RICARDO, David (Ricardo, David)( The Economist)
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Biography RICARDO, David (Ricardo, David)
David Ricardo, as a man and thinker
"In 1818, Mr.. Edinburgh is one of my friends sent me a book by Ricardo. My prophetic premonition has come true. Reformer in the field of political economy, which I was waiting for finally arrived. And as soon as I managed to finish the first chapter, as I said: You're the one that I'm looking for. And the more I read this book, the more excited she surprised me ... Is this profound work was written in the midst of the noisy bustle of the XIX century? Can, . to an Englishman - not hiding from the light in some academic sanctuary, . and absorbed by commercial and political affairs - has made it, . they could not do all European universities, . what a century of thought had no time to move forward either one iota? His predecessors were shot down and crushed by an enormous burden facts, . details and exceptions,
. And Ricardo a priori from his mind, led by deduction laws, which first threw a shaft of light in a dark pile of material, and transformed, thus, a collection of attempts and experiments in the science of thought of correct relations based on a perpetual basis ".
It conveys his impressions of De Quincey, after - the most brilliant popularizer of Ricardo, and one of the most talented of his students. No less than impressed "Principles of Political Economy" and other contemporaries of Ricardo, as well as De Quincey, waited, and when, finally, appears in the political economy of the new "apostle of science".
Speculator, a self-taught, has not received either the classical or mainstream education, hardly coping with the difficulties of literary presentation, immediately becomes the largest authority in the field of political economy. "The real founder of abstract political economy, - wrote Bedzhgot - is Ricardo. Yet at first glance, hardly anyone was less able to play this part ". And the English economist - himself a former banker - explains this puzzle so, . that "industry of, . which Ricardo has spent his life in which he made such great strides, . represents the most abstract of all industries "[Bagehot, . W., . Economic Studies, . London 1880, . with,
. 151.]. "Playing on the stock exchange - repeat after him Russian economist Tugan-Baranovsky, - is the most abstract economic activity, which you can imagine." [Tugan-Baranovsky. Sketches from the recent history of political economy and socialism. Spb. 1905, p. 69. Bulgakov, in spite of his idealism, expressed this idea even more materialistic: "his habit of abstraction and mathematical imagination" Ricardo "developed in the banking activities of its". History economical. scholar. ", Moscow 1918, p. 126.]
English economist finds yet another explanation - racial. Ricardo was a Jew. The Works of Ricardo represent unicum throughout the literature known to me as documentary evidence of those special abilities, by which the Jews over the centuries became rich ". Leslie Stephen, the eminent historian of the English thought the XVIII century and the British utilitarianism, agrees. "Ricardo, as rightly noticed his critics, was a Jew and financier. And the Jews, despite all the assurances of Shylock, and in particular the Jewish financiers, devoid of human feelings. If you cut them, they expire only bank notes. They adapted to the fact that to be capitalists, who look at wages as one of the figures in the overall balance, and on the job, as one of the implements used in the production of. But - he adds - Ricardo was not only money and even less a businessman walking treatise
. Representatives of the German ethical and national-historical school, . Crushed by a pile of "facts, . details and exceptions, and completely incapable of abstract thought, . just looking for consolation in the consciousness, . that the most important representatives of the abstract-deductive method in political economy - the Jews,
. They special udovolstviemi repeated this explanation of racial and found it the riddle, as expressed Gel'd, "cynical materialism" Ricardo with his "truly cynical views on the state and society". Closer acquaintance with the life and personality Ricardo shows us how self-satisfied ignorance hiding behind these quasi-scientific explanations
. Radical changes in the ways of world trade, . destroyed the commercial dominance of Northern Italy, . temporarily put forward at the forefront of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula (mainly, . Portugal), . and then suffering a center of gravity of world trade in the Netherlands, . drove capital and most enterprising elements of the population, . including Jews, . from Italy to Portugal, . from Portugal to the Netherlands,
. Jews also drove the political necessity. Along with the decline of trade and culture of religious intolerance prevailed, becoming more and more various kinds of persecution. Fleeing the Inquisition, Italian and Portuguese Jews in whole families - Lopez, Mendoza, Dacosta, Spinoza, Ricardo - migrated to Amsterdam, a haven of free thought, religious and political exiles. When, . the end of XVII and XVIII centuries at the beginning of the Netherlands will lose its commercial and industrial predominance, . when it is increasingly becoming a banker, . lender capital new rising star on the world market, . when Britain was becoming increasingly glory most free and tolerant country, . "Wandering Jew" removed from their homes and emigrate to London,
In 1753, the House of Commons adopted the Bill of Naturalization of the Jews and, although under pressure from the "black" he was formally abolished in the next year, the Jews were actually using almost all civil rights. In the second half of XVIII century, we find in the London Jewish community, composed primarily of Sephardi, so th. Portuguese and Italian Jews who, by their cultural level, there were far above their fellow Germanic, so-called. Ashkenazi.
Among the members of this community we find, among other things, the names of Lopez, Mendoza, Dacosta, Disraeli, Agvilarov, Montefiore, Ricardo, and others. Keeping almost always a religion of their ancestors, . they are culturally assimilated quickly with the British, and very soon begin to take an active part not only in the extortion money, . but also in literature and science [and not only in these areas,
. Daniel Mendoza, a contemporary of Ricardo, was the first boxer in England in the late XVIII century. He was not only a practitioner, part vyshibaniya rasshibaniya teeth and noses, but also a theoretician who left the classic guide to "the theory of boxing. The same "documentary evidence" of those "special abilities" that characterized the Jews and in the field of "concrete" activities. Historians of the Jews in England noted that Mendoza, who has made a victorious journey across the country, greatly raised the prestige of the Jews among the "enlightened explorers.]. Since Christian financiers very jealously guarded their privileges, then at the end of XVIII century, the number of stockbrokers from the Jews could not be more than twelve. One of them was the father of a future economist, Abraham Ricardo, who had moved from Amsterdam to England about 1760 g. and very quickly to occupy a prominent position in London's Jewish community.
