermanskih: Proceedings of the French sociologist and writer Joseph Arthur de Gobineau and the Englishman Houston Stewart Chamberlain
. Wagner, Gobineau admired assertion that the Germans were probably the best among all the nation of Aryans. Also, it attracted the position of Chamberlain, . declaring, . that the only way to destroy the Jewish influence lies in Teutonic culture, . that the Germans are the most civilized people on earth and that they have an unquestionable right to be masters of the world,
. Wagner vehemently criticized Heinrich Heine, calling him "the conscience of Judaism, while Judaism is a devilish conscience of modern civilization". In September 1850 Wagner published in the journal "Neue tsaytshrift fц+r music of the article" Judaism in Music "under the pseudonym K. Freygedank (freethinker), which provoked a bitter controversy, especially after it became known the true name of the author. Many enthusiastically borrowed Wagnerian anti-Semitism, to diminish the creativity Mayerbeera and Mendelssohn. Other Wagner declared insane.
For Hitler and Nazi ideology Wagner was a true hero. His musical and literary creation seemed to them the most expressive manifestation of national spirit velikogermanskogo. Wagner, Hitler regarded his spiritual teacher: "At every stage of my life, I returned to Wagner". The closeness of the views of Hitler and Wagner clearly visible if we compare some of their statements:
Wagner: The state company is obliged to sacrifice part of his own selfishness for the good of the majority. The immediate objective of the state is stable, the achievement of peace.
Hitler: The State - only a means to an end. His ultimate goal is to care about the achievement of those primitive racial elements that create the beauty and dignity of a higher civilization.
Wagner: The people are those who think instinctively. People behave unconsciously, and based on this natural instinct.
. Hitler: Dead mechanism [of the old state] should be replaced by a living organism based on the herd instinct which arises when all are one blood.
. Wagner: We must now find the hero of the future, which will rise up against the destruction of their own race
. Barbarossa, Siegfried soon return to save the Germanic people in the moment of deepest need.
Hitler: No one should forget: the majority can never replace the leader. It [the majority] is not only foolish, but cowardly. Could not find a single intelligent among hundreds of fools, and the heroic decision not to take a hundred cowards.
. Wagner: The Jew - is a flexible demon decline of humanity.
. Hitler: The Jews - are parasites on the body of our people, they create a state within a state.
. Wagner: Democracy - this is not German, but somewhere borrowed the concept
. Franco-Jewish-German democracy - disgusting thing.
Hitler: Democracy - it is power crazy.