Heinrich Himmler (Himmler)( One of the main political and military leaders of Nazi Germany, Reichsfuhrer SS)
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Biography Heinrich Himmler (Himmler)
Himmler, Heinrich (Himmler), (1900-1945), one of the main political and military leaders of Nazi Germany, Reichsfuhrer SS. Born Oct. 7, 1900 in Munich in the Bavarian family of teachers. Going to be a professional officer, but after the military school at the front did not get, because by that time 1 st World War had ended. Himmler joined one of the many units of the "Volunteer Corps". Then he studied at the Faculty of Agriculture Technical Institute in Munich, where friends with nationalist-minded veterans of 1-st World War. During the "Beer Hall Putsch" 1923 Himmler was the standard-bearer, carrying tons. n. "battle-flag of the Reich". At one time he was Secretary of Gregor Strasser - the leader of the socialist wing of the Nazi Party. In August 1925 Himmler joined Hitler's NSDAP restored and was appointed Gauleiter of Bavaria. In 1928, Himmler had married the daughter of a Prussian landowner, Margaret Boden, who was his senior by seven years.
January 6, 1929 on the orders of Himmler, Hitler became Reichsfuehrer SS. By creating a "Black Order", Himmler sought to make his successor of the medieval tradition of chivalry and give it the appropriate attributes: silver rings with skull, honorary swords, rune symbols and t. d. He developed a mystical ritual of entry into the SS, assign the next rank, and even members of the SS recommendation to marry a "model wives". According to the instructions, they were required to have Nordic facial features, well know history, know foreign languages, be able to ride a horse, swim, drive, shoot a gun. In addition, they must have been exemplary in the household and be able to prepare. Upon examination of his wife's candidate member of the SS receives diploma. Himmler believed that the leading cadres of the Nazi Party and the SS should be able to leave their wives and select new ones in accordance with the aforementioned standard. Like Hitler and Himmler were unanimous in saying that after the war should introduce legalized bigamy to promote fertility. Himmler said: "If the good is the blood, which is the basis of our people, will not grow, we will not be able to dominate the world ... People who have an average of four sons in the family, can dare to war, because if two die, the remaining two will continue their race. The leaders also who have one or two sons, any decision will fluctuate. To this we can not go. "
In 1931 Himmler was busy creating his own secret service - SD, led by Reinhard Heydrich, he put. In 1933 Himmler was appointed head of police in Munich. On Hitler's orders, he created the first concentration camp at Dachau. April 20, 1934 Goering appointed Himmler, chief of the Prussian Gestapo. June 17, 1936 Hitler signed a decree, which Himmler was appointed by the supreme leader of all the services Germanic Police. All police forces, both paramilitary and civilian, passed under his control. Under the leadership of Himmler also created the SS.
Since 1943, Himmler became instead Frick, Reich Minister of the Interior, and after the failure of the July 1944 conspiracy commander of Army Reserve. Since the summer of 1943, the apparent early defeat of Germany, Himmler, through their proxies began to pursue contacts with representatives of the Western intelligence services with a view to concluding a separate peace. Hearing about this, Hitler, on the eve of the collapse of the Third Reich, Heinrich Himmler of the Nazi Party ruled out as a traitor, and deprived him of all ranks and their positions. After leaving the Reich Chancellery, Himmler went to the Danish border, where he would hide, lost in the crowd of refugees, but May 21, 1945 was arrested by British military authorities and committed suicide by taking poison.
. "He gave the impression of an intelligent teacher, elementary school ..
. From under a low forehead looked through the glittering pince-nez glasses, blue-gray eyes. Mustache under the direct, correct form nose stood out painfully a dark stripe on his pale face. Lips bloodless and very thin ... The skin on the neck and all slack wrinkled. In the corners of his mouth sometimes appeared barely noticeable and ironic sneer that drew the dazzling white teeth, which animates a minute deadpan. Hands are thin, white, almost girlish, with a clearly visible blue veins. "
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. Himmler (Himmier) Henry (7.10.1900, Munich-26.5.1945, near Lц+neburg), head of Germany's punitive apparatus, Reichsfuhrer SS, Reichsleiter (1934)
. The son of the headmaster in Landshut, tutor of Prince Henry of Bavaria.
2/1/1918 volunteered in the 17 th Bavarian Infantry Regiment, was sent to non-commissioned officers' school, and after its completion in the rank fanen-cadet was discharged 18/12/1918 and took no part in the battles. After the war was a member of many nationalist organizations and entities Volunteer Corps.