The third son of the venerable Abraham, David Ricardo, born April 19, 1772. London. When he was 12 years old, his father sent him to his uncle in Amsterdam, where Ricardo had spent two years studying in the Business School. On his return from there, he began helping his father in his stock and trade operations. So he got that amazing speed and skill in dealing with numbers that astonished all who knew him. While still a boy of sixteen, he drove the his younger brothers in Holland. These frequent visits gave him a good opportunity to get acquainted with the Amsterdam stock exchange, who played in the XVIII century, the same role as the London Stock Exchange has played in the XIX century. There have long learned to "modify" the money for the money and receive interest on its money-capital, without resorting to direct the process of squeezing the surplus. Spinoza's philosophical speculation gave way to speculation, and by the end of XVIII century, the Amsterdam Stock Exchange has already had its Pindar, as Marx calls one of the first theorists stock speculation, the Pinto.
Despite his strict orthodoxy, father Ricardo was not an enemy of "Christian" civilization. The brother of the great economist, Ralf, was not a stranger to literature, and his sister, Sarah, wrote on pedagogical issues and was the author of popular guides to mathematics. Uncle Ricardo, with whom he often met in Amsterdam, Dacosta, was once famous poet and writer.
Quite a young man, David parted with his father, but not for long. Temporary quarrel was caused by the unauthorized marriage Ricardo [Porter, . known English economist and organizer of the British Official Statistics, . author of "Progress of the Nation", . said in his biography of Ricardo, . published in the "Penny Cyclopaedia", . that reconciliation happened very quickly,
. Porter was married to the sister of Ricardo, Sarah.]. He fell in love with a Christian Priscilla-Ann Wilkinson, daughter of Edward Vilkinson, and married her (20 December 1793). He had to for this to become a Christian and he was forced to leave the parental home. Thus, it is very early was granted its own forces. But his tireless energy and outstanding ability, . in conjunction with support, . which he had many members of the London Stock Exchange - and probably brother, . which bound him to death, very close friendship - have helped him in a relatively short period of time not only to become materially completely independent, . but also to acquire a large fortune, . rumor that an estimated 40 million francs,
. "Rich, like Ricardo," wrote one of his letters, the French economist Say.
Art of enrichment - wrote his brother Ricardo in his obituary dedicated to him, - did not enjoy our great respect. Meanwhile, Ricardo in any field has not shown his talents in such a high degree, as it was in money matters. The ability to deal in all kinds of difficulties, . astonishing speed in any digital calculi, . cool and amazing insight, . Finally, . very favorable external conditions match, . among whom he had to act - it all, . Taken together, . enabled him to surpass his peers and, . in a short time, . achieve such wealth and fame, . rarely accrue to anyone on the share ",
Indeed, the conditions were very favorable. Anti-Jacobin war, launched against the Jacobins, which ended only with the final destruction of Napoleon's reign (1793 - 1815), plays a crucial role in the history of stock speculation. During this period, the Exchange became the first arena in which enterprising people all too often amounted to millions;.
Founded in the form in which it found Ricardo, almost in the very year of his birth, the London Stock Exchange was already in the late XVIII century witnessed the most reckless speculation. "Owl Creek, . ferocious wolves howl, . courtyard barking dog, . grunting pig, . nightly serenades cats, . hissing snake, . the roar of a donkey, . croaking frogs and the crackle of the grasshopper - all, . connected to the general chorus, . would not have been more disgusting, . than the noise, . which produce these creatures on the Stock Exchange ",
. It depicts a contemporary of the institution where, according to Tugan-Baranovsky, Ricardo, and learned my method
. Old tricks, . based on the principle of "do not cheat - do not sell", . naked, . no prikrashenny, . no fig leaf of "conventional morality", . nor the laws of elementary honor, . robbery, . distinguishes such "adventurers, merchants," XVII-XVIII centuries, . been moved into a new sphere of money-capital,
But these feats have already caused protests from the main leaders of the exchange, who sought to draw a sharp line of demarcation between "honest" and "dishonest" Exchange. In such an era, . as shown by the example of the first and the Rothschilds, . common honesty and integrity in business matters was transformed into a very profitable virtue, . especially on the exchange, . where the possibility of sudden and quick enrichment occurs more frequently, . than in other areas of application of capital,
When May 18, 1801 was laid the first stone of the new building of the London Stock Exchange, it made the inscription, which read that to this day the national debt had risen to 552,730,924 pounds. London speculators, thus symbolically pointed to the importance of public debt, which he plays as a cornerstone of the whole capitalist financial system. I call on the Marx.
"Public debt, so th. alienation of the state - all the same despotic, constitutional or republican, - puts its stamp on the capitalist era. The only part of the so-called national wealth that actually is in the common ownership of modern nations, it is - their public debts. Public credit becomes a symbol of faith capital. And with the emergence of public debt mortal sin, for which there is no forgiveness, it is not blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, and breach of trust in government debt. He is one of the most powerful levers of primitive accumulation. Like a touch of a magic wand, he bestows unproductive money productive force, and transforms them in such a way in capital, . eliminating any need to expose them to hazards and difficulties, . intimately connected with the placement of money in the industry and even from a purely money-lending operations,
. Public creditors actually give nothing, because they loaned amount converted into government debt certificates and are comfortable operating in their hands as well as cash. But the role of public debt is not limited to the class of idle rentiers and improvised enrich financiers, . acting as intermediaries between the government and the nation, . as well as tax-farmers, . merchants and private manufacturers, . in whose hands, . as capital, . windfall, . gets a good share of any state loan,
. State loans have created, in addition, joint stock companies, trading in securities of any times, desperate speculation, the excitement - in short, the stock market game and modern bankokratiyu (domination of the banks).
