LUXEMBOURG ROSE( The activity of German, Polish and international labor movement, one of the leaders and theoreticians of the Polish Social-Democrats, radical left currents in the Social-Democratic and 2-m Internatio)
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Biography LUXEMBOURG ROSE
Rosa Luxemburg (German. Luxemburg, Polish. Luksemburg) [5.3.1871, . Zamoе?д+ (Zamosc), . Poland, . - 15.1.1919, . Berlin], . German leader, . Polish and international labor movement, . one of the leaders and theoreticians of Polish Social-Democracy, . left-radical currents in the Social-Democratic and 2-m Internazionale, . one of the founders of the Communist Party of Germany,
. Born in a bourgeois Jewish family. Even in high school participated in underground revolutionary work, adhering to the party in 1889 emigrated to Switzerland, in 1897 graduated from the University of Zurich. Studied Marxist literature, participated in the circle of Polish political exiles, who started the revolutionary Social-Democracy of Poland, led the fight against nationalism, the Polish Socialist Party (PPP). In 1898 she moved to Germany, where he actively involved in the work of the Social-Democratic, taking up a position on its left flank. It was one of the determined opponents of the revisionist Eduard Bernstein, considering his views were incompatible with membership in the party. Defining revisionism as a kind of petty-bourgeois reformist ideology, Luxembourg contrasted his revolutionary Marxism. Actively opposed ministerialism (Millerandism) and opportunistic compromises with the bourgeois parties.
In 1904, in connection with the split RSDLP, criticized the Bolsheviks. During the Revolution of 1905-07 in Russia on many issues of strategy and tactics of revolutionary struggle has moved closer to the Bolsheviks. With enthusiasm, welcomed the revolution in Russia, considering it an event of great international significance. Luxembourg participated in the 5-th Party Congress (1907), which joined the Bolsheviks and the evaluation of the liberal bourgeoisie as an anti-revolutionary forces, recognized the revolutionary peasantry class. Based on the experience of the revolution in Russia, Luxembourg, together with other representatives of the revolutionary wing of the Social-Democratic (Karl Liebknecht, K. Zetkin F. Mehring and others) have been smashing criticized "parliamentary cretinism" and the illusion of democratic reformers, advocated the full development of extra-parliamentary struggle of the masses, for inclusion in the arsenal of weapons of war of the proletariat - the mass political strike. In December 1905 L. illegally went to Warsaw, it has deployed an active revolutionary activities, was arrested but soon released on bail. In September 1906 returned to Germany, but in the future to maintain ties with the Polish workers' movement, was printed in Poland and Russia's social-democratic press. At the 2 nd Congress of the International in Paris (1900) made a presentation in which substantiated the need for vigorous international action against the Socialist militarism, colonial policy of the imperialist powers and the danger of World War. At the Stuttgart Congress of the 2 nd International (1907) Luxembourg, together with V. Lenin amended resolution Bebel on the attitude of the imperialist war and militarism. The amendments, in particular, pointed to the need to use in case of war, the concomitant crisis in order to overthrow the rule of the bourgeoisie. For anti-militarist agitation being persecuted and repressed. In total, held in prisons around 4 years (mainly in the period 1 st World War).
Luxembourg before the war, understood the true essence of Kautskyism as a kind of opportunism, and have denounced the leaders of the centrist conciliatory policy of the Social-Democratic Party of Germany to the revisionists. At the same time it is up to the November revolution in Germany saw no need institutional break with the opportunists, against which had always been an ideological struggle. Since the beginning of the imperialist war 1914-18 Luxembourg strongly condemned the chauvinistic policies of the Social-Democratic leadership, was one of the founders and leaders of the Spartacus League, the author of many unreleased antiwar leaflets. She welcomed the October Socialist Revolution in Russia, but opposed the tactics of the Bolsheviks (the solution of the agrarian and national questions, the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly and others). Later, Luxembourg has decisively turned to Leninism, upholding the slogan of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the Soviets in Germany. Luxembourg was among the founders of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), at the constituent congress of the CPG (30 December 1918 - January 1, 1919) made a report on the program of the Party. After the suppression of the Berlin uprising in January 1919, was brutally murdered along with Karl Liebknecht.