Friedrich Nietzsche( Philosophy)
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Biography Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, the first son of a priest Karl Ludwig Nietzsche (genus. in 1813, the son of a priest) and Frances Nietzsche, born Eler (genus. In 1826, the family priest), was born on October 15 in the town Recke at Lö+tzen.
July 10. The birth of her sister Elizabeth (died November 8, 1935).
February 27. Birth of Ludwig's brother Joseph (who died Jan. 4, 1850). Father's death (30 July).
Family moved to Naumburg. Admission to the town school for boys. Beginning of friendship with Wilhelm Pinder and Gustav Krug.
Go to a preparatory school at the cathedral school.
Go to the fifth grade school. The first samples stihotvorchestva and music. "I went to the Ascension Day in the town church and heard there is a majestic chorus from Messiah: Hallelujah!" He seemed to be forcing me to join his voice, it seemed, . it was a jubilant song of the angels, . the sounds of which Jesus Christ ascends to heaven,
. I immediately took a serious decision to compose something like. Immediately after church I got down to business and childish joy each new chord, sounding out from under my hands. While continuing these studies over the years, I acquired a great deal and learned through the study of a combination of tones, better to play with a sheet ".
Summer exempt from training because of headaches and eye disease.
October 6 goes to the famous school Pforta (near Naumburg). The first samples of writing: a little essay "On the music:" God gave us music that we first dragged it upward ... Its main purpose is that it directs our thoughts to the higher, elevates us, even shocking ... All the people who despise her, should be regarded as worthless, zhivotnopodobnyh creatures. God be always this wonderful gift of God in my life companion of the way! "August 10 - poem" Without a homeland "; startling premonition 14 years of their future:
. Easy fast horses
. Without fear and awe chase
. Me through the expanse of plains
Anyone who sees me, he knows,
Who knows, I doth:
. Hop-hop, Hoplite!
. Star mine!
. About happiness, do not throw me!
. If only someone would dare
. Ask: where I come from,
. Where my roof, and the homeland - where:
. I was still never
. Space and time bound,
. Flying like an eagle in height!
. Hop-hop, Hoplite!
. Spring mine!
. About happiness, do not throw me!
. I never believe
. What will be the death of me at the door
. Someday, astringent, wait:
. What, somewhere buried in the grave,
. I drink sweet life
. I will not have to drain!
. Hop-hop, Hoplite!
. My Dream!
. About happiness, do not throw me!
. K. A. Svasian)
Acquaintance and friendship with Paul Deyseenom. From a letter to his mother of 3 October: "In human life there are moments when we forget that inhabited only one point of immeasurable Universe.
Establishes, together with childhood friends in. Pinder and Mr.. Around music and literature the word "Germany" (lasted only three years).
After G. Circle first encounter with Wagner's music: klaviraustsug "Tristan and Isolde. Frequent piano improvisation. Passes (with P. Deyseenom) Confirmation. Friendship with Carl von Gersdorff.
Recurrent headaches did not, however, intensified classes on the subject and in his spare time. In April, the poem "Ermanarih and three articles:" The fate and history "," Freedom of will and fate, "" On Christianity ". From a letter to his mother on 19 November: "The susceptibility to influence is inconceivable, because I still have to meet people who I felt would be higher than themselves".
Thesis "DeTheognide Megarensi" (On Theognis Megartse). After the matriculation examinations trip on the Rhine with P. Deyssenom. Since October (till August next year) for two semesters studying theology and philology at the University of Bonn. Joining the student's corporation "Franconia" and singing in urban society. Many songs, including two songs to the words of Pushkin ( "spell" and "Winter Evening").
In June, participated as a singer in the choir of Cologne music festivals. "We sang with unmistakable enthusiasm in pyatidesyatigradusnuyu heat". In the summer of acute rheumatic disease. Exit "Franconia" and the rejection of theological career. Fall recorded in four of philological seminar in the University of Leipzig (to Professor Richlyu), however: "I'm not going to Leipzig in order to deal only with philology, but that substantially improved in the music (K. von Gersdorff, August 4)! In December, at the initiative Richlya involved in the organization of the philological circle. First and accompanied by shocks reading Schopenhauer.
January 18 the first report of Nietzsche in the philological circle on "Last elegies Theognis" (manuscript is given to read Richlyu). "A few days later I was invited to it. He looked suspiciously at me and offered to sit. "For what purpose, he asked, - you have taken this job?" I called the proximate cause, saying that giving rise to the report in our circle, it has already fulfilled its purpose. When he inquired about my age, academic seniority and t. village, and when I gave him an adequate explanation, he confessed that he never had never seen a student's third semester of anything similar on the severity of the method and reliability of the combination. Following this, he quickly asked me to revise the report in a small book, and promised his assistance in some flashing with the original ". Perhaps, . this is the case provoked the decision to continue the university career, . although in the midst of Philological Studies inner "emigration" to remain in effect: "Three things are the ease of a me: my Schopenhauer, . Schumann Music, . Finally, . solitary walks ",
. Introducing Erwin Rode and travel with him in Bemervald at the August holidays. New ( "very mixed") impressions of Wagner's music: klaviraustsug "Valkyrie" - "great beauty and virtutes balanced here as great deformities and disabilities". Reading "History of Materialism" F. A. Lange. In November, was adopted for the proposed University of competitive work "De fontibus Diogenis Laertii" (On the sources of Diogenes Laertius).
The release of the 22 th issue of the Rhine of the scientific journal article Nietzsche's "On the history feognidovskogo gnomologiuma". 9 October called up for military service in the equestrian field artillery regiment division in Naumburg. Composition of Diogenes Laertius awarded the prize. Studies texts Democritus.
In 23-th issue of the Rhine of the scientific journal published the first two articles from the work of Nietzsche on Diogenes Laertius. In March, exempt from military service because of severe injuries received in an unsuccessful jump on a horse (damage to the sternum and pectoral muscle inflammation). Plotting dissertation on "The notion of the organic from the time of Kant". Sharp criticism of modern philology. October 28, after listening to the overture to "Tristan" and "Die Meistersinger" full treatment in Wagnerism. 8 November evening in Leipzig in the house orientalist G. Brockhaus, who was married to the sister of Wagner's first meeting with Richard Wagner. "A long conversation about Schopenhauer: Oh, you will understand this, what pleasure it was for me to listen to it with indescribable warmth talking about Schopenhauer than he is obliged to him, and that is the only philosopher who grasp the essence of music" (Erwin Rode, November 9). Wagner, Nietzsche asks to visit him for the mutual study music and philosophy.