English public debt very soon surpassed the amount immortalized on the cornerstone of the London Stock Exchange. In 1810 he was already 734,787,786 pounds. sterling, and in 1816, after the final disposition of the Napoleonic empire, he reached the colossal figure of 1,003,768,694 Fung. sterling, so th. was eight times less than the amount which he reached a hundred years after the last world war. If we take into account the degree of development of capitalism in general and Britain in particular, a hundred years ago, and now, the then British government debt is unlikely to pose a relatively lower amount than the current.
Rates of public funds that were raised, then dropped from a dizzying pace. You should have enormous power, . ability to understand in detail the economic situation, . familiarity with the political life of his time, . it was necessary to maintain close ties with the parliamentary leaders, . not to get lost in this chaos of rapidly changing events, . to avoid becoming a victim of any unforeseen collapse,
Ricardo possessed all these qualities. Honesty and integrity were his no doubt. It is known that he refused to take any part in the exchange operations, which in his view, could cause damage to the state, so th. went beyond the normal exchange of ethics and represented a clear theft of public funds. He was a brilliant speculator, who was able to quickly and decisively to use the ceaseless fluctuations funds to playing it on the increase, then a fall, and without fear of loss, recycle all the profits. Before the advent of the London Stock Exchange Nathan Rothschild, he had almost no competitors in the stock market speculation. He attributed the famous "speculative" formula, one of the canons of the exchange: Cut your losses and let your profits run ( "discounted losses and put it in their profits").
But the feverish activity of speculators is not a long time entirely absorbed Ricardo. By the age of 25, when he formed an independent state, it ceases to satisfy a market. His taste for science. "Until that time, - said his sister, Sarah Porter, - all sorts of scientific studies seemed to him a burden, he felt for his aversion. He lived in an atmosphere of business propaganda, in the noise of speculation, I do not remember that, except for a few experiments on electricity, which he proudly showed me an amateur, he was interested in any science,.
With the same enthusiasm with which Ricardo was engaged in speculation, he throws now on scientific studies. At first he was interested in mathematics and in particular the geometry. Then he gave himself up to study natural sciences: physics, chemistry, geology and mineralogy. He arranges his own laboratory and produces a series of experiments, studying the phenomena of electricity and light. Legend says that he first showed the feasibility of gas lighting of streets and houses, get him - no doubt one of the first - in one of their homes.
Ricardo managed to gather a rich collection of minerals. In 1807 he, together with Grinou and Phillips founded the now existing and Geological Society, . among the members of which belonged to his friend, . Leonard Horner, . Geologist, . after the factory inspector, . which responds with such respect Marx [Leonard Horner, . member of the Commission in 1833, Mr.,
. to study the state of factories and the factory inspector, in fact censor factories until 1859, provided services to the immortal British working class. All his life he struggled not only with the embittered manufacturers, but also with the ministers, which was much more important to be considered "voice" of factory owners in the Lower House than watch "of workers in the factory" ( "Capital").].
But Ricardo was interested in not only science and mathematics. At least he zealously theology and literature. It is known that he was an avid reader of Shakespeare. The last thing he seemed interested in this time of political economy. He seemed content with his practical knowledge in this area and felt no need to penetrate deeper into the meaning of normal for him and almost completely understood phenomena.
Ricardo biographers attribute this indifference is very simple: there was no suitable case. This was found only in 1799, when Ricardo went with his ailing wife at sea bathing in Bath. "There, in the house of his friend - he wrote the French biologist, Fonteyro - sitting at a desk and pondering a new physical or chemical experiments, he noticed on a shelf immortal works of Adam Smith. Similarly, lightning lit up his mind ", and Ricardo became the creator of the new political economy, as Newton - the creator of modern mechanics, after the apple fell at his feet. With certain variations of this legend, despite its obvious absurdity, repeated by all biographers Ricardo [And Sieber, who slavishly follows McCulloch in his sketch of the life of Ricardo.].
Smith at that time was already too well known that Ricardo could stumble on it in such a casual way. Most likely, that the collapse of 1797, Mr.. and termination payments UK bank, which caused great excitement in the City of London, pushed the idea of Ricardo in the direction in which he showed all his genius.
"Market - Ricardo wrote in 1814, Sinclair - mainly served by people who are completely engrossed in their affairs and are very familiar with all their details. But among them there are very few people who are familiar with political economy, and they, therefore, have little interest in money matters, because it is a problem of scientific research. The immediate results of the current events they are interested in much more than their distant consequences ". One such exception was Trouer, also a stockbroker, a friend of Ricardo, who was with him a lively correspondence. In one of his letters to Troueru, Ricardo remembers that they both agreed on a common worship of Smith and every free hour, remained on the study on the exchange, devoted conversations on this topic. And just as they animatedly discussed the first articles on political economy, . which appeared in the "Edinburgh Review" [This Journal, . played a major role in the history of English literature and journalism, . as the body of a more radical trend among the Whig, . was founded by Jeffrey, . Francis Horner, and Sydney Smith in 1802],
. In general, critics of Ricardo, . so eager to emphasize the, . that he had received no education or has received very scant, . forget, . that he was one of those, . so common in England, self-taught, . who "got" very meager education, . but managed to "acquire" a very thorough knowledge and "make a contribution to science", . which are the envy of no one patented Professor,
. These were self-taught, among other things, future friends of Ricardo, banker Grotto, author of the classic stories of Greece, a clerk in the East India Company, James Mill, a famous economist, a psychologist and historian, a tailor, Francis Ples, a manufacturer and Owen T. d. and t. d. Among his colleagues in exchange we find Bailey, the famous astronomer, after the chairman of the Astronomical Society, Steksa, the poet Horace Smith, the playwright Slousa and t. d.
