Karl DöTnitz (Doenitz)( Grand Admiral, commander of the navy of Germany since 1943, Hitler's successor)
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Biography Karl DöTnitz (Doenitz)
Doenitz, Karl (Doenitz) (1891-1981), grand admiral, commander of the navy of Germany since 1943, the successor to Hitler (May 1945), founder and leader of Germany's submarine fleet. Born September 16, 1891 in Grö+nau, near Berlin, in a family-optics engineer who worked in the firm of Carl Zeiss. After graduating high school in Weimar, Doenitz, in 1910 entered the Naval School in Kiel, after which he was appointed to the light cruiser "Breslau" signal officer. During the 1-st World War II cruiser, which fought DöTnitz, together with the cruiser "Geben" exploded in July 1915 by a mine in the Mediterranean Sea.
. In 1916, DöTnitz retrained for submarines and the next year became commander of one of them, has been promoting itself as a capable and talented officer
. Having been taken prisoner by the British in October 1918, he was released in 1919 and returned to the Navy Germany. In 1923, DöTnitz became an adviser to management of the submarine fleet in the naval inspection. Under the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Germany was forbidden to have submarines, but preparing for its construction was in full swing, and DöTnitz was standing at the origins of its creation. In 1924 he was sent to the General Command of the Navy in Berlin. After further service in the Baltic navigator cruiser "Nymph", DöTnitz in 1930 returned to Berlin as a staff officer of the North Sea area. The first few months after Hitler came to power, DöTnitz was on long hikes, visiting Malta, Ceylon, India, Singapore. In 1934, DöTnitz visited England, where he perfected his English, and returning, was appointed commander of the cruiser "Emden". After it had been signed by the English-Germanic naval agreement in 1935, removed to Germany, many of the limitations of the Versailles Treaty, June 6, 1935 DöTnitz was appointed to "Fuhrer Submarine" and headed the 1-th submarine flotilla. By the autumn of 1935, despite opposition from supporters of the "big ships", Germany already had 11 small submarines.
Doenitz was one of the few staunch National Socialists among senior officers of the Navy. He praised Hitler in a speech to the sailors: "Heaven send us leadership Fuhrer!" Once, he said, referring to the cheering crowd in Berlin that Hitler foresaw everything and did not commit a single wrong step. "We - hearts compared with him!" Hitler, in turn, had the greatest confidence in the DöTnitz. By 1938 Doenitz developed the tactics of the group of submarine attacks ( "wolf packs") and in 1939 was appointed commander of the submarine fleet. In this position DöTnitz bear full responsibility for the sinking of not only military but also merchant ships allies. In August 1942, DöTnitz moved his command post in Paris. His self-discipline and efficiency, in addition to talent, naval commander, earned him universal respect among the officers of the Navy, which is less than the officers of other military branches were infected with Nazi ideology. DöTnitz personally met each boat, returning to base, was present at the release of each course the school divers, organized a special resort for recreation personnel after exhausting hikes. Sailors in the eyes of his commander called "Father Charles" or "Lion".
. After the British improved the protection of convoys, and have developed their own methods of anti-war, . loss of the submarine fleet of Germany began to increase, . Doenitz had to endure and the operational zone of action further to the west, . in the area between the coast of Canada and Iceland, . which did not reach the anti-aircraft attacked Allied,
. After the fall of 1941 on the orders of Hitler 10 submarines from the Atlantic were deployed in the Mediterranean, DöTnitz was forced to shut down large-scale actions in the North Atlantic. And after the U.S. entered the war, despite the increase in the number of submarines (a month by 1942 the stocks sank 20 submarines), their effectiveness began to wane.
In March 1942, Doenitz was given the rank of Admiral. Following the resignation of Erich Raeder January 30, 1943 DöTnitz was appointed his successor as Chief of the naval forces of Germany and given the rank of grand admiral. In March 1943 Germans submarine sank 120 Allied ships a total displacement of 623 thousand. tons, for which Doenitz, Hitler awarded the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves. However, the overall action of the submarine fleet of Germany became increasingly successful, and the losses have exceeded their production. In May 1943, DöTnitz was forced to withdraw the submarines from the Atlantic, which angered Hitler: "There can be no question of termination of participation of submarines in the war. Atlantic Ocean - this is my first line of defense in the west ". By the autumn of 1943 for each torpedoed freighter accounted for one-sunk submarine. DöTnitz wrote in his diary: "The enemy holds every trump card, covering all areas with the help of long-range aviation, and uses the methods of detection, to which we are not prepared. The enemy knows all our secrets, but we do not know anything about their secret! "From 1939 to 1945 of the 820 submarines that participated in the" Battle of the Atlantic, 781 died, and many of the rest were damaged.
