Hermann Wilhelm Goering (Goering)( One of the main war criminals of Nazi Germany.)
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Biography Hermann Wilhelm Goering (Goering)
Hermann Goering (12.1.1893, Rosenheim, Bavaria, - 15.10.1946, Nuremberg), one of the main war criminals of Nazi Germany. Participated in the 1 st World War, was a pilot. Since 1922 member of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party and the head of the SA (storm troopers). Being politically empowered Hitler (1930) and President of the Reichstag (August 1932), played an active role in the establishment of fascist dictatorship in 1933, when he became Reich Minister for Aviation and the Prime Minister of Prussia. Chief of the Air Force (since 1935), the head of one of the largest industrial concerns Germanic "Goring" (from 1937), effuse from a robbery by the Nazis in occupied countries. One of the organizers of the Nazi terror in Germany and the occupied territories of Nazi Germany. Since 1940 Reichsmarschall. He was sentenced at the Nuremberg trials to death before his execution, committed suicide
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. Goering, Hermann Wilhelm (Goering), (1893-1945), "Nazi number two, second only to Hitler's military and economic leader of the Third Reich.
. Hermann Goering was born January 12, 1893 in Rosenheim, Bavaria
. His father - a personal friend of Bismarck - in 1885, was promoted to Governor-General of German South-West Africa. After Bonn and Heidelberg universities, having served his term as an officer of the Prussian army, Father Gehring wholly imbued with the spirit of the Prussian. Sooner widower in first marriage and five children on his hands, Dr. Goring was married the second time in a young tirolke, which brought back to Haiti, where he was appointed to his second Colonial Post. When the time came to be born a little of Germany, he sent her back to Bavaria.
Herman's childhood passed in fights and clashes. He was constantly expelled from all schools, where he had to learn a tough customer and aggressiveness. Seeing such inclinations son, his father decided to send him to Karlsruhe, in the Cadet School, where he was transferred to Berlin to military school.
. This school Goering graduated from one of the first to performance and in March 1912 was determined to serve in the infantry regiment of Prince William, quartered in Mulhouse, in the rank of second lieutenant
. At this time, he just turned 19 years old. Routine patrolling sickened energetic young man, and he enthusiastically took the news of the beginning of the war. In October 1914 he got his transfer to military aviation. He first flew as an observer, then - a pilot reconnaissance and bomber aircraft. Finally in autumn 1915 he became a fighter pilot. He managed to shoot down one of the first heavy British bombers firm Handli Page "and then he himself was shot down by British fighters. Was wounded in the thigh and leg, he was soon back in operation, and being recognized as one of the best fighter pilots in Germany, in May 1917 received the post of commander of 27 Squadron. At the beginning of 1918 behind him and 21 victory in aerial combat, and in May he was awarded the Order of Merit, was considered the highest award in Germany. That is when he is transferred to the famous squadron? 1, better known as "Richthofen Squadron" - the surname of her first commander of Baron Manfred von Richthofen.
. April 21, 1918 Captain Baron Richthofen, who had on his account for more than 80 victories in air combat, was shot down and killed
. Took his place, Lieutenant Reinhard died on July 3. He was replaced by Hermann Goering, leading the famous squadron. He assumed his post on July 14, when the Germans launched their retreat on the Marne. Manifested in the fighting courage of the pilots had not softened to the squadron? 1 throughout the severity of. For Hering fell on hard times. In November, he had to return their aircraft and personnel in Germany. Total during the fighting, the squadron scored 644 victories, 62 pilot were presumed dead.
Goering was discharged in late 1919 with the rank of captain. On his chest emblazoned with the Iron Cross I degree, Order of the Lion, with swords, the Order of Karl Friedrich, the Order of Hohenzollern III Class with Swords and the Order of Merit. He will never forget any of this period of his life, nor of his friends on "Squadron Richthofen". When in 1943 one of his companions, a Jew by the name of Luther, was arrested in Hamburg by the Gestapo, Goering immediately intervened, secured his release and took under his wing. Demobilized, Goering was forced to seek work. He could continue service in the Reichswehr, but an opponent of the Weimar Republic, did not want to serve in its army. To earn a living, he began to take part in demonstration flights in Denmark, then in Sweden. On Sundays, he drove the fans the thrill of his little "Fokker". So he earned his livelihood and beloved woman, which led her husband and son, and taken to Germany, in Munich, where they married.