The beginning of the XIX century was a period of strong recovery in the field of theoretical study of economic phenomena. In 1803, Mr.. came the first great edition of the Essay on Population "Malthus, in 1804, Mr.. "State Treasure" Lauderdale, in 1805, Mr.. "Annals of the trade" McPherson, in 1807 - 1808 g. "Britain - regardless of the trade" and the answer Spence Mill in Defense Trade. From the above letter, Ricardo, we already know that he had been impressed by the economic clauses in the "Edinburgh Review". These were mostly critical articles Francis Horner, first in banking and monetary issues (the criticism Thornton and King), and then on theoretical issues (analysis of political economy Canara). Literary influence Horner completed after personal influence, when Ricardo with him opposed an unlimited issue of paper money.
Thus the political economy little by little became a favorite subject of study by Ricardo. Debate about the excessive issue of the Irish Bank, the Corn Laws in 1804, Mr.. and the influence of the continental system of 1806. have been more to chain his attention. The close relationship between the exchange and government, living relations, supported by speculators with the political leaders of different directions very early drew Ricardo and into the sphere of political interests. Even before 1809, Mr.. We find it in the list of members of the "King of Clubs", founded the famous lawyer Mekintoshem and consisting of representatives of the radical opposition
. When in 1809, . due to the increased price of gold, . was once again raised the question of the privileges of the Bank of England and its dependence on government, . he quite naturally became the subject of lively debate, and in this club, . influential members of which had been chairman of the commission of future bullion, . just mentioned Francis Horner, . and one of its most important members, . Sharp,
. The debate took an active part and Ricardo, demonstrating that the main cause of rising prices of gold by 20 per cent is erroneous Bankova policy. It took, however, very insistent demands from friends and publisher of the newspaper "Morning Chronicle", Perry, Ricardo decided to express their views in a special article. She appeared without a signature, called the price of gold in its issue dated 29 August 1809, Mr.. Ricardo argued the need to resolve the circulation of money by limiting the emission power of the English Bank. He believed, . all evil is a consequence of excessive issue of banknotes, . dangerous privileges of the English Bank, . which enabled him to, . at will, . reduce the value of any property, . consisting of money, . and raise the prices of all essential commodities,
. In this article, there is no reference to any "authority", . Ricardo operates data only from our own experience: exploring the effect of raising the price of gold at the rate of exchange, . it refers only to familiar to him, . for own operations, . rate of exchange in relation to England, Holland,
Article by Ricardo evoked responses immediately. In the debate, incidentally, took part, and William Kobbett. In the most "Morning Chronicle" came the answer, which the author introduced himself as "defender of bank-notes," but not "banking director. It was a colleague of Ricardo on the London Stock Exchange, Trouer, with whom he was connected after the very close friendship. As a result of the ensuing controversy between Ricardo wrote two more letters to the editor "Morning Chronicle", which showed a detailed acquaintance with the literature on this subject. [For the first time these letters were published by the American economist, Yakov Gollenderom, published in his series of economic pamphlets. D. Ricardo, Three Letters on the Price of gold, Baltimore, 1903.]
These letters attracted the spotlight in large part because Ricardo has put narrow special issue of the price of gold on the political stage. Opposition against the Tory government got a new - and very credible - an ally in the fight against tyranny of the Ministry of Finance and the budget troubles.
Unexpectedly Ricardo success of his letters forced him to release them in a completely redesigned and significantly amended form under the title "The high price of bullion, as evidence of impairment of banknotes". This pamphlet is in a very short time passed through four editions. Ricardo has also taken an active, though not publicly, participation in the work of the famous Committee of the ingots, appointed in 1810, and defends the adoption of resolution - the main points of his pamphlet - against multiple opponents. In 1811, Mr.. He publishes his "answer to the practical observations Bozanketa, to ensure the triumph of the principles that protect the opposition against the government.
Communication Ricardo with literary and scientific world are expanding more. His literary debut caused familiarity with Malthus, then enjoyed the reputation as the most eminent British economist. Between them is fastened correspondence, . and then a literary controversy, . which at each step comes out sharp difference between a fanatical defender of the interests of aristocratic landownership, . class "unproductive consumers", . and advocate for the "productive classes",
Apogee continental system and the power of Napoleon, World War II, hiking 1813. and the defeat of Napoleon's war with the United States, Elba and Waterloo, crop failures and bankruptcies in England and spontaneous revolts of the workers against the introduction of machinery (movement ledditov) - all these events consistently riveting the attention of contemporaries. "Down with the landlord - in this cry of outrage focused caught in the vortex of the industrial revolution of the masses, when the landed aristocracy wants, in 1814, by the new Corn Laws, hungry for a long time to fix the price of bread.
It is ridiculous to you, land speculators,
After drinking blood, barking at the seams.
Surely you pay for the entire treasury
Lower your rate of loss throughout the country,
Emptying the banks and the people
Just to raise your income fallen.
Theoretical comment on this philippics Ricardo Byron wrote. Just at this time, in early 1815, he presented a new pamphlet, this time against the landlord. This - "Experience the impact of low grain prices of capital gains", in which he argues that the interests of the landlord opposed to the interests of society, which projected the Corn Laws would be a major sop only for the benefit of large landowners. Along Ricardo develops a new theory of rent and outlines the "law of economic development" of bourgeois society.
If pamphlets against the Bank of England were written by traders and major shareholder of the bank, then a pamphlet against the landlord was written by Ricardo when he himself has become a large landowner.