. Before committing suicide, Hitler appointed Doenitz as president of the Reich, chief of the armed forces and minister of war
. This Doenitz told by telegram Martin Bormann. Convinced that the Fuhrer is alive, DöTnitz, accepting the appointment, Hitler replied: "My Fuhrer!" My devotion to you is limitless. I will do everything in my power to come to your assistance in Berlin. If, however, the fate commanded me to lead the Reich as the designated successor to you, I'll go this way until the end, trying to be worthy of unparalleled heroic struggle of the German people. Grand Admiral Doenitz.
May 2-5, 1945, while at the command post on the Baltic coast at Flensburg, DöTnitz appointed government, under the chairmanship of Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk. Hoping for a speedy end to the war, Doenitz would allow the largest possible number of Germans to surrender to the British and Americans to protect them from Russian. He became convinced of the failure of Hitler's policies and called on Germans to begin restoring the country to resist the paralyzing horror injury. May 23, 1945 the new head of state has been captured by the Allies. Doenitz, along with 22 other Nazi leaders before the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, 20 October 1945. He tried to "disown" from charges on the grounds that it does not in Nazi crimes unrelated.
. The prosecution has concluded that, although Doenitz is the organizer and educator germanskogo submarine fleet, he was not involved in the conspiracy to wage aggressive war, are not ready and did not start this war
. He manslaughter sailors from submarines lined his military and civilian courts, . but was charged with the responsibility for Hitler's order dated October 18, 1942, . which the captured crews of Allied torpedo boats were to send in the SS and shot,
. DöTnitz was found guilty on 2 (crimes against peace) and 3, paragraph (war crimes) and sentenced to 10 years in prison. He served time in Spandau Prison in West Berlin and was released on October 1, 1956. He always kept in a folder with the letters of allied naval officers, who expressed to him their sympathy and understanding. Freed and procured himself Admiralty pension DöTnitz devoted himself to literary work. He wrote a book of memoirs: "10 years and 20 days" (1958), "My exciting life" (1963), "Germany naval strategy in the 2 nd World War" (1968). He died in Aumyule in January 1981.
Doenitz (Donitz) Carl (16.09. 1891, Grö+nau near Berlin - 25.12.1980, Aumyul) State and naval activities, Grossadmiral (30.01. 1943). The son of an engineer-optics company Carl Zeiss. Educated in the naval schools in Kiel and in Myurvike. 01.10. 1912 joined the Navy in the light cruiser "Breslau". In 1913 promoted to lieutenant, flag lieutenant commander "Breslau". Since the beginning of 1 st World War, nahodivshiys in the Mediterranean "Breslau" was held in the Black Sea and was officially handed over to Germany, Turkey (known as "Mililli"), although it retained its full crew. Cruiser has successfully led the fight in the Black Sea, but in 1915 struck a mine. During the repair ship DöTnitz served in the Air Force as an observer arrow. Summer of 1916 he returned to Germany where he attended a course submarine officer. Since January 1917 the torpedo officer on the submarine U-39. From January 1918 - Commander of the obsolete submarine UC-25. He fought in the Mediterranean. In July 1918, was given command of a new submarine UB-68. 04.10. 1918 attacked the British convoy, sinking transport "UPEK, however, suffered, and entrusted Doenitz submarine that had sunk, and DöTnitz was in English captivity. Kept in a POW camp officers, but feigned insanity and was released.