The third and fourth articles of Diogenes Laertius in the 24 th issue of the scientific journal of the Rhine ". In the early years of Nietzsche decides to leave philology and to study chemistry, January 10 Richl confidently tells his favorite, that the University of Basel discussed the question of inviting him to the chair of Greek language and literature. From a letter to E. Rode on 16 January: "We still stayed in the big fool of fate: for the past week I was going to write you a letter with a proposal together to do chemistry and philology to send there, where she and place: the belongings of ancestors. And the same damned fate beckons philological professors ". February 13 decision of the Basel university commission on the recommendation of Richlya 24-year-old Nietzsche affirmed by extraordinary professor of classical philology of the University of Basel, and professor of Greek in high school Pedagogiuma: without preliminary protection PhD (Promotion) and doctorate (Habilitation) theses,
. From a letter Richlya to William Fisher, the chairman of the educational council in Basel: "Your kind letter of February 5, was for me truly a blessing ... For the first time I felt that the authority is enlightened enough to sacrifice for the sake of a clear interest in the case "formal impediments". In Germany the day the fire will not find this ... "March 23 University of Leipzig, without protection and on the basis of articles published in the" Rhenish scientific journal, awarded to Prof. Nietzsche, Ph.D.. From the memories F. F. Zelinsky: "When I was in 1876, Mr.. a first-year student at Leipzig University enrolled a member of the philological circle and was admitted to the reverent reading of his annals - Bureau introduced me, . on Kruzhkov traditions, . its founders, . and including Nietzsche, . "Who is Nietzsche?" "O" (it's iridescent "on" and still sounds in my ears), . "This is Nietzsche, . who in his tenure as a student, was elected professor of the University of Basel! "" April 17 is released from Prussian citizenship: from now devoid of any nationality! On April 19 the beginning of teaching: the theme of summer seminar - "Hoefory" Aeschylus, . Greek lyric; winter - Latin grammar,
May 17 - the first (of the 23's) visit to Wagner and Cosimo von Bulow in Tribshene in Lucerne. May 28 introductory university speech: "On the identity of Homer" (published under the title "Homer and Classical Philology"). Introducing Jacob Burckhardt. June 5 and 6 again meeting with Wagner in Tribshene: "I am learning so much in his presence: this is my practical course in the philosophy of Schopenhauer". Frequent meetings with Wagner grow in friendship, in a letter to E. Schopenhauer and Goethe, Aeschylus and Pindar still live, just think! "
January 18 lecture "Greek musical drama" in the Basel library. February 1 ibid. second report: "Socrates and Tragedy" that is forwarded to Tribshen. A letter from Wagner on 4 February: "Last night a friend read (Cosimo. - K. C.) your article. I had to post this for a long time to calm her ... In turn, and I myself often felt the horror of courage, . with which you report such a new idea to the public, . averse, . apparently, . the formation, . with such brevity and categorical, . that comes into your excuse rely only on a complete misunderstanding on her part ... "A new letter to Wagner dated 12 February:" ... if you become a musician, . then you would have approximately the same, . What would I, . I was stubborn in philology ..,
. Philology ... I will conduct a "musician". Stay as a philologist, that in such conduct as to give your music ... show what is suitable philology, and help me realize the great Renaissance, which embraces Homer, Plato, and Homer, filled with ideas of Plato, and Homer becomes the first naivelichayshim ". New Visits Tribshena.
In the "Rhenish scientific journal article published Nietzsche" Florentine treatise on Homer and Hesiod ". April 9 appointed ordinary professor. Themes summer and winter semesters: Sophocles, "Oedipus Rex"; Hesiod, "Works and Days"; metric; Cicero, "Academica". Acquaintance and friendship with Franz Overbeck, a professor of theology.
July 15 - Franco-Prussian War. Nietzsche submits an application for leave and for him to go to the front, "as a soldier or a nurse; neutral Switzerland allowed him only the second. Of shake at the front. September 7, escorting transport wounded in Karlsruhe, infected with dysentery and diphtheria throat; week of the crisis in Erlangen hospital between life and death (such is the state of hopelessness that cause priest). By the end of October, not having recovered fully from his illness, returned to Basel and proceeds to lectures. Article "Dionysian world", presented to the birthday Cosimo Wagner (razvedsheysya with Hans von Bulow and married with Wagner).
The deterioration of health (stomach pain, insomnia) associated with excessive teaching load. Sketch tragedy "Empedocles". The failed plan to occupy the vacant position of professor of philosophy (instead left the Basel D. Teichmuller) and give philological faculty E. Rode. On February 15 in connection with the exacerbation of the disease asked about the temporary leave for treatment. Trip with his sister in Lugano, working under the "Birth of Tragedy". From the first days of April in Basel, again. Themes summer and winter workshops: Introduction to the study of philology, Introduction to the study of Plato's dialogues; Introduction to Latin epigraphics.
May 24 - the burning of the Tuileries in Paris Communards, rumors set on fire the Louvre. Record Cosimo Wagner on 28 May: "Richard spoke animatedly about the fire and its significance:" If you are not able to create paintings again, you do not deserve to have them ". Professor Nietzsche said that for scientists such events amount to the end of all existence. On Bakunin: whether he is proud of this? "From a letter to K. von Gersdorff, dated 21 June: "In the battle of nations have horrified that head international hydra, which is so fearfully gaze suddenly appeared as an indicator of a completely different battles of the future. If we could talk face to face, . We would agree, . that this phenomenon emerges out inherent in our world a terrible inferiority of modern life, . essentially all the old Christian Europe and its Member States, . But before all that prevails everywhere today Roman "civilization", . - We would agree, . that all of us, . with all our past, . the blame for such a horror of becoming a reality and that, . therefore, . we should refrain from the, . that the arrogance not to blame for a crime against culture only to those unfortunate,
. I know what it means: fighting against culture. When I heard about the Paris fire, . I was a few days completely crushed and flooded with tears and doubts: all of the scientific and philosophical and artistic existence seemed to me absurd, . if it was possible to destroy a single day magnificent works of art, . even whole periods of art; convincingly, I clung to the metaphysical value of art, . which can not exist here just for the sake of poor, . but is designed to perform missions of higher,
. But even in the most unbearable pain point I have not been able to throw a stone in the scoffer who is for me the only carriers of common guilt, which fit to think and think! "
. In June, the publication of a small booklet "Socrates and Greek Tragedy" (on the Rights of the manuscript), the finalization of the text "Birth of Tragedy"
. Musical composition "Echoes of New Year's night", sent Dec. 25 Cosimo Wagner birthday gift.