In 1814, he bought a large estate, Gatkomb Park, in Gloucestershire. Political and scientific interests of all the thrills and Ricardo, and he proceeds to eliminate their stock of cases, to give the entire scientific and social activities.
After the anti-Jacobin War, in 1815 the political situation has radically changed. Eliminates the need to concentrate all the forces of the country to fight an external enemy to justify the dictatorship of thorium. Increasingly growing opposition against parliament landlord. Natural rebellion against the machines replaced workers organized the strike movement. The working class is beginning a bitter struggle for the freedom of assembly and association. Revolutionary society spenseantsev [On behalf of Thomas Spence, an extreme Democrat and defender of the nationalization of land.] Spread and strengthened all the more among the workers. Robert Owen performs with his new plans to transform the entire society. William Kobbett, a typical representative of the petty-bourgeois radicalism, turns his body in the first cheap political newspaper, acquiring enormous popularity. Ghosn, Carlyle and other "unknown persons without status" fearlessly defend the freedom of conscience and the press. The movement in favor of parliamentary reform, organized and supported by a network of special club to be a growing. Military demonstrations, clashes with the police, the processes of Gona and Wooler consecutive. And the government is responsible intensification of repression: it suspends Habeas Corpus Act'a, . makes mass arrests, . hangs dozens of workers, . develops in most large scale provocation and elevates it into the system, . served as a model for the continent,
. I, . As usual in such cases, . next to the more or less "tasteless" freedom fighters there is a moderate party, . defending - without any excesses, . compliance with "tact" and normal "diplomatic" techniques and humiliation - the necessary reforms in the political, . criminal and civil law,
. This party "philosophical radicals", . which includes the extreme left-wing elements of the Whig, . gaining influence and serves as an enzyme, . whereby the old Whig and thorium, . defined by its struggle all the political life of England, XVIII and early XIX century, . become modern conservatives and liberals,
. The principal leaders of the "philosophical radicals" are Bentham and James Mill, the founders of English utilitarianism. Their main practice is Francis Ples, . rich tailor, . mastered from their luxury customers' delicate treatment "and who knew how to handle those state" little people ", . from which "all depends", . parliamentary leader Joseph Hume, . leader of the free traders Goskisson etc.,
From this group, and approaches Ricardo when he was convinced that the Whigs are unable, and unwilling to implement reforms, which, in his opinion, needed a country. With Mill, he met back in 1811, and through him and Bentham, but he only became close with the first. If James Mill was a faithful disciple of Bentham in the field of political and legal issues, . and in this respect may have some influence on Ricardo, . then in the economic field, he, . contrary, . Ricardo was a student - and to the displeasure of Bentham - absolutely did not share the economic theories of the last,
. Hence the famous words of Bentham - "I was the spiritual father of John Stuart Mill, and Mill was the spiritual father of Ricardo, hence, Ricardo my spiritual grandson" - can take only cum grano salis (with reservations). Together with Mill and Bentham, . Ricardo was extremely interested in what happened then a dispute between different teaching systems (Bell and Lancaster), and was one of the major shareholders hrestomaticheskoy School, . which was to be arranged according to the plan Bentham,
. In 1816, . yielding to the insistence of the Mill, . Ricardo published its "Draft a durable economic and monetary", . in early 1817 his major work "Principles of Political Economy", . become, . in the words of the historian of English utilitarianism, . Leslie Stephen, . "the bible of economic utilitarianism",
The last book gives him the reputation of the first economist of Britain.
Having abolished completely all ties with the exchange in 1818, Ricardo advocated openly in politics. Selected twice as a number of sub-sheriff, he is faithfully fulfilling its new responsibilities. There is news that, during the elections in 1818, among his friends had the idea of fielding candidates, Ricardo. James Mill, who saw his friend's presence in Parliament necessary, especially hard to look for him a place. Group radicals then had before it a number of districts from the category of so-called. rotten boroughs, and an old friend of Ricardo, Sharp, gave him his place. Selected from Portalingtona (Ireland) in 1818, Sharp refuses to place a deputy and a candidate in Medstone (unsuccessfully). They say that Ricardo had never seen his constituents, who numbered only 12 people. They say in the same way that Ricardo was, in reward for the choice, Lord Portalingtonu lend without interest, but a very large amount. Kennan argues that Ricardo was elected February 20, 1819, but the first time his name is mentioned in the parliamentary records only 2 March 1823, Mr.. "Although Ricardo had been in parliament only 4 years - says Toynbee, - he, in spite of this, made a complete revolution in views on economic issues". At first, however, Ricardo felt very uncomfortable in the House of Commons. "I'm afraid, - he wrote McCulloch - that will bring little benefit. Twice I tried to speak, but very excited at the same. And I'm afraid that will never be able to handle the fear that seizes me when I hear the sound of his own voice ". But he mastered the new situation much sooner than expected. Already 24 May 1819, when discussing the resumption of British banks and payments on all sides cries calling Ricardo said, he delivered a long speech, which I finished in the general applause.