Upon his return to Bavaria unemployed war hero, barely making ends meet. He entered the first year of the University of Munich, not so much to study political science and history, much to his forced idleness look respectable. He lived in a pretty little house on the outskirts of Munich on handouts, which his wife, Karin received from his family. Autumn of 1922 the Allies demanded from the Germanic government issuing some war criminals. GцTring was incensed by this requirement, since his name appeared on the lists submitted by France.
. One Sunday November Kenigsplats in the center of Munich, held the demonstration, participants who were protesting against the requirements of the Allies
. Goering was at the rally. Here he first met Hitler, which has already begun to speak in Bavaria. The crowd asked Hitler to speak. A week later, Goering visited one of the meetings of the Nazi party, where Hitler made a speech. The keynote of his speech was the struggle against the Versailles diktat ". Since the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 made a brilliant officer Goering impoverished poor fellow who lives at the expense of his wife, the speaker thought he had found a ready response, and after the meeting he offered Hitler his services.
. For the party of Hitler, is still weak, but rapidly gaining momentum, Goering was a gift of heaven
. His prestige of the war hero could very well use. A few days later he became a member of the Nazi party, and determined to give "body and soul" at the disposal of man, with whom he had known less than two weeks. Impact strength of the party - its storm troops (Sturmabteilung - CA) - needs a leader. We had them well organized, disciplined, co-ordinate their actions and turn in an absolutely reliable fighting unit, capable of successfully carry out the orders of Hitler ". In early January 1923 Hermann Goering took over command of the Nazi strike forces.
. A few months of this large, . but poorly organized army Goering made a real army with military, . in particular, with the assistance of Ernst Rohm, . who at that time served as commander of the Seventh Division, . simultaneously as head of clandestine groups militia,
. But soon between Remus and Goring, whose coming Rem met with displeasure, arose a dull contest. Goering felt a dangerous rival in the Remus. Nevertheless, thanks to their fair-weather does not cooperate the Nazi Party was able by the beginning of November 1923 to create a real army, . dressed in a gray-green tunic, . soldierly, . maintain a workforce of ex-military officers, . recruited through advertisements, . Goring published in Volkischer Beobachter ",
. Brown Shirts and Hitler's specific greeting came much later.
. With such forces, and placing high hopes on them, Hitler and his friends have taken in Munich on Nov. 9, 1923 coup attempt
. Wasting no time, Goering had the arrests of several hostages, but after a brief shootout with police in Feldhernhale business quickly ended. Goering received two bullets in the lower abdomen. He managed to hide in the house of a Jewish family scores in the first hours after the shooting. Soon the faithful people to transport it to Austria in Innsbruck, where he was able to start treatment. After 20 years for his involvement in the fate of Hering family points will be rescued from impending destruction.
Injuries and downtime that ensued, had a significant impact on the temperament Hering. He could not return to Germany, where there was a warrant for his arrest. He spent four years, first in Austria and Italy, and then in Sweden. In connection with the delayed treatment of wounds do not heal, bringing severe pain. I had to do injections of morphine, to which Goering addicted, began to abuse them, which caused mental illness. It became dangerous to the fellowship, and had to be hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic in Langbro, then similar to Konradsberge, then again in Langbro, where he was discharged nedolechivshimsya under the regular supervision of physicians. Medicolegist Carl Lundberg, . examined him in the clinic Langbro, . told, . that Goering manifested hysterical temperament, . has a split personality, . it found seizures maudlin, . alternating bouts of insane rage, . during which he was able to go to extremes.,
. For his family it was not surprising: they had long since given him the most severe assessment
. According to his cousin, Herbert Goering, the family believed that the character of Herman dominated by vanity, fear of liability and complete promiscuity in the media: "If necessary, Herman goes over the corpses". Prolonged idleness, stay in psychiatric institutions and hospitals, left a deep imprint on the face of Hering. He always had a tendency to gain weight, but now she moved to obesity. At 32, he was extremely corpulent, filled with unhealthy fat, from which it could never get rid. Cut off from their Nazi friends, he escaped to some extent influence their environment. Henceforth, the methods of force are being repelled him, he came to the conclusion that the Nazis should look for another solution to their problems. Yesterday predator changed its appearance, the beast had become unrecognizable. Now Goering was preparing to combat the use of entirely different, far more dangerous means. After returning to Germany in 1927, he became, like Hitler, a staunch supporter of the seizure of power by political means. By "political", he meant, of course, the methods of the most dirty.