In early January release of the "Birth of Tragedy". Rave reviews from Tribshena. Wagner: "Dear friend, I have not yet read anything more beautiful than your book!" It's great, I write in haste, as the reading perevozbudilo me, and I have to pull myself to read it properly ... Cosimo I said that after it is immediately followed by you, then a big gap to Lenbach, who wrote a remarkably similar portrait of me ". The tense silence in philological circles. From a letter to E. Rode 28 January: "In Leipzig again prevailed bitterness. Nobody sends me there, and word. Even Richl ".
From January to March, five lectures on "The future of our educational institutions". Upon returning from Tribshena January 21 recognizes that students are going to build in his honor by a torchlight procession; dissuade them of this intention. Joint plans with Wagner in connection with the forthcoming opening of the Bayreuth. February 29 letter from Liszt's enthusiastic about the "Birth of Tragedy". Musical Overture "Manfred Meditation". The first anonymous review of "Birth of Tragedy" in the magazine "Rivista Europea" (Florence). Farewell to Tribshenom. May 22 laying the cornerstone of the Bayreuth theater: one of the few "dedicated" Nietzsche and Rohde. Introducing Malvidoy von Meyzenbug, the closest friend of the family Wagner.
From May 24 over Basel. Themes summer seminar: Aeschylus, "Hoefory; Doplatonovskie philosophers. In late May, a pamphlet Y. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff "Philology of the future", as a response to an open letter to Wagner, Nietzsche in the "Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" of 23 June. Nietzsche, Wagner (June 24): "I escaped in great danger of his life - never get close to you and do not survive Tribshen and Bayreuth". Wagner, Nietzsche (June 25): "Speaking to the full extent, you, after my wife, the only prize that had fallen into my life". Sharp rebuke Rode Wilamowitz (brochure "Afterphilologie"). 20 July Nietzsche sends his "Manfred Meditation" Hans von Bö+low. Answer Billow: "You, . however, . themselves identified your music as "horrible" - that is what it is, . terrible, . What you think is the most, . though not socially harmful, . but worse: harmful for yourself, . smogshego not find a bad way to kill the excess leisure, . than in this fashion raping Evterpu ",
. Pejorative about this recall is partly offset by the message of Wagner's "very favorably" reaction to the music of Liszt, "Professor Nietzsche".
Boycott students-philologists of the winter semester on the theme "Greek and Roman Rhetoric". "I even learned that some students ... stayed in Bonn and in a burst of happiness written his relatives that he thanked God for what is not studying at the university where I teach, I (E. Rode in November). It reads in translation of Herzen M. von Meyzenbug. On Christmas Day "Five prefaces to the five unwritten books" - a gift of Cosimo Wagner's birthday.
Sharp and had recurring lifelong ill health. Alienation of Philology. From a letter to Richlya In. Fisher on February 2: "But our Nietzsche! - Yes, that's really really dark story, as, indeed, you yourself are - despite all the goodwill in this excellent man - noted in your letter. It's amazing how it reconciled two souls. On the one hand, . strict method of qualified scientific research .., . another, . this fantastically excessive, . sverhostroumno perekuvyrkivayuschiysya in incomprehensible Wagner-Schopenhauer art-mystery-religion-fanaticism! For scarcely an exaggeration to say, . that he and his - are entirely under its magical influence - soadepty, . Rohde and Romundt, . essentially reasoned found a new religion,
. God help you! Most friendly way, I did not conceal from him or in writing or orally of what is merely allude. Of course, everything in it, and rests, that we lack understanding, for me it is too dizzyingly high, for him, I too caterpillar crawling. Most angers me his contempt for his own mother that has raised it to his chest: to philology ".
March 6 - piano composition "Monodie a deux" (Monody together), written as a wedding gift to Gabriel Monod and Olga Herzen ('s foster daughter A. Herzen), with whom Nietzsche had made friends through M. von Meyzenbug. At Easter, along with Rhode trip to Bayreuth, where Nietzsche read in the evenings in the narrow family circle Wagner the manuscript of his unfinished works "Philosophy in the tragic era of the Greeks". Since mid-April - beginning work on the first of the "Untimely Meditations. April 24 - a new musical composition "Hymn to friendship". Topics of the summer term and the workshop: pre-Socratics, Greek elegiac poets (winter semester - Life and works of Plato), among students of the summer term, Paul Rae.
The dramatic deterioration of vision, until the very impossibility of writing. K. von Gersdorff writes under the dictation of Nietzsche's first "untimely" and an article about the truth and falsehood in vnemoralnom sense "and also leads his correspondence with Cosimo Wagner and M. von Meyzenbug. Shared reading: among other books "Fathers and Sons" by Turgenev.
August 8 - the release of the first "late". From a letter dated September 21, Wagner: "It was a wonderful shock - again see your hand! Yet, . looking at her, . I felt most often only concern, . do you like me now cause more trouble, . What joy, . - And it says a lot, . since no one in turn can not be happy about you so much, . I ..,
. As for you, then ... I foresee a time when I have to defend your title from you themselves. - I read it again and I swear by God that you believe only one who knows what I want! "Lively debate around the first" late "(9 reviews). October 22 Nietzsche wrote "Appeal to the Germans" in defense of Bayreuth case. The text of the appeal was rejected by the delegates of both unions in Wagner's too serious and written in a pessimistic tone. From a letter to Cosimo Wagner E. Rode on 28 November: "He was here on October 31, it kind of made us concern me, however, upset his mood ... Tell him, please, that we inquired about him and often recall his. His appeal was wonderful - the only true and beautiful word - but who dare to express it today?.. My father (F. Sheet. - K. C.) - I beg to inform him and it - wrote me that he read "Untimely Thoughts" with the greatest eagerness, and asked me to convey to the author on his behalf words of admiration and sympathy ".
Work on the second "untimely" and the completion of its year-end. 30 December in Leipzig, Nietzsche visiting family Richlya. Heated debates - in the end they were left with the fact that I arrogant and despise them ".
In February, the release of the second "late". Temporary improvement of health, accompanied, however, the growing depression (according to Jaspers, "the beginning psychoneurotic process caused by the break with Wagner). From a letter dated April 6, Wagner: "Among other things, I discovered that my life has never been a man's company, which fills in Basle your evening leisure ... But the young squire is clearly lacking in women: it is called, as once put my old friend Sulzer, where would borrow without stealing? While it would be on need and steal. I think you ought to marry, or compose an opera, then another, still in good whether or emaciated form, would have gone to you for future use. Give me the marriage ... Oh, My God! marry-ka you a rich woman! Why only Gersdorff must be a man! Then go on a journey full swing, and get a great experience ... and - tell stories to your opera, which will certainly be fulfilled shamelessly. - What the devil make you just a teacher! "
Topics of the summer term and the seminar: ancient rhetoric; Aeschylus, "Hoefory; Sappho (in winter - History of Greek literature, rhetoric Aristotle Sophocles," Oedipus Rex "). Work on the third "untimely". In early August trip to Bayreuth. Entry in the diary Cosimo Wagner on August 15: "Professor Nietzsche left, causing Richard many difficult hours. Among all, he argues that there is more joy in the German language, that would be more willing to say in Latin and t. e. ". In early October, the release of the third "late". Plans and sketches for the fourth (unwritten) "untimely": "We philologists". On Christmas visit to his mother and sister in Naumburg.