Since then, he takes an active part in the Commission and the parliamentary debate: During his short parliamentary career, he gave 126 speeches and participated in the voting 237 times. Ricardo was not a major parliamentary speaker, but the gift of speech, he owned a lot better than the gift of a written statement. The absence of any posture and affectation, . simplicity and clarity, . wealth of arguments and a deep familiarity with the subject, . humor and gentle sarcasm at political opponents, . sincerity and directness, . with which Ricardo was always ready to admit his mistake - all these qualities made him a very influential member of the House of Commons, . which always listened with rapt attention,
Ricardo, of course, played mainly on economic and financial, in which his scientific reputation ensured him the leading authority. Criticism of the budget, monetary issues, protectionism, industrial and agrarian, colonial policy, poor laws, laws against the coalition and t. d. and t. d. - In all these matters Ricardo preached free trade principles, consistently defending the common interests of the entire bourgeois society against the selfish desires of one or another part of the propertied classes. As for manufacturers, and for the landlord, he was ultra-radical and "a dreamer". Assuming the tax-paying levy, . as a necessary evil, . he insisted on covering all military spending, not by military loans, . but through taxes, . and strongly defended his pet project the public debt by a single taxation of the propertied classes,
But Ricardo was not limited to presentations on economic issues. Almost as often he spoke with political speeches. Every time when it was about the protection of political freedom and religious tolerance, he protested most vigorously against the reactionary policies of Tory government. In the desire to introduce "reasonable limits" the fundamental rights of political freedom, he watched as a "blank page". In his view, any abuse of contra bonos mores (against good morals) is totally balanced by their need for full implementation of the principles of political freedom.
The year of his entry into the House of Commons was the year when Tori reaction reached its peak. England in 1819, Mr.. represented in his summit picture, which aroused the passionate indignation of the best elements. In poetry, drenched "bitterness and anger, scourged Byron and Shelley crime then oligarchy
. King, old man, filthy and stupid,
. Bastards race dulled-idle
. Gross feeder princes, mud from a puddle of dirty,
. Rulers with an empty head --
. Clung to his native country of them all
. Ruthlessly, leech ugly
But it was a year and a great revolutionary excitement, especially in the northern industrial England. Tremendous demonstration in Manchester, in August 1819, Mr.. ended with the famous bloody bath at Petrov field, where the regular army won a brilliant victory over the defenseless people (hence the Battle of Peterloo in contrast to the Battle of Waterloo).
Ministry welcomed and rewarded the new winners. In the House of Commons it had made six acts of persecuting the freedom of assembly, demonstration, press and actually introducing martial law. Ricardo belonged to the minority who voted against these measures.
"I look at them - Ricardo wrote her more conservative friend Troueru - as added value to the violation of our liberties, and reject them, because, in my opinion, they not only failed to eliminate the causes of discontent, but, on the contrary, his efforts. People complain that he does not have its due influence on the formation of the government, but it denied and that he had actually had ". "Of course - he wrote in another letter, - the right of assembly may be accompanied by added value is sometimes inconvenient, but I do not think so that they could fight, as you suggest, without making this right a simple zero. The Government freely only because the people can overthrow him. And what guarantees of freedom there would be if there were only is authorized by the parish assembly ... Fear of rebellion, fear of peoples, unite for common action, represents the most large checks for all governments ".
Ricardo was right. Revolutionary excitement continued to grow. In 1820, Mr.. uncovered a conspiracy Testlvuda. Factory workers were armed and prepared to revolt. In Scotland, the case again came to the slaughter, but in the new battle of Bonnimyuir (near Glasgow) workers were soldiers desperate resistance. Case ended with new gallows.
Also in 1820, Mr.. Government had the opportunity to grasp the extent to which the opposition reached the mood of the broad masses. After the death of King George III ascended to the throne his son, George IV, one of the most disgusting creatures ever sitting on the throne of England. At his insistence, the Government of Lords Liverpool and Addington brought an action against his wife Caroline, good-natured lady of easy virtue, the process of divorce, which was cooked a special bill. It was revealed this picture filth and abomination of desolation in the yard and the yard, . what, . as they say already now in the British university textbooks, . government "through fear of revolution" (from fear of the revolution) was forced to abandon its bill,
. In comparison with the "gay gossip" crowned Falstaff and his minions have been a criminal and depraved gang, . that one could only wonder, . the courts, . hung back then unfortunate people for stealing apples, . could turn a blind eye to all these abominations,
. Ricardo ardently championed reform of the barbarous English law and was an opponent of the death penalty, . which was then under the law of crimes punishable by more than 200, . including the theft of $ 5 shillings in the shop and 40 - in the house [From 1817 to 1825 were sentenced to death 10,326 people, . executed, but only (!) 791.]!,
. In the field of parliamentary reform, Ricardo favored a three-year legislative period for the House of Commons, for the expansion of suffrage to all the tenant, as a transitional measure towards universal suffrage and secret ballot
. He is very clever fun of the rich alarmists, frightened by the French Revolution, for which democratic freedoms are identical with an attack on their property ". He said that "the monarchy and oligarchy are afraid only of public opinion and force the people" that "only causing fear among those that sit inside the chamber, the people have an impact on the government".
Ricardo puts careful analysis of all the arguments of opponents of parliamentary reform. "Extending the right to vote - so he formulates one of the main arguments - you open the doors of anarchy, . because the main mass of the people interested or believes, . that is interested in the equal distribution of property and chose to only those demagogues, . that support among the masses in hope, . that this section actually committed ",
. And he strongly rejects this argument, until it is proved that the country is really doing well with the existing political organization.
"Why do we have introduced the use of steam engines? One might argue that our factory prospered without them. Why not be satisfied with what was good enough? But there is nothing that would be good enough if we can achieve a better. This is a false opinion, which may protect only the ignorant or unwilling to understand [ "It is difficult to find enough clear arguments for those who know nothing about this subject or impregnated with prejudice, which they stubbornly adhere to". A letter from Ricardo on his parliamentary work (written on May 9, 1822). and which can not deceive us. Further, what does an impeccable morals and good education, those who prefer the House of Commons? Tell me, what are their interests, and I'll tell you what action they will defend ".
Ricardo, as we see, already knew perfectly well that people's opinions are determined by their interests. But he also knew that, under certain conditions, people are forced to express an opinion, not relevant to their interests. That is why it is such a staunch and ardent defender of the secret ballot.
