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Benedetto Croce

( Italian philosopher, historian, literary critic)

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Biography Benedetto Croce
photo Benedetto Croce
(1866-1952)

Italian philosopher, historian, literary critic, the most prominent and original representative of the 'neo-Hegelianism' - one of 20 in the direction of philosophy. Ideologist and politician of Italian Liberalism. Scientist and journalist, he was almost half a century occupied an important place in the social and spiritual life not only in Italy and Europe. A native of Naples, warmly attached to him, Croce began his career as a historian, created in 1886-1892 years. works, which immediately attracted the attention, - 'Neapolitan revolution of 1799' and 'Spain in the Italian life in the era of the Risorgimento'. From 1902 to 1920,. He was a professor at University of Naples, in 1910. Senator. Since 1903. until his death he published, often being the sole author, the journal 'Critique', a sort of shout liberalism.

In 90-ies. Croce was interested in Marxism, after hearing a series of lectures of the Italian Marxist, A. Labriola. But already in 1900. in the 'Historical Materialism and Marxist economy' he had subjected to critical analysis of the fundamental ideas of Marxism from the standpoint of idealism and in the future remained faithful to his rejection of Marxism, . class struggle as such, . revolutionary movement of modern times,
. Not surprisingly, the prominent figures of the Italian Communist Party, A. Gramsci, P. Togliatti and other Marxists criticized B. Croce and krochean-tion as one of the most influential areas of the spiritual life of the country. Several articles, . written after 1900, . especially in the 'Theory and History of Historiography' (1915), . Croce described idealistic 'ethico-political' conception of history, . that he developed further in his philosophical, . History, . historical, cultural and political writings,
. It is rather complicated and ambiguous, . the more so that worked out and adjusted them in a pivotal era, . abounding in major upheaval - the first and second world wars, . the collapse of liberal democracy, . then fascism, . impact of the October Revolution in Russia,
. Thus, Croce advocated the need for a seamless connection between history and philosophy, believed that history is intended not merely to record events, but also to educate, help the understanding of contemporary. Defending the 'absolute historicism', . Croce was critical of the recognition of the laws, . that govern the history, the driving force behind human behavior, he believed the development of ideas, . but as active creators of history-starred intellectual strata of society, . its elite,
. B anti-democratic. Croce especially clearly manifested in the post-war crisis, the 20-ies. In 1920-1921,. He was a minister, and then among other political figures in Italy did not prevent the coming of fascism to power.

. While fascism was trying to exploit some of the elite concepts and ideas Croce, . he soon got up to fascism in the 'moral opposition', . opposed fascism, . Fascist culture and ideology of the ideals of freedom, . progress, . appeal to the moral improvement of man and mankind,
. These ideas are reflected in the first published in 1928. 'History of Italy from 1871 to 1915', and also in the works 'history of Europe in the XIX century', 'History as Thought and Action', etc.. This is sort of hymn to liberalism, the condemnation of war and militarism, and regret over the severe disruption of entire nations on the path to freedom and progress, faith in the triumph of freedom, understood them in a liberal sense. In 1943-1947 he. Croce was the leader of the Liberal Party he created.


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