From a letter to M. von Meyzenbug of 2 January: "Yesterday the first day of the year I was with this trepidation looked to the future. How awful and how dangerous - to live: I envy someone who is dying to be honest ". In February, the deepest shock of solutions Romundta (a university colleague and friend) to become a Catholic priest. March 6 - Arrival in Basel Gersdorff, recording the dictation of Nietzsche's share of the anticipated fourth "untimely". In early April, an overview of the first three "untimely" in "The Westminster Review". The strongest attack of illness: "tridtsatichasovaya headache and frequent vomiting bile". However, the intense training (13 hours daily) for the next summer semester (on the history of Greek literature and "Rhetoric" of Aristotle). From a letter to E. Rode from June 7: "Delays For I have neither the time nor the energy ... Very bad to the stomach and eyes ". In the summer with her sister on a course of treatment in Baden-Baden. Letter from Karl Fuchs, . Danzig young musician: "You should know, . nobody, . even the Schopenhauer, . not have such an impact on me, . like you, I owe you half of my life, without you, I never would have oriented himself with a hideous frenzy "modernity" ", . which only Heaven knows, . who put an end to it ",
Topics winter semester: History of Greek Literature (conclusion); antiquarian objects of worship among the Greeks. Jacob Burckhardt on Nietzsche: "This teacher is no longer have bazeltsev". Introducing Peter Gastaut, who arrived in Basel from Leipzig to hear lectures Nietzsche. Reading "Psychological Observations" P. RE. Work on the fourth "untimely" ( "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth" in place of the alleged "We philologists"). By year end, a sharp deterioration in health.
In early January release of the disease from teaching in Pedagogiume (since February and the university). From a letter to E. Rode 18 February: "My headaches amplified from the lectures, I can neither read nor write". March 6 visit to Gersdorffs Lake Geneva. Understanding the Geneva conductor Hugo von Söãnger; Listening Berlioz, visit a home in Ferney Voltaire. April 11 proposes Matilda Trampedah (later the third wife of Mr.. von Zenger), with whom he had known only a few hours. In mid-April return to Basel. Invitation from M. von Meyzenbug to her and Albert Brenner (student and friend of Nietzsche) vacation on the Adriatic Sea, Basel Training Board provides Nietzsche annual leave from October 1876 to October 1877 Mr.. Themes summer semester: Doplatonovskie philosophers about the life and teachings of Plato (for a seminar: Hesiod). In early July the release of the fourth "untimely". Postcard Wagner: "A friend!" Your book is unbelievable! - How Only you have that experience of me? - Come soon and accustom themselves to the rehearsals to the impressions! " July 23 Nietzsche in Bayreuth. Sharp deterioration of health. "Escape" for a week (from 6 to 12 August) in Klingenbrunn. On August 12, giving her sister's entreaties, returned to Bayreuth and is present at the inaugural performance of "Das Rheingold". 27 August, E. Shyure and P. Rae returns to Basel. Begin work on aphorisms to "human, all too human".
In late October, depart Sorrento. Meeting with the P. and K. Wagner, resting in Sorrento. Nov. 6 news of the death Richlya. Nietzsche is deeply shocked. From a letter to Cosimo Wagner on December 19: "Almost every night I talk in my sleep with a long-forgotten man, above all with the same dead. Children and student years, fully alive in me ".
Life of four (with M. von Meyzenbug, P. RE and A. Brenner) in Sorrento at Villa Rubinachchi. Joint reading, including books: Voltaire, Diderot, Burckhardt, Ranke, Thucydides, Herodotus, Lope de Vega, Calderö¨n, Cervantes, Moreto, Michelet, Daudet, Ruffini, Turgenev, W. de Remusat, Renan, the New Testament, Herzen, Maynlender, Spiro. Work on the "human, all too human". Again the sharp deterioration. Various plans of marrying under the persuasion of doctors and relatives; M. von Meyzenbug taken to arrange it the most dignified manner. "I am here to convince Natalia Herzen ... But her 30 years, it would be better, whether it is 12 years younger. Actually, I quite suited her character and mind "(sister, 31 March). From mid-May until September at the treatment of Swiss resorts (Ragaz, Rozenlaumbad, Lucerne). Acquaintance and friendship with Otto Eyzerom, a doctor and vagneriantsem.
In early September Nietzsche back to Basel and from October to resume lectures. Subject winter semester: Religious antiquities of the Greeks (in the seminar: Aeschylus, "Hoefory). Request for extension of leave Pedagogiume satisfied until Easter 1878. Further rapprochement with P. RE.
January 3 Nietzsche receives from the text of Wagner's "Parsifal". "More Liszt than Wagner's, the spirit of the Counter-Reformation" (P. von Seidlitz, 4 January). Since early March hydrotherapy treatment in Baden-Baden. March 7 Nietzsche fully exempt from teaching load in Pedagogiume, but continues to university course. Themes summer semester: Hesiod, "Works and Days", Plato, "Apology of Socrates" (winter: Greek lyric; Introduction platonovedenie; Thucydides). In late April, the publication of "human, all too human". A letter from Wagner Cosimo Maria von Shleynits: "I have not read the book Nietzsche. Turning over a fugitive and a number of expressive phrases, I was quite enough to set it aside ad acta. In the author completed the process, the formation of which I watched for a long time, struggling with him to the best of their small force. Many things contributed to the occurrence of this sad book! In the end came near, and yet Israel is in the form of a certain Dr. Rais, . very smooth, . very cold, . seemingly, . quite enthusiastic and enslaved Nietzsche, . In reality, outwitting his, . - Miniature connection with Germany, the Jews ... "In the August issue of" Bayreuth sheets "paper of Wagner's audience and popularity", . containing (though, . without mentioning the name) sharp attacks on Nietzsche,
. Yesterday read a vicious, almost vindictive Pages Wagner, directed against me. God, what a clumsy polemics "(publisher Shmeytsneru, 3 September). Autumn the sharp deterioration of health, work by fits and starts over the "mixed views and expressions".