"To say the man that he may file a vote for A or B, you know that he is in such a dependence on A or A's friends, where voting for B would lead him to ruin, a mockery of him in the most cruel manner". Characteristically, . Ricardo that protects a secret ballot, not because of policy considerations, and stresses, . that by themselves or by secret vote, both equally apparent indifferent: it all depends on the conditions of time and place, . make in one case more appropriate to a secret, . the other - a clear vote [known, . this requirement, . exhibited after the Chartists and, . from one year to make other Ricardo, . Groth, . while in 1872 it became law.,
Closer acquaintance with the leaders of various political parties in the House of Commons made by Ricardo, was firmly opposed to the ruling party, and also to break with the official opposition to his Majesty, with the Whigs
. "Although I am far away I can not agree with all views Kobbeta, . but I have long realized - he wrote Mak Kullohu, . - That the guarantees of good government lies in the agencies themselves and in the forces, . under the influence of which we are administering, . not to a greater or lesser virtues of our rulers,
. The behavior of two different groups of people brought up almost the same way, acting by virtue of the same delays and with the same goal as we are talking about their personal interests, can not be significantly different ".
This is a materialist explanation of policy Whigs, who belonged, like the Tories, by their social origin, to the same English landed aristocracy, and often more noble. Ricardo reinforces the indication and on other circumstances that prevented the Whigs seriously address the issue of parliamentary reform.
"Lord Gray [author of" Great "electoral reform in 1832, torn, despite its meager size, the British oligarchy only as a result of the July revolution, and a number of revolutionary action by the British working class. Whig, . headed Gray, . played with the most treacherous role.], . Lord Holland, and many other Whigs recently at the rallies said something about the reform of representation, . but I'm afraid, . what, . if they grow in power, . they are unlikely to offer or conduct such a reform, . which would satisfy the true friends of freedom,
. Whig Party itself has plenty of rotten boroughs, but what they least want to leave, so it is with the influence they enjoy over the electorate, as large landowners, or just capitalists. They do not agree to provide real and free choice of the people or that part of it, whose interests are identical with the interests of the whole ".
We see that Ricardo, who placed first in the most distinct form, the question of the class structure of capitalist society, understood as the group, class views of the Group are determined by the class interests. But he approached the materialists and in another area.
Well acquainted with the theological and philosophical literature, especially Ricardo willingly takes part in the debate on freedom of opinion. Its in this area are less afraid of all "extreme" than in the political. Thus he ardently defended the right of atheists to express their views publicly, and one of his best speeches in the House of Commons is devoted to the protection of a brilliant full, unlimited, freedom of conscience and freedom of the press.
In 1823, the House of Commons was brought in a petition for release from prison of one of the most indomitable of radicals of the time, Richard Carlyle and his wife. The son of a shoemaker and he tinsmith by trade, he became a follower of Thomas Peng - theorist of democracy and criticism of the Bible. Since then, Carlyle has devoted his life to the printed propaganda republican and anti-religious ideas. He and his wife, print and distribute, not stopping at no sacrifice and persecution, various pamphlets and periodicals. In 1819, for an article in the journal titles it "Republican" Carlyle was sentenced to three years in prison and fined large. In 1821 his wife Anna, to continue publishing "The Republicans, in turn, was arrested and sentenced to two years in prison. When Carlyle served his three years, he refused to pay the fine imposed on him and remained in prison.
In his speech, Ricardo, to the great indignation of all the bigots and the hypocrites in the House of Commons and outside it proves that we can deny an oath, and religion, while at the same time, be faithful and devoted servant of society.
"Personally, I firmly believe that people can very honestly to all public affairs, to all the obligations imposed upon him by society, of which he is, and not to believe in the Hereafter. I fully recognize that religion is the strongest source of obligations, but I deny that it is the only source ".
As an example, Ricardo refers to Owen, who was already completely ruined his reputation by declaring war on private property, family and religion [The relationship between Owen and Ricardo, I devoted a special article. See. "Owen and Ricardo", "Under the banner of Marxism", April 1922.].
"Here, for example. Owen of Lanark. He has had great benefits to society, but, judging by some of his views, does not believe in the Hereafter. Who would argue, . seeing dramatic proof of the contrary, . that religious skepticism Owen made less moral? Do people, . pretensions to honesty and candor, . may say, . that Owen, . devoted his entire life caring for others, . would be more pure soul and a sincere heart, . that Owen would be more aware of the necessity of moral constraints and moral control, . if he was more imbued with the prescriptions of religion? Why such a person to refuse to trust (and the law does)? Why such a person for publishing his views subject to imprisonment? "[Hansard, . Newseries Vol,
. IX with. 1386. The meeting of the House of Commons July 1, 1823.
Ricardo understood the relationship that existed between "atheism" Owen and his entire world view
. Owen believes, . - He says in the same speech, . - That a person's character is not created by him, . and environment, . and if someone commits a, . what people call a perverse act, . then the need to see the misery and overtake them man can not be an object of punishment,
. This view is part of the teachings of Owen, a man who holds such a view, can not be ascribed to the Almighty There is a desire to punish those who, according to this theory, is not responsible for their actions ".