In 1920, arrested on suspicion of murdering a prostitute concubine Freda Wagner, but the court 8/9/1920 acquitted for lack of evidence. During the study met the E. Remus and became the SA. In August. 1922 Graduated from the Faculty of Agriculture. Munich University of Technology, agricultural economist, worked for some time the plant artificial fertilizers. Since October. 1923 the 'Rehskrigsfane' Rem-led nationalist. Member of 'Beer Hall Putsch' in 1923, while carrying the flag SA. After the prohibition of the NSDAP in 1924 joined headed by Mr.. Strasser National Socialist Union. When the ban on the Nazi Party, was withdrawn Himmler received a membership card? 14 303. In 1926 he married the daughter of the landlord, the mistress of a small clinic. After selling the clinic the couple bought a farmhouse Valdtruderinge (near Munich), where bred chickens, but soon went bankrupt. Strasser Engaged to work in its headquarters, at one time was its secretary.
Took an active part in the election campaign in 1924 in Lower Bavaria: the election ended in great success Strasser, who has 32 deputies in the Reichstag. 12/3/1925 his old friend X. Wessel introduced Himmler with A. Hitler in Munich. In August. 1925 joined the recreated Nazi Party and soon became deputy Gauleiter of Lower Bavaria. 7/4/1927 joined the SS (the ticket? 168) and was appointed deputy SS Reichsfuhrer E. Hayden. From 6/1/1929 Reichsfuhrer SS - the garrison of CA. At this point, under his command were only 280 people. Under the leadership of Himmler, the SS began the rapid growth - by June 1932 the number of members has reached 30 thousand. cel. and after the Nazi Party came to power - 52 thousand. (May 1933). In Feb.. 1931 took an active part in the elimination of one of the leaders of the revolt in SA. Shtennesa. For successes Hitler awarded honorary SS motto 'Your honor - loyalty'. In August. 1932 Himmler transformed TN. Front 'I-C' in the security service (SD), monitor and spy on the mood within the party and society. At the head of the department was put P. Heydrich. Himmler had transformed the structure of the SS. In accordance with the order of Himmler's SS had become an instrument of strengthening the NSDAP, the subordination of all parts of the party Fuhrer. Confronting the SS and the SA 29.8.1930 intensified and resulted in open clashes.
In 1933 was appointed chief of police in Munich, and then gradually it was subject to police all the lands of Germany. 20/4/1934 Himmler was appointed Mr.. Goring chief of the secret state police of Prussia (the Gestapo), which turned into a powerful repressive apparatus. One of the main organizers of the destruction of the top management during the CA 'Night of the Long Knives' in 1934. Even commanders met 27/6/1934 districts SS, which informed them that the CA preparing a coup d'etat. After the 'Night of the Long Knives' 30/7/1934 Hitler announced that the SS would be an autonomous organization within the Nazi Party, is not subject to the SA Chief of Staff, and Supreme Head of the SA, which was Hitler himself. Himmler received the same rank as the Chief of Staff of the SA - Reichsleiter in the system of imperial leadership of the NSDAP. In 1934 was created 'Circle of Friends Reichsfuehrer CC', brings together leading industrialists and financiers in Germany, subsidized Nazi movement. Since 1934 Germany has created a system of concentration camps (the first - Dachau), which were then transferred to a subordinate to Himmler inspector of concentration camps T. Eike.
From 1934 Himmler began to set up permanent militarized SS units that were converted into 1/6/1940 SS troops, and by 1945 had reached nearly 40 divisions (the SS also had one army headquarters and 18 corps staffs). From 17/6/1936 - Reichsfuhrer SS and police chief of Germany. De jure, the police remained under the Reich Minister of the Interior, and Himmler Tourist Office. became Secretary of State, although he always refused to use that title. But in fact the Minister in. White tie could not interfere in the affairs of the police, tk. Himmler had immeasurable influence in Germany. 26/6/1936 merger of the Security Police (located in the Ministry of Interior) and SD (subordinate to Himmler personally) was formed by General Directorate of Security Police, . reorganized in 1939 the Main Department of the Reich Security (RSHA),
. RSHA (includes along with the security service - the SD, the Gestapo and criminal police also foreign intelligence) was the main promoter and organizer of the Nazi terror, as in Germany and in occupied countries. 7.10.1939 appointed imperial commissioner to consolidate the Germanic nations, and it is mandated to conduct all activities for Germanization eastern lands (Poland, USSR, etc.).