From the beginning, almost daily bouts of illness, accompanied by continuous vomiting. In mid-March release of the "Mixed views and sayings". A brief and unsuccessful treatment in Geneva. "My condition - the threshold of hell and no different from the state istyazuemogo animal" (Paul Rae, 23 April). "Seizures of attacks ... Until now, no opportunity to lecture. Schiess yesterday again found a significant weakening of view "(mother and sister, 25 April). For Easter sold only 120 copies of "human, all too human". 2 May turns to regirungs-president of Basel with the resignation on health. Request approved on June 14 with the appointment of an annual pension of 3000 francs. Farewell to the Basel and started wandering life. In late June, the first visit to the Upper Engadine (Sils-Maria): "I think if I found myself in the Promised Land" (sister, 24 June). Summer route; lock Bremgarten near Berne, Zurich, Wiesen in Davos, St. Moritz. From 20 September until the end of the year in Naumburg. Work on the stranger and his shadow ". Terms reading: Lermontov, Macauley, Moser, Pestalozzi, Gogol, Bret Harte, Mark Twain, Edgar Allan Poe. By late October, rumors of the death of Nietzsche. From the letter M. von Meyzenbug P. von Seydlitz from October 30: "Is it true I have received third-hand news of the death of Nietzsche?" I was deeply saddened, and yet, if it's true, I'm glad his deliverance: for he could not cure his condition was flour. It's a pity only that he died from this book ".
In December, the release of the "wanderer and his shadow". The sharp deterioration of health: "My condition inspires fear and anxiety, as never before. I do not know how I managed to survive the last 4 weeks "(Mary Baumgartner, 28 December). "The state was terrible, the last attack was accompanied by three days of vomiting, yesterday - suspiciously long swoon" (Overbeck, 28 December). "In me is a heavy-burden. Over the past year I have been 118 serious attacks "(sister, 29 December).
February 10 Nietzsche leaves Naumburg in Riva del Garda, where he met with P. Gastaut. In mid-March off with Gastaut in Venice. Life flows very arranged, perhaps I'll stay here for the summer. Kezelits (Peter Gast. - K. S.) reads aloud to me, it comes in the third quarter and in the evening at half past seven, each time one to one and a half hours "(mother and sister, 2 April). Terms of reading: "Indian Summer" A. Stifter, G. Spencer, D. Article. Mill; theological books, among them - "Christianity" F. Overbeck, "Anthropology of Paul 'G. Lyudemana and Christianity Justin Martyr "M. von Engelhardt.
In early July, sent in Marienbad. "Probably, since Goethe was not here yet this strain of thought, and even Goethe did not have to think about such fundamental things - I am far surpassed himself" (P. Gast, 20 August). Read Merimee, Sainte-Beuve, Stendhal, Pascal, Emerson. In early September again in Naumburg. October 8 via Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Basel, Locarno is sent to a place in Stresa Laga Madge slope, where in mid-November, leaving for Genoa. Work on "Morning Dawn". "Now all my writing is aimed at to achieve the ideal attic of loneliness, in which all the necessary and simple requirements of my nature, nurtured in me a lot of suffering, will get their rights" (Overbeck, in November).
January 25 manuscript "Dawn" is sent to P. Gastaut with a request to rewrite it without corrections. The letter Gastaut Y. Gunenbauer: "Just try, dear Cecilia, one week to rewrite the book in more than 200 pages, in addition to almost obscure the manuscript is almost blind man, and tell me if I tortured you headaches or not". In his book "to navigate the Bismarck era" Bruno Bauer calls Nietzsche "the German Montaigne, Pascal and Diderot". Nietzsche's remark: "How little accuracy in this praise, therefore: how little praise!" In late April, leaving Genoa and sent to P. Gastaut in place Recoaro near Venice. Work on proof-reading "Dawn".
July 4 - the first stop in Sils-Maria. "I do not know anything more consonant with my nature than this piece of higher ground" (Overbeck, 23 July). Reads sent Overbeck Volume Kuno Fischer on Spinoza. "I am amazed, shocked!" I have the predecessor - and how! " (Overbeck, 30 July). Enhanced natural science courses. The first outline of the idea of "eternal recurrence". Since the beginning of autumn again a sharp deterioration in health. "Sum in puncto desperationis. Dolor vincit vitam voluntatemque "(He reached the point of despair. Pain wins will to live. Overbeck, 18 September). From October 1, again in Genoa, where in November for the first time listening to Bizet's Carmen. "Hurray! Friend! Newly learned something good: opera Francois (? - K. S.), Bizet (who is this?) Carmen (Gastaut, 5 December). Since mid-December started work on a sequel to the Dawn "(future" Gay Science ").
Some improvement. P. RE visited Nietzsche in Genoa in February. March 29 Nietzsche departs on a merchant ship sailing from Genoa to Messina, where he remained until April 20. After that, at the invitation of M. von Meyzenbug and P. Rae arrives in Rome, where he met with Lou von Salome, the daughter of St. Petersburg General and admirer of Nietzsche books. "Lou - daughter of a Russian general, and her 20 years, she sighted as the eagle, and brave as a lion, and for all that, however, too little girl and the child who must have been not destined to live a long time" (Gast, 13 July). - (Lou Andreas-Salome died at the age of 76.) Nietzsche and Rae, in love with Lou, the three of us decide to study science; Lu refusal to the proposal of Nietzsche to marry him. Travels with Rae, Lou von Salome and her mother in Horta. From 8 to 13 May visits Overbeck in Basel. May 13 again with Lou and Rae in Lucerne (preserved overall picture). New (again reject) the proposal of marriage Lou. Visit Tribshena. From May 18 in Naumburg. Writes poetry cycle "Idylls of Messina, and finalizes the" Gay Science ". From 25 June to 27 August in Tautenburge. Understanding Lou von Salome with Elisabeth Nietzsche, sister to the horror of "completely immoral" friend's brother, in which she saw a "personal philosophy" of his brother. From this moment begins the painful weaving intrigues to discredit in the eyes of Lou's brother: it is de-linked from the RE, it is de Nietzsche mocks and exposes him to ridicule and t. d. - An effective maximum of these intrigues will soon impact on Nietzsche's frightening and serious way: up to suicidal thoughts and a direct break with Lou and Rae (though, . also a temporary break with her sister and mother), in any case their is enough, . to completely distort an already complex relationship of the philosopher with his "personalized" (a dubious Freudian female characters) philosophy,
. That will look like this relationship in the assessment of retrospective Lu 1913. "Since people are always cruel and masochists, the whole is associated with certain types of bisexuality. And that is hidden deep meaning. First, with whom I discussed the topic of life, was Nietzsche (this flagellant for itself). And I know that after that we did not dare longer see each other "(Lou Andreas-Salome. In der Schule bei Freud. Zurich, 1958. S. 155 f.).