In July 1919 he returned to Germany and was accepted for service in the Navy. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forbidden to have a submarine fleet and Doenitz was appointed commander of the torpedo boat T-157 on the basis Swinemunde (Pomerania). Since 1923, expert mine and torpedo-reconnaissance inspection in Kiel, took part in the development of a new type of deep mines. The autumn of 1924 moved to the central command of the Navy. Participated in the development of a new naval statute. After the scandal of secret re-establishment of the Navy, Doenitz in 1928 was transferred to the navigator light cruiser "Nymph" in the Baltic. In November 1928 the commander of 4 th poluflotilii 1-st Division destroyers. At the end of 1930, Doenitz moved to the headquarters district Nordsee, where he was responsible for internal security, especially the fight against communist influence in the Navy. In 1934, for improving the English language and sent to Britain on his return was appointed commander of the light cruiser "Emden". 06.06. 1935 DöTnitz appointed "Fuhrer submarines and at the same time the commander of 1 st submarine flotilla. Created submarine fleet in Germany, with the leadership of the Supreme Command of the Navy (ECM) and especially Admiral-E. Roeder, former supporters of surface ships, withdrew from the intervention in the affairs of the submarine fleet, providing complete freedom of Doenitz. In 1938 developed the tactics of the submarines - the tactics of "wolf packs". Made necessary the construction of his submarine, creating a powerful submarine fleet.
stupil.v conflict in Reder, believe that war at sea can be won only with the help of large surface ships. By the beginning of the Second World War before Doenitz was 56 submarines, of which only 22 have been adapted for warfare in the ocean lanes. Boats Doenitz began a war against the Allies, sunk during the month the enemy ships with a total displacement 175 thousand. t. Personally planned operation to destroy the battleship "Royal Oak" in the main bay of the British fleet (D undertaken. Adopted). By the end of 1940 Doenitz put the UK in almost a hopeless situation, because the tonnage exceeded the tonnage of ships sunk ships put into operation (in t.ch. and sent from the USA). In August 1940, moved his command post in Paris. Fully enjoyed great among submariners always personally greeted each returning to the base of the boat, organized the divers in the best resort for recuperation after sailing. Among the officers of the submarine fleet has earned the nickname "Papa Charles" and "Leo". During 1941 Germanic submarine fleet has achieved exceptional success, putting allies, especially Britain, in unbearable conditions. After joining the U.S. war DöTnitz 15.01. 1942 gave the order to sink American ships. Only in January 1942 it was sunk 303 ships with a displacement of about 330 thousand. t. Following the resignation of DöTnitz, Raeder, supported by a. Speer and naval adjutant Hitler F. Puttkamer, 30.01. 1943 was appointed commander of the Navy Germany.
Immediately conducted a large-scale purge of senior officers, dismissing all puppets Roeder. Opposed the dissolution of surface fleet, as urged by Hitler. He assumed command of all Navy, in fact retained the direct management of submarine fleet. In March 1943 Germans submarines have made tremendous progress, sinking enemy ships obshim displacement of more than 627 thousand. t. After the Allied landings in France DöTnitz took some massive attack submarine, sinking 5 ships escort, 12 cargo vessels and 4, landing barges, but lost 82 boats. In fact, of the 820 submarines that participated in the hostilities in Antantike in 1939-45, died 781 (as of 39 thousand, 32 thousand submariners. people). DöTnitz never spoke out against Hitler's decisions, continually demonstrating their loyalty to the regime. 19.04. 1945 evacuated its headquarters from Berlin. April 20, visited Hitler in connection with his 56-th birthday. Before you commit suicide, Hitler in his political testament of 29.04. 1945 appointed Doenitz as his successor as president and supreme commander. After becoming head of the country, . May 2 DöTnitz moved his residence to the building of the Naval Academy in Myurvik-Flensburg, one of the reasons for this decision was that, . that Myurvike were personally loyal Doenitz marine parts, . and he could not be afraid of pressure from the armed SS or Luftwaffe,
. On the same day DöTnitz formed a new government in Germany led by Count L. Schwerin von Krozigkom in addition, the government included the Minister of Interior in. Shtukkrat, Minister of Propaganda in. Nauman and others.
Manual Army was asked to field marshal general F. Schorner, Luftwaffe - General-Field Marshal P. Von Graham, Navy - General Admiral T. Friedeburg, OKW (EDO) headed by Colonel-General A. Jodl. With the inevitable defeat of Germany Doenitz has made active attempts to achieve an early conclusion of an armistice with the Western allies and withdraw as many troops and civilians from the territories, . who were soon to take the Soviet troops,
. May 23 Doenitz and his government were arrested by American military authorities. Doenitz was brought in as the main offender before the court of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Brilliantly conducted his own defense, proving that his actions during the war were no different from actions naprimar, U.S. Navy. Despite this pressure the British and Soviet sides Doenitz was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Time served in prison Spandau. Fully serving his term, was released and soon received from the Government of Germany admiral's retirement. He lived in Aumyule. Author of memoirs and several books on the history of World War II.