As part of Germanization supposed to eviction (and destruction) of millions of Poles and Russian in order to make room for the settlement of ethnic Germans. 1.2.1942 in the SS. was finally formed main administrative and economic management (WVHA) headed by O. Paul;, . besides a large number of industrial enterprises, . administered WVHA were also all the concentration camps, . Prisoners are widely used for forced labor at the enterprises of the SS, or rented to large industrial firms (in t.ch,
. 'IG Farben', 'Friedrich Krupp', etc.). After the death of Heydrich Himmler 28/5/1942 personally headed the RSHA, appointing his deputy, E. Kalypenbrunnera. In January. 1943, Himmler Kaltenbrunner finally appointed a chief of RSHA, but at the same time, retained direct control (through the head chief of the RSHA), the activities of the principal organs of coercion, especially the Gestapo (led by Mr.. Muller). 23/8/1943 remaining Reichsfuehrer SS, Heinrich Himmler became both Reich Minister of the Interior. Since then, he was one of the most powerful men in the Reich. Since the summer of 1943, Himmler under pressure. Schellenberg through trustees began to establish contacts with representatives of the Western intelligence. Himmler's aim was a separate peace in the West and the continuing war with the USSR, of course, while maintaining the Himmler of political power in Germany.
In Feb.. 1944 Himmler had made the decision to subordinate to the SS of all the intelligence agencies of Germany, in t.ch. in the RSHA included pillars headed by former admiral in. Canaris Abwehr. After an unsuccessful attempt on Hitler, at 17 o'clock 20.7.1944 appointed commander of Army Reserve and Army Chief of arms instead of a gene associated with the conspirators. F. Fromm. Had purged the governing apparatus of the Army Reserve, Vice many leadership positions he is personally loyal to SS officers (in t.ch. G. Jц+ttner, A. Frank and others). July 24 was declared a total mobilization, . and under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler initiated the formation of 22 national-Grenadier Division, . besides, . the personal disposal transferred to the SS Heinrich Himmler (formerly operationally subordinate to the army command),
. 10/12/1944, when the war had already moved into the territory of Germany, was formed by a group of armies 'Upper Rhine' (from 29/1/1945 - Army Group 'Vistula') and her team, despite the objections of M. Bormann and T. Guderian was appointed Himmler. December 31. subordinate to Himmler troops launched Operation 'North Wind', whose task was the return of Alsace. Initially, the Army Group was a success, and its troops 5.1.1945 crossed the Rhine. Allied armies were in a difficult position, but because of the outbreak of 12-15 January. Soviet offensive Germanic command was compelled to halt, and the command of Army Group was hastily transferred to the Sun -. exact front. During the Soviet offensive 'Wisla' suffered a major defeat, and its troops on the Oder were in an extremely difficult situation.
March 22 handed over the command of Colonel-General G. Heinrici. In Feb.. Schellenberg 1945, with the consent of Himmler, who was in Italy over SS Obergruppenfiihrer K. Wolf stepped up negotiations with the Allies (especially with A. Dulles in Zurich). Early April. rumors about the negotiations came to Bormann, who made an unsuccessful attempt to arrest the Wolf. Simultaneously Schellenberg began talks on a truce brokered by the Swedish diplomat Count V. Bernadotte. April 21. Himmler, Schellenberg under pressure, took the final decision of a coup and take power into their own hands. At the same time, he formally appealed to the Allied Command with a proposal to start negotiations (Allied Command refused to negotiate with the head of the SS). When information about the negotiations reached Hitler, before his death, he dismissed Himmler from all government posts and expelled him from the Nazi Party. However, Himmler retained full control of the SS, where the most important positions were occupied by people loyal to him personally. After the suicide of Hitler Himmler attempted to offer their services to the new Government to. Doenitz, but was refused. May 20, using forged documents in the name of Henry Hittsingera, Himmler tried to escape from Flessburga, mingling with refugees. On the morning of May 23 at the bridge Berveverde near Lц+neburg was arrested in parts of the British military police and among other suspects sent to the camp? 031.
After three days of interrogation, he confessed that he really is Reichsfuehrer SS and demanded a meeting with Field Marshal B. Montgomery. During the re-search, committed suicide by crushing hidden in his mouth vial of potassium cyanide. Himmler's body was cremated and the ashes scattered in a forest near Lц+neburg.