In late August release of the "Gay Science". Ten-stop in Naumburg, musical composition "Hymn to Life" in the words of the poem Lou von Salome. A letter from the mother, where she was concerned about the possible marriage of his son to "indecent lady," calls it "a disgrace the tomb of his father". From September 7 to November 15 in Leipzig. The last meeting with Lu and RE. End of the year in Rapallo. The gap in writing relationship with his mother and sister. Sharp deterioration of health. "This last piece of life was the most callous of all, which so far I had to chew, and still not be ruled out that I suppressed them. Offensive and painful memories of that summer haunted me as nonsense ... These unbearable discord opposite affects, to which I have not yet matured ... If I can not access the focus of the alchemist to turn, and this dirt to gold, then I end ... "(Overbeck, on Christmas Day).
Part 1 "Thus Spake Zarathustra". "This winter was bad in my life ... This winter, like this, I will not survive another "(Gastaut, dated 19 February and 24 March). Feb. 13 death of Richard Wagner in Venice. From a letter to M. von Meyzenbug of February 21: "he lived longer, the thing just would not have arisen among us! my bow strung terrible arrows, and Wagner, belonged to the breed of people who can kill the word". From 23 February to 3 May in Genoa. Reconciliation with his mother and sister. May 4 is sent to Rome, where he remained until 16 June. From 18 June and until September in Sils-Maria. Part 2 "Thus Spake Zarathustra". Sept. 5 departure to Naumburg for five agonizing weeks. Engagement Elisabeth Nietzsche with Dr. Bernhard Foerster, the school teacher, vagneriantsem and anti-Semite. In early October, passing through Basel sent to Genoa. Again the sharp deterioration. In November, a week-long stop in Villafranca and move to Nice, where he now will spend the winter.
In January, W-Part "Thus Spake Zarathustra". A new break in relations with sister. "Cursed antisemitstvo ... caused the collapse of the radical between me and my sister "(Overbeck, 2 April). From April 21 to June 12 staying in Venice for P. Gastaut. Enthusiastic plays Gastaut comic opera "The Venetian Lion. In mid-June - Basel, then July 15 third visit to Sils-Maria, where he now will spend the summer. In late August visit of Heinrich von Stein, "though still too vagnetizirovannogo, thanks for the skills of sound received from Duhring, quite prepared me" (Overbeck, 14 September). September 26 is sent to Zurich, where he again put up with my sister. Getting Started with Gottfried KöThler. Numerous poetic samples. "My head is full of playful songs ever run through my head lyrics" (Gastaut, 30 September). The news of the death of Charles hillebrandite - "the only one who still did something to my fame" (mother and sister, 30 October). Oct. 31 leaves Zurich in the direction of Menton, where he remained until December. From the first days of December to early April next year, again in Nice.
"His eyes got worse and worse ... Eternal seizures, vomiting for vomiting, but now, each time coming to the dinner table, I do not know whether or not I have. The weakness of the stomach again screaming way manifested itself, and everything was arranged at the hostel is not the best way ... "(mother and sister, the beginning of January). Completion of 4-th part of "Thus Spake Zarathustra".
From 10 April to 6 June in Venice with P. Gastaut. From the memoirs of Gastaut: "Nietzsche wrote to Forster, that I (Gast), after he completed the IV Zarathustra, and enrolled him in Venice to live with whores!" - Nietzsche was able to avenge himself to someone so distort the truth with the words. In fact, everything was different: he asked me to find him an apartment - "give all the cases, if he is not satisfied with this, then I'll do it myself and t. e. ". After this treatment, I, . sure, . not particularly zealous in the search, . given to the same old experience of my communication with Nietzsche, I, . therefore, . not found anything suitable - and my former efforts on the part of bumping into an impressive critique of Nietzsche (he found it excellent, . that seemed to me miserable, . and found fault to, . I thought that is not so bad, . - Shorter, . we could expect anything, . any illusion, . as in all of Nietzsche: "Well right Don Quixote, . pneumatic interpretation),
. When he arrived, I told him that, unfortunately, not found a nothing to him, and offered him a temporary stay at the Casa Fumagalli ... The bed and the room appeared neat, the hostess, a middle-aged under 30, serious and decent. But it's the illusion concealed. Several days later, Nietzsche came to me and said: "My friend Gast, in my opinion, I live with whores!" It takes officers. Damn, . celebrate the completion of Zarathustra stay with putana veneziana, . This is pure nonsense! "In the presence of Nietzsche, . whose venerable impressed by the seriousness of her, . she, . naturally, . played at being a respectable lady, but, . I found out later side, . was, in fact, a courtesan,
. - It was then, vexed at what I did not take care of the apartment, and Nietzsche wrote home, I rubbed it in itself '.
From 7 June to mid-September, the fourth stop in Sils-Maria. Plans for recycling "human, all too human" and writing a new "untimely meditations" about Wagner. Since mid-September to late October - Naumburg, Leipzig. Introducing in-law, B. Foerster. Say goodbye to her sister, her husband being prepared to leave for Paraguay. In early November, passing through Munich and Florence, then the third stop for the winter in Nice (until the end of April next year). Work on "Beyond Good and Evil".
In May and June - Venice, Naumburg, Leipzig. Vain negotiations with publishers on the publication of "Beyond Good and Evil" and forced the decision to publish the book at his own expense. Meeting with E. Rode. From a letter to Rhode Overbeck: "... an indescribable atmosphere of alienation, something struck me as sinister, shrouded his. It was something, which I did not know him before, and lacked a lot that first set him apart. As if he came from a country where no one has ever lived ... "
Since the beginning of July (before the end of September), the fifth stop in Sils-Maria. The publication of "Beyond Good and Evil". New editions of "Birth of Tragedy" (from "The experience of self-criticism") and two volumes of "Human, All Too Human" (with new preface). Review and. V. Widmann on "Beyond Good and Evil" in Berne "Bund". September 25 through the move to the village Gothard Ruta Ligure in Genoa. Letter from I. Burckhardt, in response to sending the "Beyond Good and Evil". "The letter I. Burckhardt, which came just now, saddened me, despite the fact that it is replete with the highest praise to my address. But what I now until then! I would like to hear: "That's my trouble! This deprived me of speech!" (Overbeck, 12 October). Preparation of new editions of "Dawn" and "Joyous Science".
On October 22 again in Nice (until April next year). Work on the fifth book, "Gay Science". "Great letter" from the AND. Taine, who sent Nietzsche "Beyond Good and Evil". Read Renan, Siebel, Montalembert. Opening Dostoevsky.