After the amnesty, announced by the autumn of 1927, he returned to Munich, where he found all his friends. Goering was tried once again to take charge of assault troops, but felt he could count on something better: he was nominated for election in 1928. Although the Nazis had only 12 seats in the Reichstag, Goering was among the elected. Not devoid of the solemnity of the atmosphere of the meetings of the Reichstag impressed Goering, a monthly salary of a deputy to the 600 marks significantly adjusted its financial position. Origin of Goering as his military rank, opened for him entree to high society in Berlin and, most importantly, in the interests of big industry, where he soon became regarded as a "delegate and closest ally" Hitler. Visiting Berlin salons further distanced him from the thugs and Remus of storm troopers. From that time begins his conspicuous enthusiasm for collecting works of art and pretentious patronage.
. Navigated stormtroopers on the one hand and the political wing of the party led by Gregor Strasser, on the other, . Goring, . Following his master Hitler, . ably benefit from the competition close, . pushing them together for the sake of preserving in their hands all the threads of leadership,
. As a result of the September 1930 elections to the Reichstag came Goering headed the Nazi Party members, numbering 107. In October 1931 he suffered a heavy loss: death of his wife, Karin, for many years bolevshaya TB. With even greater zeal, he devoted himself to politics, devoting his life to someone who was for him now something of a deity - to Hitler.
. Upcoming presidential elections in 1932, since the term of the aged President Paul von Hindenburg to expire in April
. They talked about the candidate and Hitler, but there is one difficulty: Hitler did not have German citizenship. It Goering found an escape route: he proposed the appointment of Hitler to the post of economic advisor representative of Braunschweig in Berlin with the assistance of friends Goring in Braunschweig government, . members of the Nazi party - chairman Kyuhentalya and Minister of the Interior Klaggesa,
. Such an appointment is automatically gave Hitler Germanic nationality. And although Hitler still lost the April election, the focus is quite a success: February 24, Hitler received this appointment, 26 he was sworn in by refusing to receive their salary and March 4, resigned. It took him eight days to become a German. Even after the July elections Goering was rewarded for his efforts: he was elected chairman of the Reichstag and lived in a luxurious palace in front of German parliament. Despite an endless series of elections (from 1925 to 1932 elections in Germany carried out more than 30 times), Goering retained the presidency of the Reichstag. In this position, he could significantly influence the course of events. September 12, 1932 Goering made the issue a vote of confidence in the government von Papen, forcing him to resign before being used already prepared a draft decree to dissolve parliament. January 22, 1933 Goering managed a few hours before the fall of the cabinet Schleicher persuade Oskar von Hindenburg, the son of the Marshal-President, to convince his father that Hitler had only one able to form a new government.
. Activities Goering played a crucial role in the conquest of power by the Nazis
. Jan. 30 afternoon, when Hitler was in power only a few hours, Goering made a radio address to the German people. He said that the shameful history of the last few years from now and forever gone. Today opens a new page in the history of Germany, - he said - and, from this page, freedom and honor will be the basis of a new statehood. In the new cabinet Goering was a counterbalance to von Papen. He was Reich Minister, Chairman of the Reichstag, Interior Minister of Prussia and the Commissioner for Aviation. He managed to bring the police Prussia the control of the Reich (von Papen) and Reich Minister of the Interior Frick and re-subordinate it directly to me. Since then, Goering began to work on creating in Germany a well-organized political police, the all-powerful and pervasive, consisting of people who had no outside morality - Gestapo. He also has the initiative in creating the first concentration camp in Germany under the Oranienburg. After the burning of the Reichstag Goering ordered the arrest of over 4 thousand. Communists and Social Democrats and banned the Communist press. June 30, 1934 during the events of "Night of Long Knives" Goering directed the actions of the SS in Berlin. March 1, 1935 Goering was appointed commander of the Air Force in Germany and vigorously set about organizing the production of advanced military aircraft and training pilots. By this time he became the most important after the Hitler figure in the Third Reich. He was the owner of a small but luxurious palace in Berlin and the country estate north of the capital, named in honor of his first wife Carinhall. In 1935, Goering was married a second time to actress Emma Zonneman.
