Tjalling C. Koopmans (Koopmans)( The American economist)
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Biography Tjalling C. Koopmans (Koopmans)
August 28, 1910, Mr.. - 26 February 1985.
Memory of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1975
together with Leonid Kantorovich
American economist Tjalling Charles Koopmans was born in Greyvlende, Netherlands. He was the third son in a family Serda Koopmans and Viytske nee van der Zee. His parents, school teachers, a great emphasis on the education of their children. In the 14 years to. received a scholarship that enabled him from 1927 to 1933. study at Utrecht University. Initially, he devoted himself to mathematics and theoretical physics and in 1934. published a paper on quantum mechanics, but an increasing dissatisfaction with the abstract nature of his research has led to what he found another area in which, as he said later, the object of study was 'closer to real life'. His interests moved into the area economy, after the resulting Great Depression began in 1929, he was convinced that "world economic order is unreliable, unstable and - most importantly - do not obey the laws'. Around this time he formed friendships with some students, socialists, and he began his acquaintance with economies shtudirovaniem 'Capital' of Karl Marx.
In 1933, to take up the application of mathematical methods in economics, to. finally found a way to show their mathematical education in the new field. The following year he went to the University of Amsterdam to study at the Netherlands' leading mathematician and an economist Jan Tinbergen, . under whose guidance he studied the work of leading theorists of general equilibrium, . such, . as Gustav Cassel and Knut Viksell,
. In 1935. K. spent 4 months in Oslo, working with the famous mathematician, economist and econometrics Ragnar Frisch. He received his doctoral degree at Leiden University in 1936. for his thesis 'Linear regression analysis of economic time series' ( "Linear Regression Analysis of Economic Time-Series").
Since 1936 po1938g. K. worked in the School of Economics in Rotterdam as a teacher. In 1938. He replaces Tinbergen at the League of Nations and works on a model of the economic cycle for the UK. K. was in Geneva for as long as in 1940. Germany had not occupied the southern departments of France, after which he moved to the United States. During the next two years, he is conducting research at Princeton University, and then performs, in his words, 'a modest role' statistics in the British merchant navy mission in Washington (DC). It is this work - integration into a single comprehensive scheme of information about casualties, new construction and use of allied warships - has allowed him to make the most significant contribution to the field of economic analysis.
In the mission's merchant fleet to. tried as a route fleets of the Allies, to minimize the cost of delivery of goods. The task was extremely complex: thousands of merchant ships carried millions of tons of cargo by sea routes between the hundreds of ports scattered around the world. This work provided an opportunity to. apply their mathematical knowledge to solving fundamental economic problems - the optimal allocation of scarce resources among competing users.
To. developed an analytical technique called analysis of activities, which strongly changed the way economists and policy makers to the distribution of routes. He first described this technique in 1942, . calling it 'The relationship between loads on different routes' ( "Exchange Ratios Between Cargoes on Various Routes"), . which showed the possibility of approach to the problem of distribution as a mathematical problem of maximizing within constraints,
. The quantity to be maximizing - is the cost of the delivered load, equal to the sum of the value of goods delivered to each of the ports. Restrictions were represented by the equations, . expressing the ratio of the amount spent by the factors of production (eg, . Courts, . time, . labor) to the amount of cargo, . delivered to various destinations, . where the value of any of the costs should not exceed the amount available to the,
When working on the problem of maximizing K. developed mathematical equations, which are widely used in economic theory and in practice management. These equations were determined for each of the cost of production rate, equal to the cost of such expenses in a perfect competitive markets. Thus was established the fundamental relationship between the theories of the efficiency of production and distribution theory in competitive markets. In addition, the equation K. of great value for the central planners, . who could use these equations to determine the appropriate prices for the various costs, . leaving the choice of optimal routes at the discretion of local directors, . duty which was to maximize profits,
. The method of analysis could be widely used any of the leaders in the planning of production processes. For example, vehicle manufacturers could use it for planning assembly lines, and for the development of transport routes for trucks.
In 1944, Mr.. K. mission reserves the Merchant Navy and became member of the Commission Coles of Economic Research, which at that time was part of the University of Chicago. In 1946, Mr.. he became a U.S. citizen and remained in Chicago for almost 10 years. When the Commission Coles relocated to Yale University, K. followed her, in 1955. He won there as a professor of economics.
In the postwar period to. improves the method of analysis as a tool of economic planning, . publishing research results in the two-volume collection - 'The statistical conclusion on the dynamic models of the economy' ( "Statistical Inference in Dynamic Economic Models", . 1950) and 'Analysis of the production and distribution' ( "Activity Analysis of Production and Allocation", . 1951), . numerous articles, . as well as in the 'Three Essays on the status of economic science' ( "Three Essays on the State of Economic Science", . 1957),
In the 60-and 70-ies. K. makes a significant contribution to the study of problems of economic growth: it considers the distribution of economic resources over time, . from current consumption to the creation of capital in the form of machinery equipment and facilities for the production of consumer goods in the future,
. As a pioneer in the field of software development, he showed the importance of the discount rate (the percentage by which society values the present value of future consumption) for the planning of economic growth of society.
Memory of the Nobel Prize for 1975. in economics was awarded to. together with Leonid Kantorovich 'for his contribution to the theory of optimum allocation of resources'. In political terms, the work to. basically neutral, so his theory is applicable regardless of the political and social fabric of society. Thus, Ragnar Benttsel, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said in his speech at the presentation ceremony that the 'fundamental economic problems are the same in all societies'. The coincidence of development analysis of K. and Kantorovich, . one of whom worked in the United States of America, . the other - in the Soviet Union, . mentioned as evidence, . that this kind of problem 'can be studied in purely scientific terms, . regardless of the political organization of society, . in which they investigated ',
After receiving the Nobel Prize to. continued his research and teaching activities and. He had never throughout his life sought to be in the spotlight, always remained a modest, but meticulous scientist. In 1978. He became president of the American Economic Association, only yielding to pressure from its members and paying tribute to his close friend Jacob Marshak, who died shortly before it was supposed to take this place. In 1981. K. became an honorary professor at Yale University.
In 1936, Mr.. K. married Truus Vanningen, schoolmates from Amsterdam, where he helped in mathematics. They had two daughters and a son. An avid music lover, he occasionally wrote pieces of music, mainly for voice. Umer K. February 26, 1985, Mr.. New Haven.
To. was a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the American Mathematical Society. Institute of Management. Society for Mathematical Programming. American Association for the Advancement of Science, International Association of Economists in the field of Energy and the American Economic Association. He was awarded honorary degrees by the Netherlands School of Economics, Louvain Catholic, Northwestern and the University of Pennsylvania.