In January, in Monte Carlo for the first time listening to the overture to "Parsifal": "... I wrote to Wagner ever better" (Gastaut, 21 January). February 23 a strong earthquake in the Riviera: "My dear friend, must have worried you news about our earthquake, I am writing you a few lines to inform you, at least, what about me. The whole town is crowded with shocked nerves, hotels panic simply monstrous. That night, around 2 - 3 hours, I walked around and visited some of his good friends, who, under the open sky, on benches and in the cab, hoping to avoid the danger. I myself feel good: there was no fear - rather a lot of irony "(Gastaut, 24 February). April 3 leaves from Nice to Cannobio (Lago Maggiore), where it remains until the end of the month. Work on proof-reading the fifth book "The Gay Science". On April 28 in Zurich. Visiting Overbeck. Quarrel with E. Rode; reason are disrespectful remarks about the Rode Tene.
From June 12 (until the end of September), the sixth stop in Sils-Maria. Shocked to learn of the death of Mr.. Von Stein. Work on the "Genealogy of Morals. Visiting after a 14-year hiatus, P. Deiss in Sils-Maria. From September 21 to October 21 - Venice, for review with P. Gastaut proofing "Genealogy of Morals. In October, the release of the scores of "Hymn to Life". "Sometime in the near or distant future, he will sing in my memory, in memory of the philosopher, who was not present and who did not want to have it" (T. von Bulow, 22 October).
Since the end of October (until April next year) the last, the fifth stop in Nice. From a letter to F. Overbeck dated 12 November: "I think that for me to shut up some kind of era, a reverse lookup would be more appropriate as. Decade of the disease, more than a decade, and not just a disease, from which there would be doctors and medicines. Does, in fact, anyone that made me sick? that for years kept me near death in the thirst for death? I do not think. Excluding P. Wagner, then nobody was going to meet me in thousandths of passion and suffering, to find me a "common language" so I was already a child, I now have one in their 44 ï¨ï+ï¦ï¦. It is a terrible decade for the rest of me, gave me plenty of taste, which signify the extent to be lonely, lonely: what it means to suffer loneliness, which is devoid of any means of least resistance, at least to "protect" themselves ". Terms reading: Montaigne, Galiani Letters to Mme d'Epinay, Diary Goncourt. The release of "Genealogy of Morals.
November 26 receives the first letter from Mr.. Brandes, marked the beginning of their correspondence. Brandes: "You belong to a few people with whom I want to say". From a letter to K. Fuchs, 14 December: "In Germany, strongly complained about my" eccentric ". But since they do not know where is my center, barely able to recognize the truth, where and when I was still "eccentric".
Throughout the winter working on material for "revaluation of all values". Terms of reading: Plutarch, the posthumous works of Baudelaire, "The Possessed" Dostoevsky in a French translation of Victor Dereli, "My Religion" L. Tolstoy, "Prolegomena to the history of Israel" and. Velgauzena, E. Renan, The Life of Jesus ", B. Constant "Some Reflections on German Theater. In his New Year's application and the Berne "Bund" appears signed to. Spitteler review essay Nietzsche. G. Brandes began to read at Copenhagen University lectures on the philosophy of Nietzsche.
In early April, departure to Turin - Turin's opening. "But Turin!.. What a worthy and important city! It's not a big city, not modern, as I feared, but the residence of the XVII century, having all but one commanding taste: court and noblesse. Throughout the reigns aristocratic calm, no squalid suburbs, the unity of taste until the color (the city all yellow or red-brown). The classic place for the feet and eyes! "(Gastaut, 7 April). During his stay in Turin (from 5 April to 5 June), Nietzsche wrote "Case of Wagner" and continues to work on materials "reassessment". Books read during this period:. Hen "Thoughts of Goethe and L. Jacolliot "Religious legislators. Manu - Moses - Mohammed ". On June 6 (before 20 September), the seventh - the last stop in Sils-Maria. "After I left Turin, I was in a deplorable condition. Eternal headache, vomiting eternal; relapse of all the old sores; profound nervous exhaustion, in which the machine in general is worthless "(Overbeck, 4 July). Work on "Dionysus dithyramb". Since the end of August (and before the end) the extraordinary explosion of euphoria: wrote "Twilight of the Idols" and almost parallel to the "Antichrist". From September 21 to again in Turin, at the same address: via Carlo-Alberto 6 III opposite the palazzo Carignano and overlooking the piazza Carlo-Alberto. The release of "Case of Wagner". Edit (using Gastaut) proofing "Twilight of idols" and "Antichrist".
October 15 (his birthday) begins work on "Ecce Homo" and completing a manuscript on Nov. 4. From a letter to Mr.. Brandes 20 November: "Now, with the cynicism, which will become a world-historical, I tell myself. The book is entitled "Ecce Homo" and a brusque attempt to crucify him, she ends the thunder and lightning against all that is Christian or Christian-contagious - do not stand no hearing and no vision. In the end I was the first psychologist of Christianity and I, as an old artilleryman, what I am, to resort to heavy weapons, whose existence was hardly suspected of any enemy of Christianity ". The severance of relations with the G. Von Buelow (because of the negative attitude of the latter to the recommended Nietzsche's Opera P. Gastaut "Venetian lion") and M. von Meyzenbug (indignant tone Turin letters of Wagner). October 25 in "Musical weekly, published by E. V. Fritzsche, publisher of Nietzsche, an article vagneriantsa Richard Fields Case of Nietzsche, containing malicious attacks on Nietzsche. From a letter to E. V. Fritzsche 18 November: "You are marked with an affable familiar issue of creation of the first man of all centuries. The fact that you were able to afford such an old blockhead, like Paul, to talk about me, belongs to things that are possible only in Germany ... Publisher "Zarathustra" up in arms against me? - With sincere contempt. Nietzsche ".
The release of "Twilight of idols". Sending two copies I. Burkhardt and A. Strindberg (the latter had already read "Case of Wagner", sent to him by Mr.. Brandes). In early December, the first letter from Strindberg: "Je termine toutes mes lettres a mes amis: lisez Nietzsche! C'est mon Carthago est delenda!" (I finish all the letters to my friends words: read Nietzsche, this is my Carthage must be destroyed!). Another letter, . from St. Petersburg from Princess Anne Tenisheva in connection with the "Case of Wagner": "Although I, . unfortunately, . had no more reason to know you personally, . I however have an impressive view of the depth of your thoughts and your whole personality, . mainly due to lectures, . who read about you, Georg Brandes ",
. Nietzsche Gastaut, 9 December, in this regard: "... almost a declaration of love, in any case very curious letter"
. In the same letter Gast: "Are you aware of already, . that for my international movement I need throughout the Jewish big business? "It's about preparing the simultaneous publication of" Antichrist "in seven European languages with a circulation of seven million copies,
. Work on "Nietzsche contra Wagner:" It is essentially a characteristic of the antipodes, where I use a series of excerpts from my old books and give a very serious manner equivalent to the 'Case of Wagner "(Gast, 16 December).