. Among Hitler's entourage Goering was a controversial figure, as some German version of Falstaff - a thick, charming adventurer and simultaneously sybaritic, naively received a sincere pleasure of fell down on his enormous power
. He said: "I joined the party because he was a revolutionary, not because of any ideological nonsense". However, this did not prevent him to maintain the utmost caution and fully comply with all orders of the Fuhrer. He knew how to enjoy life, was an avid hunter, loved children, and did not feel the slightest remorse for the destruction of millions of people in concentration camps. In the eyes of the German people Goering was a very popular person. Against the background of caustic hysterical Goebbels, dull and gloomy, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler evil, Goering favorably distinguished cheerful disposition, respectability, sense of humor about themselves, gentlemanly composure and simplicity. He realized the advantage he established the image and supported it: "People want to love, but the Fuhrer was too often far from the masses. So they jumped at me. "
In 1936, Hitler ordered Goering implementation of the "four-year plan" - programs for converting the economy of Germany on a war footing. On the eve of 2-nd World War, along with Goering Himmler carefully planned and carried out activities to address with the highest military posts generals Blomberg and Fritsch, leading to Hitler's absolute power over the army. In 1938, with his direct participation was carried Anschluss of Austria. Pandering to Hitler, Goering, not being at heart an anti-Semite, condoned the persecution and extermination of the Jews.
August 30, 1939, Hitler appointed GцTring chairman of the imperial council of Defense. The next day he declared Goering as his successor in the event of his death. During the blitzkrieg Goring commanded air operations in Poland, France and later in the Soviet Union, for which the 19 June 1940 he was awarded the rank of Reich Marshal. However, the failed attempt to seize control of the air during the Battle of Britain and the failure of "Operation Sea Lion" caused strong dissatisfaction with Hitler, and their relationship with Goering had deteriorated. His prestige in the hierarchy has faded, while the influence of Goebbels, Himmler and Martin Bormann significantly increased. On the eve of the collapse of the Third Reich, having learned that Goring behind him carried out secret negotiations with the enemy, Hitler ordered the arrest of Goering, deprived of all ranks and awards and shoot. Later, he denies his attempt to treason, and received news of the suicide of Hitler, told his wife: "He's dead, Emma, now I will never be able to explain to him that he was faithful to the end!"
. Goering was arrested by the 7 th U.S. Army May 9, 1945
. His request for a personal meeting with General Dwight Eisenhower had been ignored. In 1946, Goering was brought before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. He was found guilty on four counts including war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to capital punishment. In his last letter to his wife Goring expressed confidence in his posthumous rehabilitation: "After 50 or 60 years all over Germany will be installed statues of Hermann Goering, and tiny busts appear in every German home."