But outside the walls of Parliament, Ricardo developed a very strong work. He speaks at meetings and rallies to defend their new political and economic views. So at the rally, which took place in Free mason's Hall June 26, 1819, he was elected a member of the committee to consider plan for Owen. As can be seen not only from the parliamentary speeches, . but especially from his correspondence with Trouerom and McCulloch, . it is from this time more and more approaches the extreme opposition and becomes - to the displeasure of his friends vyaschshemu-utilitarians - all the more radical socio-economic issues,
. He responds better to Owen and all the softer refers to Kobbetu, who in 1814 honor Ricardo "baptized Jew" and "speculators"
. Change their views on the impact of cars on the situation of the working class - largely under the influence of Owen, . - Ricardo, . in the 3 rd edition of "Principles of Political Economy", . honestly and openly, . despite the protests of his students, . as McCulloch, . Expresses its mistake and then in parliamentary speeches defending "the prejudices of the working class against the machines",
. When initiated by well-known economist, . the author's classic history of prices, . Thomas Tooke and Ricardo himself, . was founded in 1821, the club of economists, . had great impact on the direction of economic policy, . Ricardo, . except for matters, . associated with the theory of value, . particularly strongly evoked the question of the impact of cars on the situation of the working class,
The issue of freedom of association, which stood in the order of the day in 1821 - 1824, GG, Ricardo also held a special position. Against Malthus, he argued that union workers can increase the amount of money, which is divided between workers. He advocated the abolition of the law against a coalition. Although he did not specifically dealt with the study of relevant legislation, he considered unfair and shy for the workers, laws against coalition. And he, true to its basic point of view, considered the best solution complete freedom of association [Letters of D. Ricardo to J. R. Mac-Culloch, with. 87-88.].
Intense activity in the House of Commons had strained forces Ricardo, who never differed in good health. Though in 1822, Mr.. made a holiday trip to the continent - he visited Holland, the Rhine Province, Frankfurt, Switzerland and northern Italy, Lyon and Paris - Ricardo still barely cope with the tedious job in the various committees. In the session on 4 February - 19 July 1822 he spoke about 40 times.
In the midst of this political and scientific work - Ricardo was working on "the plan of establishing a national bank" - he caught a cold, and his old disease in the ear, despite a puncture formed abscess, ended with inflammation of the brain. After several days of excruciating agony Ricardo died at 52 year, so th. English scale in the prime of his mental powers, September 11, 1823.
"Ricardo himself had to make his fortune, he had to bring up your own mind, and he directed their education - both written in the" Morning Chronicle "immediately after the death of Ricardo, his best friend James Mill. - He gave a lot of evidence that he was interested not only in political economy, and science policy in the broadest sense of the word. Let us recall only his clear exposition of the foundations of good government, . his fearless and memorable declaration in defense of unfettered freedom of thought and freedom of speech in religious matters, . energy and persistence, . with which he defended his views on these subjects ",
. And the same willingness to address the protection of "the great interests of freedom and religious tolerance" - said De Quincey [Characteristically, . this author, . One of the most brilliant of English writers, . was an ardent admirer and promoter of Ricardo and at the same time a great connoisseur of German philosophy and literature,
. Long before Thomas Carlyle, he is the mediator between the English and German thought, combining the quality of the outstanding economist and philosopher. In this respect, very interesting comparison of his views on the philosophy of Kant with similar views, . Heine, who develops his sketches the history of German thought.], . when, . immediately after the death of Ricardo, . pointed to his major scientific zaslugi.V private life, Ricardo was still less "walking treatise", . dry man, . as it is commonly portrayed,
. This is as true as the fact that Marx was "dry and cruel, as a syllogism". Energetic, impulsive in his movements, he was noted for good humor and lack of any prententsioznosti. A family man, revered by their children, he liked to have fun and amuse others. And with the same enthusiasm with which he was engaged in the affairs of added value, he is among his relatives echoed in his free time every game and just as good singing rooster, as parodied his friends
. Known British novelist, . Mary Edzhevort, . left us a vivid description of the private life of Ricardo, . which shows, . how far from the truth false-classical, . sustained in a strict "stock" spirit and emphasize its dry biographical tour dull damp and German and Russian historians of political economy,
A beautiful and lively conversationalist, he was very fond of society, and willingly participated in all disputes. Enthusiastic admirer of Shakespeare, he closely followed the modern poetry, and regrets that the parliamentary work leaves him little time to immediately read the new novel by Walter Scott. "The ability to see in the local council" Descent from the Cross "by Rubens, - he wrote Troueru of Antwerp - one can already compensate for all the inconvenience travel here from London"
. Like his younger contemporary, . Montefiore, . was, . Contrary to the assertions of some of his "Christian" opponents, . great philanthropist and costive, . since it was a waste of, . willingly gave money to various charitable and educational institutions,
. "There are economists fatalists, . - Marx wrote in "The Poverty of Philosophy", . - Who are as indifferent to his theory to, . what they call the inconvenience of bourgeois production, . as bourgeois themselves are insensitive to the suffering of the proletariat practice, . through which they acquire their wealth,
. This fatalistic school has its classics and its romantic. Classics - as, . eg., . Adam Smith and Ricardo - are representatives of the period of the bourgeoisie, . she, . while still in the fight against the remnants of feudal society, . sought only to purify the economic relations of these feudal spots, . develop the productive forces, . give a new dimension of industry and commerce ..,
. In their eyes, poverty is a disease that accompany every birth both in nature and in industry ".
This characteristic is true in relation to Ricardo to 1819. Until that time, and the proletariat, in the words of Marx, who took part in the fight against the remnants of feudal society, he looked at his misfortunes in this period as a transient, with only occasional. In 1819, after the bloodbath in Manchester, begins a new era in the fight against the British proletariat. At the same time comes and the era of change in the mental development of Ricardo. It has already been reflected in the 3 rd edition of "Principles of Political Economy", published in 1821, but still more in his correspondence and parliamentary speeches on economic topics. Premature death caught Ricardo, . as we shall see in the next article, . at the moment, . when he began to come to mind, . that the relations of production, . within which development takes place bourgeoisie, . not differ uniformity and simplicity, . that the development of productive forces these relations is accompanied by unnecessary suffering, . which could have been avoided if other conditions, . that poverty in this society is not a transient phenomenon, . and, . contrary, . that the same relations, . under which produced the wealth of the bourgeoisie, . produced and poverty of the proletariat.,