December 29 letter from Strindberg with gratitude for "grandiosissime" "Genealogy of Morals. The first clear signs of mental disorders: outline of a letter to P. Gastaut December 30, Nietzsche appears as "princeps Tourinorum" (monarch of Turin), . possession of the French throne (for "Victor Bonaparte), . Ambassador Jean Burdo (editor of "Journal des Debats") in his own yard, . addressing the question of Alsace-Lorraine and t,
. d. Here an appeal to the European states: "I wrote in a burst of heroic Aristophanes arrogance proclamation to the European courts with the proposal to destroy the house of Hohenzollern, was a nest of crimson idiots and criminals".
January 1. Dedication "Dionysus dithyrambs" French poet Katyulyu MöLndez: "Wishing to give to mankind the boundless beneficence, I give him my praises. I bring them into the hands of Izolina poet, the greatest and the first satire of today - and not just now - living ... Signed: Dionis.
January 2. Refusal of the publication "Nietzsche contra Wagner:" Events in full ahead of this little essay ". According to the stories Turin familiar Beggars in recent days he had, as usual, made his solitary walks, frequently visited the library where I read new books to buy that he lacked the funds to buy fruit. Its owner, David Fino, reported hours of piano improvisations of his lodger in the evenings.
January 3. Cerebral apoplexy in the street and the final darkening. Newsletter crazy postcards to January 7. Jan. 5 letter to the great I. Burckhardt, are apprehensive of the latter, that he had to share this anxiety with F. Overbeck. Overbeck, and he received a similar letter on January 7, consults with the Basel psychiatrist L. Willie and the same evening left for Turin. January 9 with a German dentist Miescher, who lives in Turin, he removes Nietzsche in Basel. January 10 the patient is placed in a psychiatric clinic. Jan. 13 arrival of the mother in Basel. Diagnosis Willie: "Paralysis progressiva". This diagnosis, to confirm that will be invented by the hypothesis of syphilitic infection, subsequently exposed to refutation by the large number of psychiatrists. Dr. K. Hildebrandt: "There is no trace of evidence that Nietzsche in 1866, became infected with syphilis". Dr G. Emanyuel: "At the current state of clinical psychiatry we know the data from the medical history of Nietzsche is insufficient to make a positive conclusion to a diagnosis of paralysis progressiva". Dr. O. Binswanger: "The data history on the origin of disease by Friedrich Nietzsche, is so incomplete and fragmentary ... that final judgments about the etiology of his illness is not possible ". January 17 mother with two accompanying drove the sick son to the psychiatric clinic of the University of Jena. From the entries in the history of the disease: "February 20. Forgot beginning of his latest book. February 23. "The last time I was Friedrich-Wilhelm IV". February 28. Smiling, asks the doctor: "Give me a little bit of health". March 27. "This is my wife, Cosimo Wagner, who brought me here". April 27. Frequent tantrums. May 18. Quite often emits inarticulate cries. June 14. Accepts the gatekeeper for the Bismarck. July 4. Splits a glass, "to barricade the entrance to the room, broken glass". July 9. Jumps in goat, grimacing and prominence to the left shoulder. September 4. Very clearly perceives what is happening around. From time to time a clear understanding of their disease. September 7. Almost always sleeps on the floor beside the bed ".
In early June, entangled in economic affairs, B. Foerster commits suicide in San Bernardino (Paraguay). Autumn adventurous undertaking SW. Langbehn "cure" the patient.
January 21 visit to P. Gastaut. From a letter to Gast K. Fuchs, February 1: "Today, my dear friend, I am strongly confirmed in his belief that soon we will gain back our Nietzsche. Today and yesterday his condition was excellent. Yesterday I visited the top floor, among the heaps of crazy that usually Nietzsche (in truth, the entrance is strictly forbidden), from there we went down to the music room. I wanted to sit at the piano and gave Nietzsche bundle with six pancakes, which brought him every day, but he told me: "No, my dear friend, I do not want my fingers were sticky, first I want to play a little". Then he sat down at the piano and began to improvise. O, . if you heard it! Not one false note! Wreath sounds tristanovskoy sophistication! Pianissimi, . then choruses and fanfares, . Beethoven anger and triumphant singing, . again tenderness, . daydreaming - indescribable! What a pity, . that I have not had a phonograph! All this made a huge impact on his brain, . He looked transformed! Wonderful! Today he read a few pages of the book, . sent to me Naumann, . - It is often cited Nietzsche, and this is a strange way enlightened him ",
. A letter from mother-to-F. Overbeck dated 22 March: "I think that his mind enlightened by the week. So, a few days ago, he sat at the piano, as it always does, as usual, after dinner, and played a tune, I'm very like it, but unfamiliar. By the evening I asked him what it was for the melody, he replied: "Opus 31 by Beethoven, in three parts". His play on the piano just makes sense, it seems that he thinks at the same time ... "May 13, hoping for a speedy recovery, the patient's mother carries her son to her in Naumburg at home care (a receipt). In the autumn arrival of sisters from Paraguay.
The first intervention E. FöTrster-Nietzsche edition of the works of Nietzsche: it prevents the publication of the 4-th part of "Zarathustra" (mainly because of the "feast of the ass").
With the consent of the mother and after negotiations with publishers to. G. Naumann P. Gast is preparing the first complete works of Nietzsche, and selected excerpts from the heritage. June 2 departure E. FöTrster-Nietzsche in Paraguay.
The final return of the sisters to Germany. Conflict with P. Gus, that in connection with the issuance, suspension of.
Sharp deterioration of. In February, the base Nietzsche Archive. Suspension P. Gastaut from cooperation. Contract sisters with F. Kegel and the beginning of the second edition of collected works.
In the spring during a brief absence of the mother artist Kurt Steving ago at the request of her sister a few portraits of the seriously ill Nietzsche; portraits were exhibited in Leipzig and Berlin. A letter from mother-to-F. Overbeck dated 28 March: "Who knows, should not you both the best friend (Overbeck and Gast. - K. S.), my son, stand up and his mother ". The publication of "Antichrist" and "Nietzsche contra Wagner". Sister can draw custody and to acquire ownership of the works and legacy of his brother.
In August the archive moved to Weimar.
April 20 - his mother's death. Shortly before his sister is carrying a patient Nietzsche in Weimar.
Death of Erwin Rode. "When I told him about it, he vyshepnul after a long pause:" Ah, Rode "- and a tear rolled down his cheek". Repeated apoplexy.
P. Gast, reconciled with E. FöTrster-Nietzsche, begins the third edition of the complete works of Nietzsche. New apoplexy.
August 25 at noon: the death of Friedrich Nietzsche.