. October 15, 1946 two hours before the hanging, he took poison, which strangely escaped the watchful protection
. By order of the court of his remains were cremated in one of the remaining furnaces of Dachau
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. Goering (Goring) Hermann Wilhelm (12.1.1893, near Rosenheim, Bavaria - 15.10.1946, Nuremberg), politician, statesman and military leader, Reichsmarschall (19.7.1940)
. The son of a senior official, a personal friend About. von Bismarck, the Governor-General of German South-West Africa. After the death of his father's guardian of his family was a rich Jew T. von Epenshteyn. Educated at the Military Academy in Karlsruhe and in the military school in Berlin - Lichterfeld. In March 1912 joined the 112 th Infantry Regiment of Prince William (Mц+hlhausen), Lieutenant. At the beginning of the 1-st world war fought on the Western Front. In October. 1914 has made the translation in the 25 th Aviation Detachment. First flew as an observer, then - the pilot's intelligence and bomber aircraft. Since the autumn of 1915 - a fighter pilot. He proved himself a fearless aviator, is often neglected in mortal danger. In May 1917 the commander of 27 Squadron, . from 3/7/1918 - 1 Squadron 'Richthofen' - the most famous of the elite large air-Germanic armies During the fighting, shot down 22 enemy planes and was awarded the Iron Cross 1 st and 2 nd class, . Order Pourle Mtrite (2.6.1918) etal,
. At the end of 1919 discharged as a captain (the order of rank 8.6.1920). Served with demonstration flights in Denmark and Sweden, where he met his wife of the Swedish officer Karin von Ka ^ samples, whom he married in 1923. In 1922 he returned to Germany and enrolled in the University of Munich. Autumn of 1922, France demanded that Germany's extradition to her war criminals, among whom was named Goering. In November. 1922 met with a. Hitler and became actively involved in the Nazi movement, a member of the NSDAP. In January. 1923 Hitler appointed him as supreme leader of the SA. One of the founders of the SA, led to the transformation into a powerful paramilitary force. At the same time, Gehring appeared strained relations with other leaders of the SA-E. Rem. Member of 'Beer Hall Putsch' 9/11/1923, during which was close to Hitler. Was seriously wounded by two bullets in the upper right thigh, the wound got the dirt, causing contamination. 10 Nov.. warrant was issued for the arrest of Hering. In the critical condition of his wife illegally exported to Austria for treatment. He lived in Austria, Italy, Sweden, at the same time Goering, to get rid of severe pain, began to take morphine, which caused disruption of mental activity. Goering was placed in a psychiatric hospital, first in Langbro, then Konradsberge. When the trial started over Hitler, Goering tried to return to Germany, but Hitler, through his lawyer, forbade him to do so in order to 'save himself for the national-socialist'. 5/4/1924 wife, Karin Goring has a meeting with Hitler in prison, at a meeting Hitler vyov confirmed that Goering was his closest associate. In 1927, after the amnesty participants in the coup returned to Germany and was appointed personal representative of Hitler in Berlin. 20/5/1928 elected to the Reichstag, one of the 12 deputies of the Nazis, the Speaker of the Nazi faction, NSDAP As an expert on technical matters, Gering has established close ties with many leaders of the largest in t.ch. military industry in Germany. After the July election of 1932, when the Nazi Party, received 230 seats in the Reichstag, became the largest party in Germany, August 30. elected chairman of the Reichstag (and remained so until 1945). In this position, Goering made the hegemony of the NSDAP in the Reichstag, and a vote of no confidence in the government F. von Papepa. 30.1.1933 after the formation of the government of Hitler, while remaining chairman of the Reichstag, became Reich Minister without portfolio and exercising control over the aircraft and the Ministry of the Interior of Prussia. 2/2/1933 personally led police Prussia and began holding it clean (from the Prussian police had fired 1,457 people.) Assigning to all senior positions adherents NSDAP. After the Prussian Landtag of Hering found illegal, it was February 7. dissolved 'in order to protect the people'. Simultaneously, meetings were banned, 'to disturb public order'.
February 17 its 'decree about shooting' police Goering allow wide use of weapons for the establishment of public order, and 22 Feb.. mobilized to support the police force of about 30 thousand. attack aircraft, making them, so the official status. 24 Feb.. subordinate Goring police raided the headquarters of the CPG in Berlin - 'House of Karl Liebknecht' (although the KKE leadership had left it earlier, moving partly underground). One of the main organizers of the burning of the Reichstag 27.2.1933, which was the subject in the virtual elimination of constitutional liberties in Germany. At an extraordinary meeting of the Reichstag Goering said that this action was a response to the Communists held on 22 Feb.. confiscation of documents of the Company. On 5/3/1933, Minister-President of Prussia. 25/4/1933 created a state secret police (Gestapo) and became its chief (Deputy - P. Diels). 27.4.1933 stood at the head created by the Reich Ministry of Aviation, beginning a secret revival of the BBC, which Germany was forbidden to have under the terms of the Versailles Peace. However, who had a large number of party obligations Goering shifted the organization of the Luftwaffe the Secretary of State E. Milch and the Chief of the Command control gene. V. Befera. 31/8/1933 directly from the captains made a general of infantry. One of the initiators of the destruction of the top management during the CA 'Night of the Long Knives' 1922.214.171.1245 Hitler officially recognized the existence of Germany's Luftwaffe and Goering on the same day was appointed their chief. Attracted to the leadership of the Luftwaffe aces 1-st world war, his friends on the front, many of which were totally unsuited for leadership. In t.ch. catastrophic consequences caused by the appointment of the leadership of technical development gene. E. Udzieе-a. 18/10/1936 Goering was appointed commissioner for 4-year plan and in his hands was focused the entire leadership of the economic activities of Germany's preparations for war - to the detriment of the Reich Ministry of Economy and Finance. In July of 1937, was created huge public concern 'Hermann Goering Werke', which is in charge passed many confiscated from the Jews factories, and later - factories in the occupied territories. He played a crucial role in the crisis Blomber-ha-Fritsch. 4/2/1938 promoted to field marshal general. During the Anschluss of Austria, Goring by telephone provided leadership and coordination of the Austrian Nazis, playing a major role in the accession of this country to Germany. 4.9.1938 in accordance with the Law on Defense was appointed Permanent Secretary of Hitler in the Council of Ministers of Defense of the Reich. After successful completion of the Polish campaign, where his Luftwaffe played a very important role, 3/9/1939 awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. After the defeat of France 19.7.1940 Goering was awarded the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (he was the only one who had such an award in the Third Reich). Law 29/6/1941 officially appointed as successor to Hitler in the event of his death or if he for any reason is unable to perform their duties "even for a short term '. 30/7/1941 Goering signed to him by P. Heydrich paper on the 'final solution' to the Jewish question, which involves the destruction of nearly 20 million people. Gradually, during the war the Luftwaffe had lost its superiority in the air, and the influence of Hering in the higher echelons of power began to fall. At that time, Goering became more and more attention paid to his personal life. He has built a magnificent palace 'Karihale' in the manor Shenheyde (10 thousand. acres), gathered from museums in Germany and the robbery of the occupied countries a huge collection of works of art. In 1942, after being appointed Reich Minister for armaments and munitions favorite Hitler A. Speer, Goering's influence on the military economy, as authorized by 4-year plan, gradually began to come down to the 'no'. At the end of 1942 solemnly Goering assured Hitler that will ensure uninterrupted supply of the encircled at Stalingrad, Army 6-gene. F. Paulus's all necessary, that it was obviously impossible (in January. 1943 Paulus surrendered). Then Goring finally lost the confidence of Hitler, which in addition contributed to the complicated intrigue instigated M. Bormann v. Hering. Late in the summer of 1944 the Luftwaffe virtually collapsed, losses were enormous and, more importantly, lost the majority of aces, with which Germany started the war, and replenishment could not replace the experienced pilots. Goering, Hitler publicly declared guilty in the fact that he was unable to organize anti-aircraft defense. 23.4.1945 based tsz Law 29/6/1941 Goring, after a meeting with Mr.. Lammers, F. Bowler, K. Kosher and others, appealed to Hitler on the radio, asking him to consent to the adoption of - Goring - on the functions of head of government. Goering declared that if he did not receive a response by 22 o'clock, he would take this agreement. The same day, Goering was Hitler's order forbidding him to take the initiative, while on the orders of M. Goring Bormann was arrested by a detachment of SS treason. Two days later, Hering was replaced as Chief of the Luftwaffe General-Field Marshal P. Von Graham, devoid of titles and awards. In his political testament, Hitler April 29. expelled from the NSDAP and Goering officially named as his successor instead Grossadmiral K. Doenitz. April 29. transferred to a castle near Berchtesgaden. April 5. SS guard detachment gave Goering Luftwaffe units and Goering was immediately released. May 8 arrested by U.S. troops in Berchtesgaden. As the chief war criminals brought to justice by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, where he was the most important defendants. Excellent built his defense, showing sharpness of mind and even make a mockery of the tribunal members from the U.S.. Sentenced to death by hanging. For 2 hours before the execution was poisoned with potassium cyanide, which was handed to him with the assistance of E. von der Bach-Zelewski.